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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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n^iox^  e  •  V 











OF  fU 















&J-OARE  (William),  an  iogenious  and  amiable  English 
artist,  was  born  about  the  year  1707,  at  Eye,  near  Ipswich", 
in  Suffolk.  His  father  was  possessed  of  considerable  pro- 
perty, holding  a  farm  of  large  extent  in  bis  own  bands. 
William  shewing  very  early  a  disposition  to  study,  was  sent 
to  a  school  at  Fariogdon  in  Berkshire,  where  the  master 
enjoyed  a  high  reputation  for  classical  learning.  The  pupil , 
eagerly  availed  himself  of  e^^i^.'^J7portunity  of  improve- 
ment,  and  in  the  course  of^'ii^  f^fiyt^^  attained  such  a 
degree  of  proBciency  as  to  asi^ist.  his  teiaster  occasionally  in 
the  tuition  of  the  other  scb,Q)^r^^-^To  these  acquirements 
he  added  no  indifferent  skiil^^'^^^ing^  which  was  also 
taught  in  the  school;  and.&^V^on.j^istinguished  himself 
above  his  competitors  in  the, prize  exhibitions,  which  took 
place  once  a  year.  Indulging  the  bent  of  his  mind  to  this 
art,  be  solicited  and  obtained  his  father's  permission  to 
follow  his  studies  in  painting  with  a  professional  view.  For 
this  purpose,  after  having  completed  the  school  courses 
with  great  credit  to  himself,  be  was  removed  to  Londoup 
where  he  was  placed  under  the  care  of  Grisooi,  an  Italian 
painter  of  history,  the  best,  and  perhaps  the  only  one^ 
which  that  time  afforded.  Grisoni,  however,  was  at  the 
best  a  very  poor  painter,  and  the  example  of  his  works 
was  little  calculated  to  produce  eminence  in  his  scholar. 
But  he  was  a  man  of  sound  judgment  and  benevolent  dis- 
position, and  it  is  probable  that  the  sense;  of  his  own  in- 
sufficiency induced  him  to  persuade  young  William  to 
seek  a  more  satisfactory  guidance  in  the  pursuit  to  which 
be  devoted  himself  so  earnestly.  The  schools  of  Italy 
appeared  to  him  the  place  to  which  a  learner  should  resort 
for  the  means  of  accomplishment  in  his  art.  Wiliiam 
.  Vol.  XVIir.  B 

2  H  O  A  R  E. 

caught  the  suggestion  with  eagerness,  and  the  father's  per* 
mission  was  again  earnestly  sought,  for  visiting  the  foreign 
treasures  of  painting  and  sculpture,  which  were  then 
known  to  the  Eoglish  only  through  the  communications  of 
such  of  our  gentlemen  and  nobility  as  travelled  on  the 
continent  for  the  purposes  of  polite  accomplishment.'  Wil- 
liam Hoare  was  the  first  English  paipter  who  visited  Rome 
for  professional  study. 

At  the  time  of  his  departure  from  London  he  had  formed 
a  friendship  with  Scheemackers,  the  celebrated  Flemish 
sculptor,  and  with  Delvaux,  his  pupil,  who  were  both  on 
their  way  to  Rome,  and  on  his  arrival  at  that  city  he  has- 
tened to  rejoin  them,  and  lodged  in  the  same  house  With 
them.  His  next  care  was  to  place  himself  in^  the  school  of 
Francesco  Imperiale,  the  disciple  of  Carlo  Maratti,  and 
the  most  eminent  master  then  living.  In  this  school  he 
was  a  fellow- student  with  Pompeo  Battoni,  with  whom  be 
maintained  through  life  a  cordial  friendship,  and  with 
others  of  the  same  profession.  Here  he  acquired  a  tho« 
rough  knowledge  of  all  that  could  be  taught  in  his  art,  and 
a  perfect  acquaintance  with  the  system  and  method  of  study 
adopted  in  the  Roman  school  ever  since  the  time  of  Raf- 
faelle ;  to  which  method  he  at  all  times  adhered  in  the 
execution  of  historical  works. 

Under  the  direction  of  Imperiale,  Mr.  Hoare  made  many 
copies  from  the  most  celebrated  works  of  the  great  painters 
in  the  Ronian  palaces ;  a  circumstance  which  became  of 
great  utility  to  him  in  a  very  different  manner  from  that 
which  was  intended  ;  for  the  circumstances  of  his  family 
having  been  unfortunately  impaired  by  the  explosion  of  the 
South  Sea  adventure^  he  now  found  it  necessary  to  turn 
the  skill  he  had  gained  to  a  provision  for  his  own  mainte- 
nance. This  was  no  difficult  task,  and  he  continued  his 
studies  at  Rome  for  the  term  of  nine  years,  when  he  finally 
returned  to  London,  bringing  with  him  the  few  copies  of 
the  finest  works  which  he  had  been  able  to  preserve  for 
himself,  and  the  most  enthusiastic  feelings  in  regard  of 
his  art. 

"  In  London  the  young  painter  looked  around  in  vain  for 
the  encouragement  which  he  had  hoped  to  find  in  the  his* 
torical  department  of  his  profession ;  and  the  impoverished 
state  of  his  family  not  allowing  him  any  alternative,  he 
immediately  resorted  to  portrait-painting,  in  which,  from 
his  superior  talents^  he  was  sure  to  find  an  unfailing  re« 

H  O  A  R  E.  3 

source.  In  this  situation  of  his  circumstances  he  formed 
a  matrimonial  engagement  with  a  yonng  lady  of  the  name 
of  Barker,  between  whose  relations  and  his  own  there  had 
long  subsisted  the  most  cordial  intimacy,  arising  from 
mutual  respect.  Among  the  connexions  of  Miss  Barker's 
family  were  some  who  were  established  at  Bath,  and 
Mr.  Hoare  soon  received  an  invitation  to  settle  at  that  city, 
where,  as  there  was  no  person  of  any  eminence  in  bis 
profession,  he  might  reasonably  look  to  the  highest  pro- 
spects of  success.  He  accordingly  accepted  the  invitation, 
and  fully  realized  the  expectations  of  his  friends  in  every 
point.  His  painting-room  was  the  resort  of  all  that  could 
boast  the  attractions  either  of  beauty  or  fashion  ;  and  the 
number  of  his  sitters  was  for  a  long  time  so  great,  as 
scarcely  to  allow  him  a  momentary  interval  of  relaxation, 
much  less  sufficient  leisure  for  such  an  attention  to  the 
higher  performances  of  his  art  as  formed  the  constant 
object  of  his  wishes; 

His  eminent  success  in  his  portraits  brought  to  his  gal- 
Jery  all  the  distinguished  characters  of  the  time,  who  oc- 
casionally visited  Bath  for  health  or  pleasure ;  among  whom 
were  Mr.  Pitt,  the  Duke  of  Newcastle,  Mr.  Legge,  Mr. 
Grenville,  Lord  Chesterfield,  &c.  &c.  and  his  acquaint- 
ance with  them  was  improved  into  friendship  on  their  part, 
by  the  variety  of  his  learning,  the  amenity  of  his  manners, 
the  ingenuousness  of  his  mind,  and  the  high  respectability 
of  his  domestic  establishment.  To  the  list  of  his  friends 
and  patrons  were  soon  added  the  virtuous  Allen,  and  his 
learned  nephew-in-law,  Warburton  ;  and  Mr.  Allen's  house, 
where  be  was  always  a  welcome  visitor,  gave  him  also  an 
introduction  to  Pope,  and  other  distinguished  inmates  of 
Prior- park. 

In  the  midst  of  such  society  and  such  success,  life  might 
have  been  passed  with  sufficient  enjoyment  and  ease;  but 
the  indulgences  attendant  on  so  prosperous  a  career  did 
not  diminish  his  ardour  for  higher  excellence  in  his  art :  he 
made  a  voluntary  offer  of  an  altar-piece  to  the  church  of 
St.  Michael,  and  his  otFer  being  accepted,  he  paintei 
for  it  a  figure  larger  than  life,  of  our  Saviour  holding 
•a  cross,  which  now  occupies  one  side  of  the  wall  of  the 
ehaocel. ' 

On  the  btifilding  of  the  octagon  chapel,  he  received  an 
application  from  the  proprietors  to  paint  a  large  altar-piece 
for  their  church,  leaving  the  subject  entirely  to  his  owp 

B  2 

4  H  O  A  R  E. 

decision.  He  chose  the  appropriate  subject  of  the  Poof 
of  Bethesda,  and  found  in  it  the  long  wisbed-for  oppor- 
tunity of  displaying  bis  knowledge  of  historical  composition 
and  character.  The  picture  forms  one  of  the  principal 
ornaments  of  the  chapel. 

It  should  be  noticed,  that  in  an  early  part  of  his  success* 
ful  practice  at  Bath,  finding  a  general  desire  prevailing  for 
pictures  in  crayons,  he  sent  an  order  to  Kosalba,  the  cele- 
brated Venetian  paintress,  for  two  beads  of  fancy  painted 
in  that  manner,  and  he  received  from  that  eminent  mistress 
of  her  art  two  of  her  most  studied  performances  ;  the  one 
"  Apollo  with  his  lyre,"  the  other  "  A  Nymph  crowned 
with  vernal  flowers/'  These  beautiful  works  became  the 
models  of  the  Bath  painter  in  his  first  efibrts  in  crayons, 
in  which  mode  of  painting  he  afterwards  carried  the  practice 
of  the  art  to  so  high  a  degree  as  to  be  scarcely  excelled  by 
Rosalba  herself.  On  the  formation  of  the  Royal  Academy 
in  London,  his  long>establisbed  reputation  secured  him 
an  election  among  its  original  members,  and  he  was  a 
constant  exhibitor  for  many  years. 

During  this  long  course  of  professional  industry,  be  had  . 
shewn  himself  a  no  less  diligent  guardian  of  a  numerous 
family.  At  an  early  period  of  its  increase  he  maintained 
a  regular  correspondence  on  the  subject  of  '^  parental 
duties"  with  Mr.  Chandler,  a  brother  of  the  dissenting 
minister  of  that  name,  and  distinguished  among  his  friends 
for  the  integrity  of  his  mind  and  conduct.  Many  of  these 
letters  and  replies  still  exist.  He  extended  to  all  his 
children  the  most  unwearied  attention,  and  bestowed  on 
them  every  advantage  of  education  which  Bath  could  sup- 
ply. He  expended  on  them  all  that  his  long  life  of  dili- 
gence had  amassed,  and  left  them,  at  his  death,  which 
happened  in  1792,  scarcely  any  other  possessions  than  the 
remembrance  of  his  virtues  and  his  useful  labours. 

He  retained  the  vigour  of  health  and  the  strength 
of  his  mind  till  a  few  years  previous  to  his  dissolution. 
There  is  a  copy  of  Guido's  "Aurora,"  painted  by  him  (the 
figures  nearly  as  large  as  life)  when  he  was  upwards  of 
seventy  years  of  age.  The  picture  is  finished  with  great 
^  firmness  and  precision  of  pencil.* 

HOBBES,  or  HOBBS  (Thomas),  an  eminent  English 
philosopher  and  miscellaneous  writer,  was  born  at  Malms- 
bury  in  Wiltshire,  April  5,  153S,  his  father  being  minister 

I  From  information  obligingly  eommonicatfld  by  hig  son,  Prince  Roare,  esq. 
foreign  secretary  to  the  Royal  Academyi 

H  O  B  B  E  S.  5 

of  that  town.  The  Spanish  Armada  was  then  upon  the 
coast  of  England  ;  and  bis  mother  is  said  to  have  been  so 
alarmed  on  that  occasion,  that  she  was  brought  to  bed  of 
hjm  before  her  time.  After  having  made  a  considerable 
progress  in  the  learned  languages  at  school,  he  was  sent,  in 
1603,  to  Mag^alen-hall,  Oxford;  and,  in  1608,  by  the 
recommendation  of  the  principal,  taken  into  the  family  of 
the  right  honourable  William  Cavendish  lord  Hardwicke, 
soon  after  created  earl  of  Devonshire,  as  tutor  to  his  son 
William  lord  Cavendish.  Hobbes  ingratiated  himself  so 
^effectually  with  this  young  nobleman,  and  with  the  peer 
his  father,  that  he  was  sent  abroad  with  him  on  his  travels 
in  16 1 0,  and  made  the  tour  of  France  and  Italy.  Upon 
his  return  with  lord  Cavendish,  he  became  known  to  per- 
sons of  the  highest  rank,  and  eminently  distinguished  for. 
their  abilities  and  lean^ing.  The  chancellor  Bacon  ad- 
mitted him  to  a  great  degree  of  familiarity^  and  is  said  to 
have  made  use  of  bis  pen  for  translating  some  of  his  works 
into  Latin.  He  was  likewise  much  in  favour  with  lord 
Herbert  of  Cherbury  ;  and  the  celebrated  Ben  Jonson  had 
such  an  esteem  for  him,  that  he  revised  the  first  work  which 
he  published,  viz.  his  "  English  Translation  of  the  History 
of  Thucydides.''  This  Hobbes  undertook,  as  he  tells  us 
himself,  '^  with  an  honest  view  of  preventing,  if  possible, 
those  disturbances  in  which  he  was  apprehensive  his  coun- 
try would  be  involved,  by  shewing,  in  the  history  of  the 
Peloponnesian  war,  the  fatal  donsequences  of  intestine 
troubles."  This  has  always  been  esteemed  one  of  the  best 
translations  that  we  have  of  any  Greek  writer,  and  the 
author  himself  superintended  the  maps  and  indexes.  But 
while  he  meditated  this  design,  his  patron,  the  earl  of 
Devonshire,  died  in  1626;  and  in  1628,  the  year  his  work 
was  publishcid,  his  son  died  also.  This  loss  affected  him 
to  such  a  degree,  that  he  i^ry  willingly  accepted  an  offer 
of  going  abroad  a  second  time  with  the  son  of  sir  Gervase 
Clifton,  whom  he  accordingly  accompanied  into  France, 
and  staid  there  some  time.  Bu(  while  he  continued  there 
be  was  solicited  to  return  to  England,  and  to  resume  his 
concern  for  the  hopes  pf  that  family,  to  which  he  had 
attached  himself  so  early,  and  owed  many  and  great 

In  1631,  the  countess  dowager  of  Devonshire  was  de- 
sirous of  placing  the  young  earl  under  his  care,  who  was 
then  about  the  age  of  thirteen  ;  a  trust  very  suitable  to  his 

6  H  O  B  B  E  S. 

inclinations,  and  which  he  discharged  with  great  fidelity 
and  diligence.  In  1634  he  republished  his  translation  of 
Thucydides,  and  prefixed  to  it  a  dedication  to  that  young 
nobleman,  in  which  he  gives  a  high  character  of  his  father, 
^nd  represents  in  the  strongest  terms  his  obligations  to  that 
illustrious  family.  The  same  year  he  accompanied  his  noble 
pupil  to  Paris,  where  he  applied  his  vacant  hours  to  natural 
philosophy,  especially  mechanism,  and  the  causes  of  animal 
motion.  He  had  frequent  conversations  upon  these  sub- 
jects with  father  Mersenne,  a  man  deservedly  famous,  who 
kept  up  a  correspondence  with  almost  all  the  learned  in 
Europe.  From  Paris  he  attended  his  pupil  into  Italy,  and 
at  Pisa  became  known  to  Galileoj  who  communicated  to 
him  his  notions  very  freely.  After  having  seen  all  that  was 
remarkable  in  that  country,  he  returned  in  1637  with  the 
earl  of  Devonshire  into  England.  The  troubles  in  Scot- 
land now  grew  high,  and  began  to  spread  themselves  south- 
ward,  and  to  threaten  disturbance  throughout  the  kingdom. 
Hobbes,  seeing  this,  thought  he  might  do  good  service  by 
composing  something  by  way  of  antidote  to  the  pestilential 
opinions  which- then  prevailed.  This  engaged  him  to  com- 
mit to  paper  certain  principles,  observations,  and  remarks, 
out  of  which  he  composed  his  book  **  De  Give,"  and  which, 
grew  up  afterwards  into  that  system  which  be  called  hi* 
**  Leviathan." 

Not  long  after  the  meeting  of  the  long  parliament, 
Nov.  3,  1640,  when  all  things  fell  into  confusion,  he  with- 
drew, for  the  sake  of  living  in  quiet,  to  Paris ;  where  he 
associated  himself  with  those  learned  men,  who,  under  the 
protection  of  Cardinal  Richelieu,  sought,  by  conferring 
their  notions  together,  to  promote  every  kind  of  useful 
knowledge.  He  had  not  been  long  there,  when  by  the 
good  offices  of  his  friend  Mersenne,  he  became  known  to 
Pes  Cartes,  and  afterwards  held  a  correspondence  with 
him  upon  mathematical  subjects,  as  appears  from  the  letters 
of  Hobbes  published  in  the  works  6f  Des  Cartes.  But 
when  that  philosopher  printed  afterwards  his  '^Meditajtions,** 
in  which  he  attempted  to  establish  points  of  the  highest 
consequence  from  innate  ideas,  Hobbes  took  the  liberty  of 
dissenting  from  him;  as  did  also  Gassendi,  with  whom 
Hobbes  contracted  a  very  close  friendship,  which  was  not 
interrupted  till  the  death  of  the  former.  In  1642,  he 
printed  a  few  copies  of  his  book  ^^  De  Cive,''  which  raised 
him  many  adversaries,  by  whom  he  was  charged  with  in« 

H  O  B  B  £  a  7 

stilling  principles  of  a  dangerous  tendency.  Immediately 
after  the  appearance  of  this  book,  Des  Cartes  said  of  it  to 
a  friend,  *^  I  am  of  opinion  that  the  author  of  the  book  *  De 
Give,'  is  the  same  person  who  wrote  the  third  objection 
against  my  '  Meditations.'  I  think  bim  a  mucb  greater 
master  of  morality,  than  of  metaphysics  or  natural  philo- 
sophy ;  though  I  can  by  no  means  approve  of  his  principles 
or  maxims,  which  are  very  bad  and  extremely  dangerous, 
because  they  suppose  al^  men  to  be  wicked,  or  give  them 
occasion  to  be  so.  His  whole  design  is  to  write  in  favour 
of  monarchy,  which  might  be  done  to  moi*e  advantage  than 
he  has  done,  upon  maxims  more  virtuous  and  solid.  *  He 
has  wrote  likewise  greatly  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  church 
and  the  Roman  catholic  religion,  so  that  if  he  is  not  par* 
ticularly  supported  by  some  powerful  interest,  I  do  not  see 
how  he  can  escape  having  his  book  censured."  The  learned 
Conringius  censures  him  very  severely  for  boasting,  in 
regard  to  this  performance,  "  that  though  physics  were  a 
new  science,  yet  civil  philosophy  w^s  still  newer,  since  it 
could  not  be  styled  older  than  bis  book  *  De  Give ;'  where- 
as,'' says  Gonringius,  ^^  there  is  nothing  good  in  that  work 
of  his  that  was  not  always  known."  But  vanity  ^as 
throughout  life  a  prevailing  foible  with  Hobbes. 

Among  many  illustrious  persons  who  upon  the  shipwreck 
of  the  royal  cause  retired  to  France  for  safety,/  was  sir 
Charles  Cavendish,  brother  to  the  duke  of  Newcastle,  who, 
being  skilled  in  every  branch  of  mathematics,  proved  a 
constant  friend  and  patron  to  Hobbes  :  and  Hobbes  him- 
self, by  embarking,  in  1645,  in  a  controversy  about  .the 
quadrature  of  the  circle,  became  so  celebrated,  although 
certainly  undeservedly  as  a  mathematician,  that,  in  1^647, 
he  was  recommended  to  instruct  Charles  prince  of  Wales, 
afterwards  Charles  II.  in  that  branch  of  study.  His  care 
in  the  discharge  of  this  of&ce  gained  him  the  esteem  of  that 
prince  in  a  very  great  degree :  and  though  he  afterwards 
withdrew  his  public  favour  from  Hobbes  on  account  of  his 
writings,  yet  he  always  retained  a  sense  of  the  services  he 
had  done  him,  shewed  him  various  marks  of  his  favour 
after  he  was  restored  to  his  dominions,  and,  as  some  say, 
bad  his  picture  hanging  in  his  closet.  This  year  also  was 
printed  in  Holland,  by  the  care  of  M.  Sorbiere,  a  second 
and  more  complete  edition  of  his  book  *^  De  Cive,"  to 
which  are  prefixed  two  Latin  letters  to  the  editor,  one  by 
Gassendi,  the  other  by  Mersenne,  in  commendation  of  it. 

8  H  O  B  B  E  S. 

While  Hobbeswas  thus  employed  at  Paris,  he  was  attacked 
by  a  violent  fit  of  illness,  which  brought  him  so  low  that 
his  friends  began  to  despair  of  his  recovery.  Among  those 
^wbo  visited  him  in  this  weak  condition  was  his  friend  Mer* 
'senne,  who,  taking  this  for  a  favourable  opportunity,  began, 
after  a  few  general  compliments  of  condolence,  to  mention 
the  power  of  the  church  of  Rome  to  forgive  sins ;  but 
Hobbes  immediately  replied,  *^  Father,  all  these  matters  I 
have  debated  with  myself  long  ago.  Such  kind  of  business 
would  be  troublesome  to  me  now ;  and  you  can  entertain 
hie  on  subjects  more  agreeable;  when  did  you  see  Mr. 
Gassendi?'*  Mersenne  easily  understood  his  meaning, 
and,  without  troubling  him  any  farther,  suffered  the  con- 
versation, to  turn  upon  general  topics.  Yet  some  days 
afterwards,  when  Dr.Cosin,  afterwards  bishop  of  Durham, 
came  to  pray  with  him,  he  very  readily  accepted  the  pro- 
posal, and  received  the  sacrament  at  his  hands,  according 
to  the  forms  appointed  by  the  church  of  £ngland. 

In  1650  was  published  at  London  a  small  treatise  by 
Hobbes  entitled  "  Human  Nature,"  and  another,  "  De  cor- 
pore  politico,  or,  of  the  Elements  of  the  Law."  The  latter 
was  presented  to  Gassendi,  and  read  by  him  a  few  months 
before  his  death ;  who  is  said  first  to  have  kissed  it,  and 
then  to  have  delivered  his  opinion  of  it  in  these  words: 
**  This  treatise  is  indeed  small  in  bulk,  but  in  my  judgment 
the  very  marrow  of  science."  All  this  time  Hobbes  had 
been  digesting  with  great  pains  his  religious,  political,  and 
moral  principles  into  a  complete  system,  which  he  callejd 
the '^  Leviathan,"  and  which  was  printed  in  English  at 
London  in  that  and  the  year  following.  He  caused  a  copy 
of  it,  very  fairly  written  on  vellum  *,  to  be  presented  to 
Charles  II. ;  but  after  that  monarch  was  informed  that  the 
English  divines  considered  it  as  a  book  tending  to  subvert 
both  religion  and  civil  government,  he  is  said  to  have  with- 
drawn his  countenance  from  the  author,  and  by  the  marquis 
of  Ormond  to  have  forbidden  him  to  come  into  his  presence. 
After  the  publication  of  his  "  Leviathan,"  Hobbes  returned 
to  England,  and  passed  the  summer  commonly  at  his  pa- 
tron the  earl  of  Devonshire's  seat  in  Derbyshire,  and  his 

*  This  copy  appears  to  be  now  in  How  it  came  there  has  not  been  dis* 
the  library  of  the  late  eart  of  Macart-  covered.  l*he  library  is  now  in  the 
.ney,  at  Lissanoure  in  Ireland,  if  the  possession  of  a  lady,  the  late  earl's  re- 
one  very  accurately  described  by  tbe  presentative,  who  probably  knew  little 
Rev.  W.  H.  Pratt,  in  the  Gentleman's  of  its  history. 
MagaEtne    for  January  1S13,  p.  30. 


H  O  B  B  E  S.  0 

winters  in  town;  where  he  had  for  his  intimate  friends 
some  of  the  greatest  men  of  the  age ;  such  as  Dr.  Harvey, 
Selden,  Cowley,  &c.  In  1654,  he  published  his  ^  Letter 
upon  Liberty  and  Necessity,*'  which  occasioned  a  long 
controversy  between  him  and  Bramhall,  bishop  of  Lon* 
donderry.  About  this  time  he  began  the  controversy  with 
WalUs,  the  mathematical  professor  at  Oxford,  which  lasted 
as  long  as  Hobbes  lived,  and  in  which  he  had  the  misfor* 
tune  to  have  all  the  mathematicians  against  him.  It  is  in- 
deed said,  that  he  came  too  late  to  this  study  to  excel  in  it ; 
and  that  though  for  a  time  he  maintained  his  credit,  while 
he  was  content  to  proceed  in  the  same  track  with  others, 
and  to  reason  in  the  accustomed  manner  from  the  established 
principles  of  the  science,  yet  when  he  began  to.digress  into 
new  paths,  and  set  up  for  a  reformer,  inventor,  and  im« 
prover  of  geometry,  he  lost  himsdf  extremely.  But  not- 
withstanding these  debates  took  up  much  of  his  time,  yet 
he  published  several  philosophical  treatises  in  Latin. 

Such  were  his  occupations  till  1660,  when  upon  the  king's 
restoration  he  quitted  the  country,  and  came  up  to  London. 
He  was  at  Salisbury-house  with  his  patron,  when  the  ..king 
passing  by  one  day  accidentally  saw  him.  He  sent;  for 
him,  gave  him  his  hand  to  kiss,  inquired  kindly  after  his 
health  and  circumstances ;  and  some  time  after  directed 
Cooper,  the  celebrated  miniature-painter,  to  take  his  por« 
trait.  His  m^esty  likewise  afforded  him  another  private 
audience,  spoke  to  him  very  kindly,  assured  him  of  his 
protection,  and  settled  a  pension  upon  him  of  100/.  per 
annum  out  of  his  privy  purse.  Yet  this  did  not  render 
him  entirely  safe;  for,  in  1666,  his  ^^  Leviathan,"  and 
treatise  '^  De  Cive,"  were  censured  by  parliament,  which 
alarmed  him  much ;  as  did  also  the  bringing  of  a  bill  into 
the  House  of  commons  to  punish  atheism  and  profaneness. 
When  this  storm  was  a  little  blown  over,  he  began  to  think 
of  procuring  a  beautiful  edition  of  his  pieces  that  were  in 
Latin ;  but  finding  this  impracticable  in  England,  he 
caused  it  to  be  undertaken  abroad,  where  they  vret^  pub- 
lished in  1668,  4to,  from  the  press  of  John  Blean.  In 
1669,  he  was  visited  by  Cosmo  de  Medicis,  then  prince, 
afterwards  duke  of  Tuscany,  who  gave  him  ample  marks 
.of  his  esteem ;  and  having  received  his  picture,  and  a  corn* 
plete  collection  of  his  writings,  caused  them  to  be  depo- 
sited, the  former  among  his  curiosities,  the  latter  in  his 
library  at  Florence.    Similar  visits  he  received  from  several 

»o  HO  B  B  E  S. 

foreign  ambassadors,  and  other  strangers  of  distinction  i 
who. were  curious  to  see  a  person,  whose  singular  opinions 
and  numerous  writings  had  made  so  much  noise  ail  over 
Europe.     In  1672,  he  wrote  his  own  Life  in  Latin  verse, 
when,  as  he  observes,  he  had  completed  bis  eighty-fourth 
year:  and,  in  1674,  he  published  in  English  verse  four 
books  of  Homer's  **  Odyssey,"  which  were  so  well  re- 
ceived,   that  it  encouraged  him  to  undertake  the  whole 
**  Iliad"  and  "  Odyssey,"  which  he  likewise  performed, 
and  published  in  167,5.     These  were  not  the  first  speci- 
mens of  his  poetic  genius  which   he  had   given   to  the 
public  :  he  had  published  many  years  before,  about  1637, 
a  Latin  poem,  entitled  ^«  De  Mirabilibus  Pecci,  or,  Of  the 
Wonders  of  the  Peak."     But  his  poetry  is  below  criticism, 
and  has  been  long  exploded*.     In  1674,  he  took  his  leave 
of  London,  and  went  to  spend  the  remainder  of  his  days 
in  Derbyshire;  where,  however,    he  did  not  remain  in- 
active, notwithstanding  his  advanced  age,  but  published 
from  time  to  time  sev^eral  pieces  to  be  found  in  the  collec- 
tion of  his  works,  namely,  in  1676,   his  <<  Dispute   with 
Laney  bishop  of  Ely,  concerning  Liberty  and  Necessity ;" 
in  1678,   his  "  Decameron  Physiologicum,  or.  Ten  Dia- 
logues of  Natural  Philosophy ;"  to  which  he  added  a  book, 
entitled  ^*  A  Dialogue  between  a  Philosopher  and  a  Stu* 
dent  of  the  Common  Law  of  England."     June  1679,  he 
sent  another  book,  entitled  ^'Behemoth,  or,  A  History, of 
the  Civil  Wars  from  1640  to  1660,"  to  an  eminent  book- 
seller, with  a  letter  setting  forth  the  reasons  for  his  com- 
munication of  it,  as  well  as  for  the  request  he  then  made, 
that  he  would  not  publish  it  till  a  proper  occasion  offered. 
'  The  book,  however,  was  published  as  soon  as  he  was  dead^ 
and  the  letter  along  with  it ;  of  which  we  shall  give  a  cu- 
rious extract : — **  I  would  fain  have  published  my  Dia- 
logue of  the  Civil  Wars  of  England  long  ago,  and  to  that 
end  I  presented  it  to  his  majesty ;  and  some  days  after^ 

*  ^*  Hobb«f  could  construe  a  Greek  gance,  or  energy  of  stylci  he  bad  no 
author ;  but  bis  skill  ia  words  must  manner ,  of  conception.  And  hence 
hare  been  all  derived  from  the  dictio-  that  work,  though  called  a  translation 
nary ;  for  be  seems  not  to  have  known,  of  Homer,  does  not  e?en  desarve  the 
that  any  one  articulate  sound  could  name  of  poem ;  because  it  is  in  every 
be  more  agreeable,  or  any  one  phrase  respect  unpleasing,  being  nothing  more 
more  dignified,  than  any  other.  In  than  a  fictitious  narrative  delivered  ia 
bis  Iliad  and  Odyssey,  even  when  he  mens  prose,  with  tbe  additiaaal  mean- 
hits  the  author's  sense  (which  is  not  ness  of  harsh  rhime,  and  untuneable 
always  the  case)^  he  proves  by  his  measure.'*  Seattle's  Bssay  on  Poetry 
<|feaiM  of  wordS)  that  of  hanDOny^  ele-  wid  Music. 

H  O  B  B  E  S*  11 

tiiieo  I  thought  be  had  read  it,  I  humbly  besought  him  to 
let  me  print  it.  But  his  majesty,  though  he  beard  m^gm^ 
ciously,  yet  he  flatly  refused  to  have  it  published  ;  there- 
fore I  brought  away  the  book,  and  gave  you  leave  to  take 
a  copy  of  it ;  which  vfhetk  you  had  done,  I  gave  the  ori* 
gioal  to  an  honourable  and  learned  friend,  who  about  « 
year  after  died*  The  king  knows  better,  and  is  more 
concerned  in  publishing  of  books  than  I  am;  and  therefore 
I  dare  not  venture  to  appear  in  the  business,  lest  I  should 
offend  him.  Therefore  I  pray  you  not  to  meddle  in  the 
business.  Rather  than  to  be  thought  any  way  to  further 
or  countenance,  the  printing,  I  would  be  content  to  lose 
twenty  times  the  value  of  what  you  can  expect  to  gain  by 
it  I  pray  do  not  take  it  ill ;  it  may  be  I  may  live  to  send 
you  somewhat  else  as  vendible  as  that,  and  without  offence. 
I  am,  &c.''  However  he  did  not  live  to  send  his  book- 
seller any  thing  more,  this  being  his  last  piece.  It  is  ia 
dialogue,  and  full  of  paradoxes,  like  all  his  other  writings. 
More  philosophical,  political,  says  Warburton,  or  any  thing 
rather  than  historical,  yet  full  of  shrewd  observations.  In 
October  following,  he  was  afflicted  with  a  suppression  of 
urine;  and  his  physician  plainly  told  him,  that  he  bad 
little  hopes  of  curing  him.  In  November,  the  earl  of  De- 
vonshire removing  from  Chatsworth  to  another  seat  called 
Hardwick,  Hobbes  obstinately  persisted  in  desiring  that  he 
might  be  carried  too,  though  this  could  no  way  be  done 
but  by  laying  him  upon  a  feather-bed.  He  was  not  much 
discomposed  with  his  journey,  yet  within  a  week  after 
lost,  by  a  stroke. of  the  palsy,  the  use  of  his  speech,  and 
of  his  right  side  entirely  ;  in  which  condition  he  remained 
for  some  days,  taking  little  nourishment,  and  sleeping 
much,  sometimes  endeavouring  to  speak,  but  not  being 
aible.  He  died  Dec*  4,  1679^,  in  his  ninety- second  year. 
Wood  tells  us,  that  after  his  physician  gave  him  no  hopes 
of  a  cure,  he  said,  *^  Then  I  shall  be  glad  to  find  a  hole  to 
creep  out  of  the  world  at.''  He  observes  also,  that  his  not 
desiring  a  minister,  to  receive  the  sacrament  before  he 
died,  ought  in  charity-  to  be  imputed  to  his. being  so  sud-« 
denly  seized^  and  afterwaixls  deprived  of  his  senses ;  the 
rather^  because  the  earl  of  Devonshire's  chaplain  declared, 
that  ifvithin  the  two  last*  years  of  his  life  he  bad  often  re* 
ceived  the  sacrament  from  his  hands  with  seeming  devotion. 
His  character  and  manners  are  thus  described  by  Dr. 
White  Kennety  in  hb  *<  Memoirs'  of  the  Cavendish  F«mfly  ;'* 

12  ROBBED. 


**  The  carl  of  Devonshire,"  says  be,  "  for  his  whole  life 
entertained   Mr.  Hobbes  in  his  family,   as  bis  old    tutor 
rather  than  as  his  friend  or  confidant.     He  let  him  live 
under  his  roof  in  ease  and  plenty,  and  in  his  own  way, 
without  making  use  of  him  in  any  public,  or  so  much  as 
domestic  affairs.     He  would' often  express  an  abhorrence 
of  some  of  his  principles  in  policy  and  religion  ;  and  both 
be  and  his  lady  would  frequently  put  oif  the  mention  of 
bis  name,  and  say, '  he  was  a  humourist,  and  nobody  could 
account  for.  him.'     There  is  a  tradition  in  the  family  of  the 
manners  and  customs  of  Mr.  Hobbes  somewhat  observable. 
His  professed  rule  of  health  was  to  dedicate  the  morning 
to  his  exercise,  and  the  afternoon  to  his  studies.     At  his 
first  rising,  therefore,  he  walked  out,  and  climbed  any  hill 
within  his  reach;  or,  if  the  weather  was  not  dry,  he  fa* 
tigued  himself  within  doors  by  some  exercise  or  other,  to 
be  in  a  sweat :  recommending  that  practice  uppn  this  opi- 
nion, that  an  bid  man  had  more  moisture  than  heat,  and 
therefore  by  such  motion  heat  was  to  be  acquired,  and 
moisture  expelled.      After   this  he  took  a  comfortable 
breakfast;  and  then  went  round  the  lodgings  to  wait  upon 
^he  earl,  the  countess,  and  the  children,  and  any  consider- 
able strangers,  paying  some  short  addresses  to  all  of  them. 
He  kept  these  rounds  till  about  twelve  o^cIock,  when  he 
bad  a  little  dinner  provided  for  him,  which  be  eat  always 
by  himself  without  ceremony.     Soon  after  dinner  he  re- 
tired to  his  study,  and  had  bis  candle  with  ten  or  twelve 
pipes  of  tobacco  laid  by  him ;  then  shutting  bis  door,  he 
fell  to  smoaking,  thinking,  and  writing  for  several  hours. 
He  retained  a  friend  or  two  at  court,  and  especially  the  lord 
Arlington,  tq  protect  him  if  occasion  should  require.     He 
used  to  say,  that  it  was  lawful  to  make  pse  of  ill  instru- 
ments to  do  ourselves  good :    '  If  I  were  cast,*  says  he, 
^  into  a  deep  pit,  and  the  devil  should  put  down  his  cloven 
foot,  I  would  take  hold  of  it  to  be  drawn  out  by  it.'.    To« 
wards  the  end  of  his  life  be  had  very  few  books,  and  those 
he  read  but  very  little ;  thinking  he  was  now  able  only  to 
digest  what  he  bad  fornxerly  fed  upon.     If  company  came 
to  visit  him,  he  would  be  free  in  discourse  till  he  was 
pressed  or  contradicted ;  and  then  he  had  the  infirmities 
of  being  short  and  peevish,  and  referring  to  his  writings 
for  better  satisfaction.     His  friends,  who  had  the  liberty 
of  introducing  strangers  to  him,  made  these  terms  with 
them  before  their  admbsion,  that  they  should  not  dispute 
with  the  old  man,  nor  contradict  him.'' 

H  O  B  B  E  S:  13 

After  mentioning  the  apprehensions  Hobbes  was  under, 
when  the  parliament  censured  his  book,  and  the  methods 
he  took  to  escape  persecution,  Dr.  Kennet  adds,  '*  It  is 
not  much  to  be  doubted,  that  upon  this  occasion  he  began 
to  make  a  more  open  shew  of  religion  and  church  commu- 
nion.    He  now  frequented  the  chapel,  joined  in  the  ser« 
▼ice,  and  was  generally  a  partaker  of  the  holy  sacrament : 
and    whenever    any  strangers   in  conversation   with  him 
seemed  to  question  his  belief,  he  would  always  appeal  to 
his  conformity  in  divine  services,  and  referred  them  to  the 
chaplain  for  a  testimony  of  it.     Others  thought  it  a  mere 
compliance  to  the  orders  of  the  family,  and  observed,  that 
io  city  and  country  he  never  went  to  any  parish  church  ; 
and  even  in  the  chapel  upon  Sundays,  he  weYit  out  after 
prayers,  and  turned  his  back  upon  the  sdrmon ;  and  when 
any  friend  asked  the  reason  of  it,  he  gave  no  other  but  this, 
*  they  could  teach  him  nothing,  but  what  he  knew.*     He 
did  not  conceal  his  hatred  to  the  clergy ;  but  it  was  visible 
that  the  hatred  was  owing  to  his  fear  of  their  civil  interest 
and  power.     He  had  often  a  jealousy,  that  the  bishops 
would  burn  him :  and  of  all  the  bench  he  was  most  afraid 
of  the  bishop  of  Sarum,  because  he  had  most  offended  him ; 
thinking  every  man's  spirit  to  be  remembrance  and  re- 
venge.    After  the  Restoration,  he  watched  all  opportuni- 
ties to  ingratiate  himself  with  the  king  and  his  prime  mi- 
nisters ;  and  looked  upon  his  pension  to  be  more  valuable, 
as  an  earnest  of  fevour  and  protection,  than  upon  any  other 
account.     His  following  course  of  life  was  to  be  free  from 
danger.     He  could  not  endure  to  be  left  in  an  empty 
bouse.     Whenever  the  earl  removed,  he  would  go  along 
with  him,  even  to  his  last  stage,  from  Ch^tsworth  to  Hard- 
wick.     When  he  was  in  a  very  weak  condition,  he  dared 
not  to  be  left  behind,  but  made  his  way  upon  a  feather-bed 
in  a  coach',  though  he  survived  the  journey  but  a  few  days. 
He  could  not  bear  any  discourse  of  death,  and  seemed  to 
cast  off  all  thoughts  of  it :  he  delighted  to  reckon  upon 
longer  life.     The  winter  before  he  died,  he  made  a  warm 
coat,  which  he  said  must  last  him  three  years,  and  then 
be  would  have  such  another.     In  his  last  sickness  his  fre- 
quent questions  were.  Whether  his  disease  was  curable? 
and  when  ihtimations  were  given  that  be  might  have  ease, 
but  no  remedy,  he  used  this  expression,  *  I  shall  be  glad 
to  find  a  bole  to  creep  out  of  the  world  at  ;*  which  are  re« 
ported  to  have  been  his  last  sensible  words  i  and  his  lying 

14  H  O  B  B  £  S; 

some  days  following  in  a  silent  stupefaction^  did  seem 
owing  to  his  mind  more  than  to  his  body.  The  only  thought 
of  c^eath  that  he  appeared  to  entertain  in  time  of  health, 
was  to  take  care  of  some  inscription  on  his  grave.  He 
would  suffer  some  friends  to  dictate  an  epitaph,  among 
which  he  was  best  pleased  with  this  humour,  *  This  is  the 
philosopher's  stone'."  A  pun  very  probaUy  from  the  band 
which  wrote  for  Dr.  Fuller,  "Here  lies  Fuller's  earth." 

After  this  account  of  Hobbes,  which,   though  undoubt- 
edly true  in  the  main,  may  be  thought  too  strongly  co- 
loured, it  will  be  but  justice,  to  subjoin  what  lord  Claren- 
don has  said  of  him.  This  noble  person,  during  his  banish- 
ment, wrote  a  book  in  1670,  which  was  printed  six  years 
after  at  Oxford  with  this  title,  **  A  brief  View  of  the  dan- 
gerous and  pernicious  Errors  to  Church  and  State  in  Mr, 
Hobbes's  book  entitled  Leviathan."     In  the  introduction 
the  earl  observes,  that  Mr.  Hobbes's  "  Leviathan"  "  con- 
tains in  it  good  learning  of  all  kinds,  politely  extracted, 
and  very  wittily  and  cunningly  digested  in  a  very  com- 
mendable, and  in  a  vigorous  and  pleasant  style :  and  that 
Mr.  Hobbes'himself  was  a  man  of  excellent  parts,  of  great 
wit,  some  reading,  and  somewhat  more  thinking ;  one  who 
has  spent  many  years  in  foreign  parts  and  observations ; 
understands  the  learned  as  well  as  the  modern  languages ; 
bath  long  had  the  reputation  of  a  great  philosopher  and 
mathematician  ;  and  in  his  age  bath  bad  conversation  with 
very  many  worthy  and  extraordinary  men  :  to  which  it  may 
be,  if  he  had  been  more  indulgent  in  the  more  vigorous 
part  of  his  life,  it  might  have  had  greater  infiuence  upon 
the  temper  of  his  mind ;  whereas  age  seldom  submits  ta 
those  questions,  inquiries,  and  contradictions,  wbicb  the 
laws  and  liberty  of  conversation  require.    And  it  hath  been 
always  a  lamentation  among  Mr.  Hobbes's  friends,  that  he 
spent  too  much  time  in  thinking,  and  too  little  in  exer- 
cising those  thoughts  in  the  company  of  other  men  of  the 
same,  or  of  as  good  faculties ;  for  want  whereof  his  natu- 
ral constitution,   with  age,    contracted   such  a  morosity^ 
that  doubting  and  contradicting  men  were  never  grateful  to 
Jiim. '  In  a  word,.  Mr.  Hobbes  is  one  of  the  most  ancient 
acquaintance  I  have  in  the  world;  and  of  whom  I  have 
always  had  a  great  esteem,  as  a  man,  who,  besides  hia 
eminent  parts,  learning,  and  knowledge,  bath  been  always 
looked  upon  as  a  man  of  probity,  and  of  a  life  free  from 

H  O  B  B  £  S.  IS 

Tbeie  have  been  few  personsj  whose  writings  have  had 
a  more  pernicious  influence  in  spreading  irreligion  and  in* 
fidelity  than  those  of  Hobbes;  and  yet  none  of  his  trea* 
Uses  are  directly  levelled  against  revealed  religion.  He 
sometimes  affects  to  speak  witb  veneration  of  the. sacred 
writings,  and  expressly  declares,  that  though  the  laws  of 
nature  are  not  laws  as  they  proceed  from  nature,  yet  ^^  as 
they  are  given  by  God  in  Holy  Scripture,  they  are  properly 
called  laws ;  for  the  Holy  Scripture  is  the  voice  of  God, 
ruling  all  things  by  the  greatest  right  ^.''  But  though  he 
seems  here  to  make  the  laws  of  Scripture  the  laws  of  God, 
and  to  derive  their  force  from  his  supreme  authorityi  yet 
elsewhere  he  supposes  them  to  have  no  authority,  but  what 
they  derive  from  the  prince  or  civil  power.  He  sometimes 
seems  to  acknowledge  inspiration  to  be  a  supernatural  gift, 
and  the  immediate  hand  of  God  :  at  other  times  he  treats 
the  pretence  to  it  as  a  sign  ^of  madness,  and  represents 
God's  speaking  to  the  prophets  in  a  dream,  to  be  no  more 
than  the  prophets  dreaming  that  God  spake  unto  them. 
He  asserts,  that  we  have  no  assurance  of  the  certainty  of 
Scripture  but  the  authority  of  the  church  f,  and  this  he 
resolves  into  the  authority  of  the  commonwealth ;  and  de- 
clares, that  till  the  sovereign  ruler  had  prescribed  them, 
'^the  precepts  of  Scripture  were  not  obligatory  laws,  but 
only  counsel  or  advice,  which  he  that  was  counselled  might 
without  injustice  refuse  to  observe,  and  being  contrary  to 
the  laws  coold  not  without  injustice  observe ;''  that  the  word 
of  the  interpreter  of  Scripture  is  the  wprd  of  God,  and  that 
the  sovereign  magistrate  is  the  interpreter  of  Scripture^ 
and  of  all  doctrines,  to  whose  authority  we  must  stand. 
Nay,  be  carries  it  so  far  as  to  pronounce  ]:,  that  Christians 
are  abound  in  conscience  to  obey  the  laws  of  an  iu6del  king 
is  matters  of  religion ;  that  ^<  thought  is  free,  but  when  it 
comes  to  confession  of  faith,  the  private  reason  must  sub- 
mit to  the  public,  that  is  to  say,  to  God's  lieutenant."  Ac- 
cordingly he  allows  the  subject,  being  commanded  by  the 
sovereign,  to  deny  Christ  in  words,  holding  the  faith  of 
him  firmly  in  bis  heart ;  it  being  in  this  *^  not  he,  that 
denieth  Chdst  before  men,  but  bis  governor  and  the  laws 
of  bis  country.''  In  the  mean  time  he  acknowledges  the 
existence  of  God§,  and  that  we  must  of  necessity  ascribe 


*  De  Cire^  c  iii.  s.  33.  "{  Be  Give,  c.  17.  LsTiathan,  pp.  169, 

t  teviathao,  p.  196.  283,  284. 

4  LeriatbaD,  pp.  238,  872. 

16  H  O  B  B  E  S. 

the  effects  we  behold  to  the  eternal  power  of  all  powers^ 
and  cause  of  all  causes ;  and  he  reproaches  those  as  ab-*' 
surd,  who  call  the  world,  or  the  soul  of  the  world,  God* 
But  then  he  denies  that  we  know  any  thing  more  of  him 
than  that  he  exists,  and  seems  plainly  to  make  him  corpo- 
real ;  for  he  affirms,  that  whatever  is  not  body  is  nothing 
at  all.  And  though  he  sometimes  seems  to  acknowledge 
religion  and  its  obligations,  and  that  there  is  an  honour 
and  worship  due  to  God ;  prayer,  thanksgivings,  oblations, 
&c.  yet  he  advances  principles,  which  evidently  tend  to 
subvert  all  religion.  The  account  he  gives  of  it  is  this, 
that  '^  from  the  fear  of  power  invisible,  feigned  by  the 
mind,  or  imagined  from  tales,  publicly  allowed,  ariseth 
religion ;  not  allowed,  superstition :"  and  he  resolves  reli- 
gion into  things  which  he  himself  derides,  namely,  ^^  opi« 
nions  of  ghosts,  ignorance  of  second  causes,  devotion  to 
what  men  fear,  and  taking  of  things  casual  for  prognos- 
tics." He  takes  pains  in  many  places  to  prove  man  a 
necessary  agent,  and  openly  derides  the  doctrine  of  a  fu- 
ture state :  for  he  says,  that  the  belief  of  a  future  state 
after  death,  *^  is  a  belief  grounded  upon  other  men's  say- 
ing, that  they  knew  it  supernaturally ;  or,  that  they  knew 
those,  that  knew  them,  that  knew  others  that  knew  it  su- 
pernaturally.'' But  jt  is  not  revealed  religion  only,  of 
which  Hobbes  makes  light ;  he  goes  farther,  as  will  ap* 
pear  by  running  over  a  few  more  of  his  maxims.  He  as-< 
serts,  *^  that,  by  the  law  of  nature,. every  man  hath  a  right, 
to  all  things,  and  over  all  persons ;  and  that  the  natural 
condition  of  man  is  a  state  of  war,  a  war  of  all  men  against 
all  men  :  that  there  is  no  way  so  reasonable  for  any  man, 
as  by  force  or  wiles  to  gain  a  mastery  over  all  other  per- 
sons that  be  can,  till  he  sees  no  other  power  strong  enough 
to  endanger  him  :  that  the  civil  laws  are  the  only  rules  of 
good  and  evil,  just  and  unjust,  honest  and  dishonest ;  and 
that,  antecedently  to  such  laws,  every  action  is  in  its  own 
nature  indifferent ;  that  there  is  nothing  good  or  evil  in 
itself,  nor  any  common  laws  constituting  what  is  naturally, 
just  and  unjust:  that  all  things  are  measured  by  what 
every  man  judgeth  fit,  where  there  is  no  civil  government, 
and  by  the  laws  of  society,  where  there  is :  that  the  power 
of  the  sovereign  is  absolute,  and  that  he  is  not  bound  by 
any  compacts  with  his  subjects  :  that  nothing  the  sovereign 
can  do  to  the  subject,  can  properly  be  called  injurious  or 
wrong  I  and  that  the  king's  word  is  sufficient  to  take  any 

H  O  B  fi  £  S.  17 

Uiii^  firom  the  rabject  if  need  be,  and  that  the  kiog  i^ 
judge  of  Uiat  need/'  This  scheme  evidently  strikes  at 
the  foundation  of  all  religion,  natural  and  revealed.  It 
tends  not  only  to  subvert  the  authority  of  Scripture,  .but 
to  destroy  God's  moral  government  of  the  world.  It  con- 
founds the  natural  differences  of  good  and  evil,  virtue  and 
vice.  It  destroys  the  best  principles  of  the  human  nature; 
and  instead  of  that  innate  benevolence  and  social  disposi- 
tion which  should  unite  men  together,  supposes  all  men 
to  be  naturally  in  a  state  of  war  with  one  another,  ilt 
erects  an  absolute  tyranny  in  the. state  and  church,  which  jt 
confounds,  and  makes  the  will  of  the  prince  or  governing 
power  the  sole  standard  of  right  and  wrong, 

Such  principles  in  religion  and  politics  would,  as  it  may 
be  imagined,  raise  adversaries.     Hobbes  accordingly  was 
attacked  by  many  considerable  persons,  and,  what  may 
seem  more  strange,  by  such  as  wrote  against  each  other. 
Harrington,  in  his  ^*  Oceana,"  very  often  attacks  Hobbes ; 
and  so  does  sir  Robert  Filmer  in  his  ^^  Observations  con- 
cerning the  Original  of  Government.''     We  have  already 
mentioned  Bramhall  and  Clarendon;  the  former  argued 
with  great  acuteness  against  that  part  of  his  system  which 
relates  to  liberty  and  necessity,  and  afterwards  attacked 
the  whole  in  a  piece,  called  ^'Tbe  Catching  of  the  Levia- 
than," published  in  1685  ;  in  which  he  undertakes  to  de- 
monstrate out  of  Hobbes's  own  .works,  that  no  man,  who  is 
thoroughly  an  Hobbist,  can  be  '^  a  good  Christian,  or  a 
good  commonwealth's  man,  or  reconcile  himself  to  him- 
self."   Tenison,  afterwards  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  gave 
•a  summary  view  of  Hobbes's  principles,  in  a  book  called 
"The  Creed  of  Mr.  Hobbes  examined,  1670;"  to  which 
we  may  add  the  two. dialogues  of  Dr.  Eacbard  between  Ti- 
mothy and    Phiiautus,  .and   Dr.  Parker's  book,    entitled 
**  Disputationes de  Deo  &.Divina  Providentia."  Dr.  Henry 
tMore  has  also  in  ditfc^rent  parts  of  his  works  canvassed  and 
refuted  several  positions  of  Hobbes;  and  the  philosopher 
of  JllaUnesbury  is  said  to  have  been  so  ingenuous  as  to  own, 
.that^*  whenever  he  discovered  his  own  philosophy  to  be 
•unsustainable,   he  would  embrace   the  opinions  of    Dr. 
dlore."    'But  the  two  greatest  works  against  him  were, 
^Cumberland's  book^^  De  legibus  Naturae,"  and  Cudworth's 
•^^  Intellectual  System :"  for  these  authors  do  not  employ 
themselves  about  his  peculiar  whimsies,  or  in  vindicating 
ttvealed  religion  'from  his  exceptions   and  cavils,    but 
.    V0L.XVIIL  C 

IS  H  O  fi  B  E  & 

endeavour  to  establish  the  great  principles  of  all  religiofi 
and  morality,  which  his  scheme  tended  to  subvert^  and  to 
shew  that  they  have  a  real  foundation  in  reason  and  nature. 
There  is  one  peculiarity  related  of  Hobbes,  which  we 
have  not  yet  mentioned  in  the  course  of  our  account  of 
him — his  dread  of  apparitions  and  spirits.     His  friends  in* 
deed  have  called  this  a  fable.     ^^  He  was  falsely  accused/' 
say  they,  **  by  some,  of  being  afraid  to  be  alone,  because 
be  was  afraid  of  spectres  and  apparitions;  vain  bugbears 
of  fools,'  which  he  had  chased  away  by  the  light  of  his  phi- 
losophy."    They  do  not,    however^   deny,    that   he   was ' 
afraid  of  being  alone ;  they  only  insinuate,  that  it  was  for 
fear  of  being  assassinated  ;  but  the  fact  probably  was,  that 
he  bad  that  tenacity  of  life  which  is  observable  in   men 
whose  religious  principles  are  unsettled.     Upon  the  whole, 
we  may  conclude,  with  the  intelligent  Brucker,  that  Hobbes 
was    certainly  possessed  of  vigorous  faculties,    and  had 
he  been  sufficiently  careful  to  form  and  improve  his  judg- 
ment, and  to  preserve  his  mind  free  from  the  bias  of  pre- 
judice and  pas^on,  would  undoubtedly  have  deserved  a 
place  in  the  first  class  of  philosophers.     The  mathematical 
method  of  reasfoiiing  which  he  adopted,  greatly  assisted 
him  in  his  researches;  but  he  was  often  led  into  error,  by 
assuming  false  or  uncertain  principles  or  axioms.     The 
vehemence  with  which  he  engaged  in  political  contests 
biassed  his  judgment  on  questions  of  policy,  and  led  him 
to  frame  such  maxims  and  rules  of  government,  as  would 
be  destructive  of  the  peace  and  happiness  of  mankind.. 
An  arrogant  contempt  of  the  opinions  of  others,  an  impa- 
tience of  contradiction,  and  a  restless  ambition  to  be  dis- 
tinguished as  an  innovator  in  philosopby»  were  qualities 
which  appear  to  have  contributed  in  no  small  degree  to 
the  perversion  of  his  judgment     It  is  also  to  be  remarked, 
that  though  he  had  the  precept  and  example  of  lord  Bacon 
to  guide  him,  he  neglected  the  new  and  fertile  path  of 
experimental  philosophy.     So  little  was  he  aware  of  the 
value  of  this  kind  of  knowledge,  that  he  censured  the  royal 
society  of  London,  at  its  first  institution,  for  attending 
more  to  minute  experiment  than  general  priudples,  and 
said,  that  if  the  name  of  a  philosopher  was  to  be  obtained 
•by  relating  a  multifarious   farrago  of   experiments^  we 
might  expect  to  see  apothecaries,  gardeners,  and  per- 
fumers rank  among  philosophers. 
~    A  list  of  the  works  of  this  remarkable  man,  in  the  order 

H  O  B  B  E  S.  19 


of  publieation,  seems  not  unnecessary  to  close  our  account 
ofhim^  1.  His  *^  Translation  of  Thucydides/*  Lond.  1628, 
«nd  1676,  fol.  reprinted  in  2  vols.  8vo.  2.  **  De  Mira- 
bilibus  Pecci/*  a  Latin  poem,  Lond.  1636,  Svo,  1666,  4to. 
3.  *^  Elementa  philosophica  seu  polit^ipa  de  Give,"  Paris, 
J  642,  4to,  Amst.  1647,  12mo.  4.  '^  An  Answer  to  sir 
William  Davenant's  Epislle  or  Preface  to  Gondibert,'*  Pa- 
ris, 1650,  12mo,  afterwards  printed  with  Gondibert.  5. 
'^  Human  Nature  ;  or  the  fundamental  elements  of  policy,*' 
Lond.  1650,  12mo.  6.  '^  De  Corpore  Politico;  or  the 
Elements  of  the  Law,"  Lond.  1650,  Timo.  7.  "  Levia- 
than ;  or  the  matter,  form,  and  power  of  a  Commonwealth,'* 
ibid.  1651,  and  1680,  fol.  8.  ^*  A  Compendium  of  Aris- 
totle's Rhetoric,  and  Ramus^s  Logic.*'  9.  ^*  A  Letter  about 
Liberty  and  Necessity,"  Lond.  1654,  12mo.  This  was 
answered  by  Dr.  Laney  and  bishop  Bramhall.  10.  '^  The 
Questions  concerning  Liberty,  and  Necessity,  and  Cliance, 
stated  and  debated  between  Mr.  Hobbes  and  Dr.  Bramhall, 
bishop  of  London- Derry,"  Lond.  1656,  4to.  1 1^  "  Ele- 
mentorum  Philosophiie  sectio  prima  de  Corpore,"  ibid. 
1655,  8vo;  in  English,  1656,  in  4to.  "  Sectio  secunda," 
London,  1657,  4to;  Amsterdam,  1668,  in  4to.  12.  ^'Six: 
Lessons  to  the  professors  of  mathematics  of  the  institution 
of  sir  Henry  Savile,"  ibid,  1656,  4to,  written  against  Mr. 
Seth  Ward,  and  Dr.  John  Wallis.  13.  «  The  Marks  of  the 
absurd  Geometry,  rural  Language,  &e.  of  Dr  John  Wal- 
lis," ibid.  1657,  Svo.  14.  ^^  Examinatio  et  emendatio 
Matbematicae  hodiernse,  sex  Dialogis  comprehensa,"  ibid. 

1660,  4to;  Amsterdam,  1668,  4to.  15.  "  Dialogus  Phy- 
sicus,  sive  de  Natur^  Aeris,"  Lond.  1661,  4to;  Amster- 
dam, 1668,  4to.     16.  "  De  Duplicatione  Cubi,"  London, 

1661,  4to;  Amsterdam,  1668,  4to.  17.  "  Problem ata 
Physica,  una  cum  magnitudine  circuli,"  Lond.  1662,  4to; 
Amsterdam^  168.8,  4to.  18.  *'  De  principiis  et  ratiocina- 
tione  Geometrarum,  contra  fastuosumT  professorem,"  Lond. 
1666,  4to;  Amsterdam,  1668,  4to.  19.  ^<  Quadratura  Cir- 
<ruli,  cubatio  sphserus,  duplicado  cubi ;  una  cum  respon- 
sione  ad  objectiones  geometriae  professoris  Saviliani  O.x- 
onisB  editas  anno  1669."  Lond.  1669,  4tOv  20.  <<  Rosetum 
Geometricum,  sive  propositioiies  aliquot  frustra  antehap 
tentatsB,  cum  censur4  brevi  doctrinae  Wallisianande  motu,'' 
London,  1671,  4to,  of  which  an  account  is  giVen  in  the 
Philosophical  Transactions,  No.  72,  for  the  year  1671, 
?  L  Three  Papers  presented  to  the  royal  society  against 

G  2 

UO  H  O  B  B  E  S. 

Dr.  Wallis,  with  considerations  on  Dr.  Wallis*s  Ahswier  tb 
them/'  Lond.  1671,  4to.  ^2.  **  Lux  Mathematical  &c. 
censura  doctWnae  Wallisianse  de  Libra:  Rosetum  Hob- 
besii,"  Lond.  1672,  4to.  23.  "  Princi]pia  et  Problemata 
aliquot  Ceometrica  ante  desperata,  nunc  breviter  explt- 
cata  et  demonstrata/*  London,  1674,  4to.  24.  '*  Epis- 
tola  ad  Dom.  Anton,  a  Wood,  Authorem  Historise  et  Anti- 
quitat.   Universit.   Oxon. :"  dated   April   the  20th,  1674^ 

Krinted  in  half  ^  sheet  on  one  side.  '*  It  was  written  to 
Ir.  Wood,"  says  Wood  himself,  "  upon  his  complaint  made 
to  Mr.  Hobbes  of  several  deletions  and  additions  made  in 
and  to  his  life  and  character  (which  he  had  written  of  him 
in  that  book)  by  the  publisher  (Dr.  Jo.  Fell)  of  the  said 
Hist  and  Antiq.  to  the  great  dishonour  and  disparagement 
of  the  said  Mr.  Hobbes.  Whereupon,  when  that  history 
was  finished,  came  out  a  scurrilous  answer  to  the  said 
epistle,  written  by  Dr.  Fell,  which  is  at  **  the  end  of  the 
said  history."  In  this  Answer  Dr.  Fell  styles  Mr.  Hobbes, 
^^  irritabiie  illud  et  vanissimum  Malmsburiense  animal  *," 
and  tells  us,  that  one  Mr.  J.  A.  had  sent  a  magnificenjt  euld- 
gium  of  Mr.  Hobbes  drawn  up  by  him,  or  more  probably 
by  Hobbes  himself,  in  order  to  be  inserted  in  the  Hist,  et 
Antiq.  Univers.  Oxon.;  but  the  editor  finding  in  this  eulp- 
gium  a  great  many  things  foreign  to  the  design  of  that  wofk^ 
and  far  from  truth,  he  suppressed  what  he  thought  proper. 
25.  "A  Letter  to  William  duke  of  Newcastle,  concerning 
the  Controversy  had  with  Dr.  Laney,  bishop  of  Ely,  about 
Liberty  and  Necessity,"  Lond.  1670,  12mo.  26.  "  Deca- 
meron Physiologicum ;  or  ten  dialogues  of  natural  philo- 
sophy, &c."  London,  1678,  8vo.  To  this  is  added  "  The 
Proportion  of  a  strait  line  to  bold  the  Arch  of  a  Quadrant." 
27.  ^*  His  last  words  and  dying  Legacy  :"  printed  on  one 
side  of  a  sheet  of  paper  in  December  1679,  and  published 
by  Charles  Blunt,  esq.  from  the  ^*  Leviathan,"  in  order  to 
expose  Mr.  Hobbes^s  doctrine.  28.  His  *^  Memorable  Say- 
ings in  his  books  and  at  the  table;"  printed  on  one  side  of 
a  broad  sheet  of  paper,  with  his  picture  before  them.  29. 
<<  Behemoth:  The  History  of  the  Civil  Wars  of  Englahd 
from  1640  to  16€0,"  Lond.  16719,  8vo.  30.  «*  Vita  Tho- 
mas Hobbes,"  a  Latin  poeih  written  by  himself,  and  prihted 
at  London  in'4to,  in  the  latter  end  of  December  1679 ; 
and  a  fortnight  after  that,  viz.  about  the  lOih  of  January, 
it  was  published  in  English  verse  by  another  band,  at  Lon- 
idot)  1680|  ill  five  sheets  in  folio.    The  Latin  copy  was 

H  O  B  B  E  a  21 

reprinted  and  subjoined  to  ^  Vits  Hobbianse  Auctariuro/' 
31.  ^^  Historical  narration  of  Heresy,  and  the  punisbment 
thereof/'  London,  1680,  in  four  abeets  and  an  half  in  folio ; 
and  in  1682  in  8vo.  This  is  chiefly  e^ctracted  out  of  the 
second  chapter  De  Haeresi  of  his  Appendix  to  the  i.$via« 
than.  32.  <<  Vita  Thoms  Hobbes,'*  written  by  himself  in 
prose,  and  printed  at  Caropolis,  i.  e.  London,  s^nd  pre- 
fixed to  *^Y'\UB  HobbiansB  Auctarium,''  1681,  Svo,  ai^4 
1683,  4 to.  33.  <<  A  Brief  of  the  art  of  Rhetpric,  c^nt^n- 
ing  in  substance  all  that  Aristotle  hath  written  in  hi$  thre^ 
books  of  that  subject,*'  12mo,  without  a  date.  U  was 
afterwards  published  in  two  books,  London,  169 1*,  in  8vo, 
the  first  bearing  the  title  of  "  The  Art  of  Rhetoric/'  and 
the  other  of  *^  The  Art  of  Rhetoric  plainly  set  forth  ;  with 
pertinent  examples  for  the  more  ready  understanding 
and  practice  of  the  same."  To  which  is  added,  34.  ^^  A 
Dialogue  between  a  philosopher  and  a  student  of  the  CpQi*!* 
mon  Laws  of  England."  Mr.  Harrington  in  bis  Ob^erva-? 
tions  on  the  Statute  of  Treasons,  says  it  appears  by  thitt 
dialogue,  that  Hobbes  had  considered  most  of  the  funda^- 
mental  principles  of  the  English  law  with  great  care  and 
attention.  35.  **  An  Answer  to  archbishop  BrarpbalPiS  Book 
called  The  catching  of  the  Leviathan,"  London,  1682,  $VQ. 
36.  ^<  Seven  philosophical  Problems,  and  two  Propositions 
of  Geometry,"  London,  1682,  Svo,  dedicated  to  the  king 
in  1662.  37.  ^*  An  Apology  for  himself  and  his  Writings." 
38.  ^*  Historia  Ecclesiastica  carmine  elegiaco  concinnata,'' 
Aug.  Trinob.  i.  e.  London,  1688,  8vo.  39.  "  Tractatus 
Opticus,"  inserted  in  Mersennus's  *^  Cou^itata  Physico^ 
Mathematica,"  Paris,  1 644,  4to.  40.  ^^  Qbservationes  in 
Cartesii  de  prim&  Philosophic  Meditationes."  These  ob- 
jections are  published  in  all*  the  editions  of  {)es  Gartes's 
**  Meditations."  41.  "The  Voyage  of  Ulysses;  or  Ho- 
mer's Odysses,"  book  9,  10,  11,  12.  London,  1674,  in  8vo* 
And  42.  "Homer's  Iliads  and  Odysses,"  London,  1675 
and  1677,  12mo.  ^ 

HOBBIMA  (Mind-erhout),  a  very  eminent  painter,  is 
supposed  to  have  been  born  about  1611,  at  Antwerp  ^  but 
tbe  master  from  whom  he  received  his  instruction  is  not 
known.     He  studied  entirely  after  nature,  sketching  every 

1  Bioff.  6rit-«6en.  Dict.-^Bnract's  Gyro  Tiipes.— Life  prefixed  to  Wood'^ 
Annals,  4to,  p.  1^. — A th.  Ox.  vol.  II,— Leland's^  Deistical  Writers — Letters 
irwm  the -Bodleian  Libraryi  S  T6lt.  Svo,  lSld.^--D''Itraeirs  Quarrels  of  A^ihors, 
Tol.  111.  p.  1—89. 

22  H  O  B  B  I  M  A. 

scene  that  afforded  him  pleasure,  and  his  choice  was  ex-' 
ceedingly  picturesque.  His  grounds  are  always  agreeably 
broken,  and  be  was  particularly  fond  of  describing  slopes 
diversified  with  shrubs,  plants,  or  trees,  which  conducted 
the  eye  to  some  building,  ruin,  grove,  or  piece  of  water, 
and  frequently  to  a  delicate  remote  distance ;  every  object 
perspectively  contributing  to  delude  our  observation  to  that 
point.  The  forms  of  his  trees  are  not  unlike  Ruysdael  and 
Dekker ;  and  in* all  his  pictures  he  shews  an  admirable 
knowledge  of  the  chiaroscuro.  His  colouring  is  extremely 
good,  and  his  skies  evidently  shew  that  he  made  nature 
his  principal  director,  by  the  shape  and  disposition  of  his 
clouds,  as  also  by  those  peculiar  tints,  by  which  he  ex* 
pressed  the  rising  and  setting  of  the  sun,  the  morning  and 
evening.  His  touch  is  light,  free,  and  firm  ;  and  .his  p 'int- 
ings  have  a  very  striking  effect,  by  the  happy  distribution 
of  his  light  and  shadow.  The  figures  which  he  himself 
designed  are  but  indifferent,  which  was  a  defect  imputable 
to  Claude  Lorraine  and  Caspar  Poussin,  as  well  as  to  Hob- 
bima;  but  the  latter,  conscious  of  his  inabihty  in  that  re- 
spect, admitted  but  few  figures  into  his  designs,  and  those 
he  usually  placed  somewhat  removed  from  the  immediate 
view,  at  a  prudent  distance  from  the  front  line.  However, 
most  of  his  pictures  were  supplied  with  figures  by  Ostade, 
Teniers,  and  other  very  famous  masters,  which  must  always 
give  them  a  great  additional  value.  The  works  of  Hobbima 
are  now  exceedingly  scarce,  and  industriously  sought  for. 
A  very  fine  landscape  of  his,  the  property  of  the  late  Edward 
Coxe,  esq.  was  sold  a  few  years  ago  for  nearly  700/.^ 

KtOCCLEVE,  or  OCCLEVE  (Thomas),  an  ancient 
English  poet,  who  scarcely,  however,  deserves  the  name, 
was  horn  probably  about  1370,  and  has  been  styled 
Chaucer's  disciple.  He  studied  law  at  Chester's  Inn,  in 
the  Strand,  and  was  a  writer  to  the  privy  seal  for  above 
twenty  yeard.  When  he  quitted  this  office,  or  what  means 
of  subsistence  he  afterwards  had,  cannot  be  easily  deter- 
mined. Pits  seems  wrong  in  asserting  that  he  was  pro- 
vided for  by  Humphrey  duke  of  Gloucester.  Nor  is  Bale 
more  correct  in  saying  that  he  had  imbibed  the  religious 
tenets  of  Wickliff.  From  his  poems  the  following. scanty 
particulars  of  his  history  have  been  communicated  by  a 
learned  friend  :  **  lie  dwelt  in  the  office  of  the  privy  sea\, 
a  ^vriter  '  unto  the  se^l  twenty-four  years  come  Easter,  ^nd 

1  Pilkington. 


H  O  C  C  L  E  V  E.  23 

that  k  nigh.'  The  king  granted  hitn  an  annuity  of  twenty 
marks  in  the  exchequer,  which  it  appears  be  had  much* 
difficulty  in  getting  paid.  He  expresses  much  doubt  of 
obtaining  it  from  ^  yere  to  yere :'  fears  it  may  not  be  con- 
tinued when  he  is  no  longer  able  to  ^  serve'  (i.  e.  as  a  writer 
in  the  privy  seal  office).  Besides  this  annuity  he  has  but 
six  marks  coming  in  yearly  *  in  noo  tide.'  Speaks  of  dwell- 
ing at  home  in  his  *  pore  coote,'  and  that  more  than  two 
parts  of  his  lif^  are  spent-— he  is  ignorant  of  husbandry ; 
*  scarcely  could  skare  away  the  kite ;'  can  neither  use 
plough  or  harrow,  knows  not  *  what  land  is  good  for  what 
corn  ;'  unable  to  fill  a  cart  or  barrow  from  long  use  to 
writing ;  descants  on  the  troubles  and  difficulties  attending 
writing;  says  that  ^  bit  is  welle  grett  laboure,'  and  con- 
trasts very  happily  the  life  of  an  husbandman  or  artificer 
with  that  of  a  writer^  adding  that  he  has  continued  in 
writing  twenty  years  and  more.  He  *  whilom'  thought  to 
have  been  a  priest,  but  now  is  married,  having  long  waited 
for  a  benefice;  describes  the  corruption  in  bis, office,  but 
that  no  share  of  the  bribes  come  to  the  clerks.  Name 
'  Okkleve'  acquainted  with  Chaucer — has  small  knowledge 
of  Latin  and  of  French.  He  is  advised  to  complain  to  the 
prince  that  he  cannot  get  paid  in  the  excheqtitr^  and  peti- 
tion that  his  patent  be  removed  into  the  haniper,  but  ob* 
serves  this  cannot  be  done  because  of  the  *  ordinance*'  for 
'  longe  after  this  shall  noo  graunt  be  chargeable.'  He  says 
^  my  lorde  the  prince  is  good  lorde'  to  him,  and  is  advised 
to  write  him  ^  a  goodlie  tale  or  two,'  therein  to  avoid  flat- 
tery, and  write  *  nothinge  that  sowneth  to  vice,' "  &c. 

Hpccleve  is  supposed  to  have  died  in  1454.  Some  of 
his  poems  were  printed  by  Mr.  George  Mason,  in  1796, 
4to,  from  a  MS.  in  bis  possession,  and  a  preface,  notes, 
and  glossary.  The  glossary  is  useful,  but  the  attempt  ko 
reyive  the  poems  impotent.  Instead,  indeed,  of  removing, 
they  confirm  Warton's  objection  to  him  as  a  feeble  poet, 
"  whose  chief  merit  seems  to  be,  that  his  writings  contri- 
buted to  propagate  and  establish  those  improvements  in 
our  language,  which  were  in  his  time  beginning  to  take 
place."  The  most  favourable  specimen  of  Hoccleve's 
poetry  is  bis  *'  Story  of  Jonathas,"  which  the  reader  will 
£nd  in  the  "  Shepherd's  Pipe,"  by  William  Browne,  au- 
thor of  Britannia's  Pastorals.  ^ 

>  Preface  to  Mawn's  edition.— Extracts  commiiiiicated  by  Mr.  Archdeacon 
Nares  from  Mn  Sharp  of  Coventry.— Ellis's  Specimens*-— Walton's  Hist,  of 


HOCilSTETTER  (Andrew-Adam),  a  prot€»taDt  di^ 
vine,  wacs  born  at  Tubingen,  July  1688.  After  studying^ 
i^b  credit  in  the  principal  universities  of  Germany,  he 
b66aTne  successively  professor  of  eloquence,  of  moral  phi- 
losophy, of  divinity,  and  finally  rector  of  Tubingen.  He 
died  at  the  same  place,  April  27,  1717.  His  principal 
work^  are,  1.  "  Collegium  Puffendorfianum."  2.  "  Dii 
Festo  Expiationis,  et  Hirco  Azazel.'*  3.  *' De  Conradino^ 
ultifho  ^3t  Suevis  duce."  4.  **  De  rebur  Elbigensibus." 
Hi!^  historical  works  are  in  most  esteem.* 

HODGES  (Nathaniel),  an  English  physician,'  was  the 
scm  of  Dr.  Thomas  Hodges,  dean  of  Hereford,  of  whomf 
th^re  are  three  printed  sermons.  He  was  educated  iii 
Westminster-school,  and  became  a  student  of  Christ^church, 
Oxford,  in  1648.  In  1631  and  1654,  he  took  the  degreed 
of  B.  aiid  M.  A.  and,  in  1659,  accumulated  the  degriees  of 
B.  and  M.  D.  He  settled  in  London,  and  was,  in  1672, 
made  fellow  of  the  College  of  Physicians.  He  remained  in 
the  metropolis  during  the  continuance  of  the  plague  iit 
1665,  when  most  of  the  physicians,  and  Sydenham  amon^ 
{fae  rest,  retired  to  the  country  :  and,  with  another  of  his 
Brethren,  he  visited  the  infected  during  the  whole  of  that 
terrible  visitation.  Thiese  two  physicians,  indeed,  appear 
to  ha^e  been  appointed  by  the  city  of  London  to  attend  the 
diseased,  with  a  stipend.  Dr.  Hodges  was  twice  taken  ill 
ddring  the  prevdeiice  of  the  disease;  but  by  the  aid  o£ 
timely  remedies  be  recovered.  His  mode  of  performing 
\xvi  perilods  duty  was  to  receive  early  every  morning,  at  bis 
own  house,  the  persons  who  came  to  give  reports  of  the 
^fck,  and  convalescents,  for  advice;  he  then  made  his 
forenoon  visits  to  the  infected,  causing  a  pan  of  coals  to  be 
carried  before  him  with  perfumes,  and  chewing  tuocfaeal 
while  hfe  wad  in  the  sick  chamber.  >  He  repeated  bis  visits 
in  the  afternodh.  His  chief  prophylactic  was  a  liberal  use 
bf  Spanish  wine,  and  cheerful  society  after  the  business  of 
thb  day.  It  i^  hibch  to  be  lamented  that  such  a  man  after- 
virai'ds  fell  into  uhfortunate  circumstances,  and  wis  confined 
.  for  debt  in  Ludgate  prison,  where  he  died  in  1684.  His 
body  was  interred  in  the  church  of  St.  Stephen's,  Walbrook^ 
London,  where  a  nionumeut  \%  erected  to  him.  He  is 
author  of  two  works :  1 .  ^^  Vindici^  Medicihse  et  Medi* 
corum:  An  Apology  for  the  Profession  and  Professors 

1  Diet,  (list 

HODGES.  25 

t>f  Physto,  &c.  1660/'  Svo.  2.  *' Ao(/MXoyia  .•  sive,  pestis 
nuperoe  apnd  populum  Londinensem  grassantis  narratio  bis- 
torica/'  1672,  9vo.  A  translation  of  it  into  English  was 
printed  at  London  in  1720,  Sva,  under  the  following  title : 
'*  Loimologta,  or,  an  Historical  Account  of  the  Plague  of 
London  in  1665,  with  precautionary  Directions  against  the 
lik€  Contagion.  To  which  k  added,  an  Essay  on  the  different 
causes  of  pestilential  diseases,  and  how  they  become  con- 
tagious. With  remarks  on  the  infection  now  in  France, 
and  the  nobst  probable  means  to  prevent  its  spreading  here  ;'* 
the  latter  by  Jdhn  Quiucy,  M.  D.  In  1721,  there  was 
printed  at  London,  in  Svo,  ^*  A  collection  of  very  valuable 
and  stai^ce  pieces  relating  to  the  last  plague  in  1665;** 
among  which  is  **  An  account  of  the  first  rise,  progress, 
symptoms,  and  cure  of  the  Plague ;  being  the  substance  of 
a  letter  from  Dr.  Hodges  to  a  person  of  quality,  dated  from 
bis  house  in  Watling-street,  May  the  8th,  1666/'  The 
atithor  of  the  preface  to  this  collection  calls  our  author 
'*  a  fditbful  historian  and  diligent  physician ;"  and  tells  us, 
that  **  he  may  be  reckoned  among  the  best  observers  in 
any  age  of  physic,  and  has  given  us  a  true  picture  of  the 
plague  in  his  own  titne."^  * 

HODGES  (William),  an  English  landscape  painter, 
Was  born  in  London,  in  1744,  and  received  his  tuition  in 
Che  art  from  Wilson,  whom  he  assisted  for  some  time,  and 
under  whom  be  acquired  a  good  eye  for  colouring,  and 
great  freedom  and  boldness  of  band ;  but  unluckily,  like 
loo  many  pupils,  he  caught  the  defects  of  his  master  more 
powerfully  than  his  beauties ;  and  was,  in  consequence, 
too  loose  in  his  definition  of  forms,  by  which  means,  that; 
which  added  gface  to  the  works  of  the  master,  became 
tdovenliness  in  the  pupil.  **  Hodges,'*  says  Fuseli,  **  had 
the  boldness  and  neglect  of  Wilson,  but  not  genius  enough 
to  give  authority  to  the  former,  or  make  us  forgive  the 
latter :  too  inaccurate  for  scene-painting,  too  mannered  for 
local  representation,  and  not  sublime  or  comprehensive 
enough  for  poetic  landscape ;  yet,  by  mtere  decision  of 
hand,  nearer  to  excellence  than  mediocrity ;  and,  perhaps, 
koperidt  to  some  who  surpassed  him  in  perspective,  or 
diligence  of  execution."  He  accepted  an  appointment  to 
go  out  draughtsman  with  captain  Cook  on  his  second  voyage 
to  the  South  Seas,  from  which  he  returned  after  an  ab» 

»  Ath%  Ox.  tol.  II,— Gen.  Diet. — Recs's  Cyclopsedfa. 


sence  of  three  years,  and  painted  some  pictures  for  the 
admiralty,  of  scenes  in  Otabeite  and  Ulietea.  Afterwards, 
under  the  patronage  of  Warren  Hastings,  he  visited  the 
JCast  Indies,  where  he  acquired  a  decent  fortune.  On  his 
return  home,  after  practising  the  art  some  time,  he  en- 
gaged in  commercial  and  banking  speculations;  which  nojb 
proving  successful,  he  sunk  under  the  disappointment,  and 
died  in  1797.' 

HOD  Y  (Humphrey),  an  eminent  English  divine,  was  bora 
Jan.  1, 165s^,atOdcombe  in  thecountyof  Somerset,  of  which 
place  his  father  was  rector.  He  discovered  while  a  boy,  a 
great  propensity  to  learning ;  and,  in  1676,  was  admitted 
into  Wadham-coUege,  Oxford,  of  which  he  was  chosen 
fellow  in  1684.  When  he  was  only  in  bis  twenty-first  year 
he  published  his  ^^  Dissertation  against  Aristeas^s  History  of 
the  Seventy-two  Interpreters.**  The  substance  of  that 
history  of  Ansteas,  concerning  the  seventy-two  Greek  in- 
terpreters of  the  Bible,  is  this :  Ptolemy  Philadelphus, 
king  of  Egypt,  and  founder  of  the  noble  library  at  Alex- 
andria, being  desirous  of  enriching  that  library  with  all  sorts 
of  books,  committed  the  care  of  it  to  Demetrius  Phalereus, 
a  noble  Athenian  then  living  in  bis  court.  Demetrius  being 
informed,  in  the  course  of  his  inquiries,  of  the  Law  of 
Moses  among  the  Jews,  acquainted  the  king  with  it ;  who 
signified  his  pleasure,  that  a  copy  of  that  book,  which  was 
then  only  in  Hebrew,  should  be.  sent  for  from  Jerusalem, 
with  interpreters  from  the  same  place  to  translate  it  into 
Greek.  A  deputation  was  accordingly  seiit  to  Eleazar  the 
liigh-priest  of  the  Jews  at  Jerusalem  ;  who  sent  a  copy  of  ^ 
the  Hebrew  original,  and  seventy-two  interpreters,  six  out 
of  each  of  the  twelve  tribes,  to  translate  it  into  Greek. 
When  they  were  come  to  Egypt  the  king  caused  them  to 
be  conducted  into  the  island  of  Pharos  near  Alexandria, 
in  apartments  prepared  for  them,  where  they  completed 
their  translation  in  seventy-two  days.  Such  is  the  story 
told  by  Aristeas,  who  is  said  to  be  one  of  king  Ptolemy's* 
court  Hody  shews  that  it  is  the  invention  of  some  Hel- 
lenist Jew  ;  that  it  is  full  of  anachronisms  and  gross  blun- 
ders ;  and,  in  short,  was  written  on  purpose  to  recommend 
and  give  greater  authority  to  the  Greek  version  of  the  Old 
Testament,  which  from  this  story  has  received  the  name  of 
the  Septuagint    This  dissertation  was  received  with  th^ 

1  PillqDgtoD,  by  Faseli.— fidward«'s  Continuatioft  of  Watpole. 

H  O  D  Y.  27 

liigheftt  applause  by  all  the  learned,  except  Isaac  Vossiasv 
Charles  du  Fresne  spoke  highly  of  it  in  his  observations  oa 
the  ^' Chronicon  Paschale/*  published  in  1698;  and  Me- 
nage,  in  his  notes  upon  the  second  edition  of  *^  Diogenei^ 
Laertius,"  gave  Hody  the  titles  of  ^^  eruditiiisimus,  doC- 
tissimus,    elegantissimas,    &c."     but   Vossiiis   alone   was 
greatly  dissatisfied  with  it*     He  had  espoused  the  contrary 
opinion,  and  could  not  bear  that  such  a  boy  as  Hody  should 
presume  to  contend  with  one  of  bis  age  and  reputation  for 
letters.     He  published  therefore  an  appendix  to  his  '*Ob« 
servations  on  Pomponius  Mela/'  and  subjoined  an  answer 
to  this  viissertation  of  Hody*s ;  in  which,  however,  he  did 
not  enter  much  into  the  argument,  but  contents  himself 
with  treating  Hody  very  contemptuously,  vouchsafing  him 
no   better  title   than  Juvenis  Oxonieusis,  and  sometimes 
using  worse  language.     When  Vossius  was  asked  afters- 
wards,  what  induced  him  to  treat  a  young  man  of  promis- 
ing hopes,  and  who  had  certainly  deserved  well  of  the  re« 
public  of  letters,  so  very  harshly,  he  answered,  that  be  had 
received  some  time  before  a  rude  Latin  epistle  from  Ox- 
ford, of  which  he  suspected  Hody  to  be  the  author ;  and 
that  this  had  made  him  deal  more  severely  with  him  than 
be  should  otherwise  have  done.     Vossius   had  indeed  re* 
ceived  such  a  tetter ;  but  it  was  writjten,  according  to  the 
assertion  of  Creech,  the  translator  of  Lucretius,  without 
Hody's  knowledge  or  approbation.    When  Hody  published 
his  ^*  Dissertation,  &c.*'  he  told  the  reader  in  his  preface, 
that  he  had  three  other  books  preparing  upon  the  Hebrew 
text,  and  Greek  version ;  but  lie  was  now  so  entirely  drawn 
away  from   these  studies  by  other  engagements,  that  he 
could   not  find  time  to  complete  his  work,  and  to  answer 
the  objections  of  Vossius,  till  more  than  twenty  years  after. 
In  1 704,  he  published  it  altogether,  with  this  title,  ^^  De 
Bibliorum   textibus  originalibus,    versionibus  Grcecis,    et 
Latina  Vulgata,  libri  IV.  &c.*'     The  first  book  contains 
bis  dissertation  against  Aristeas*s  history,  which  is  here  re- 
printed with  improvements,  and  an  answer  to  Vossius^s 
objections.     In  the  second  he  treats  of  tlie  true  authors  of 
the   Greek    version    called  the  Septuagint;   of  the  time 
when,  and  the  reasons  why,  it  was  undertaken,  and  of  the 
manner  in  which  it  was  performed.     The  third  is  a  history 
of  the  Hebrew  text,  the  Septuagint  version,  and  of  the 
Latin  Vulgate;  shewing  the  authority  of  each  in  different 
ages,   and  that  the  Hebrew  text  has  been  always  most 

si  HOB  Y. 

eftteem^d  and  vailiied.  In  the  fourth  he  gives  as  account 
Oif  the  re»t  of  the  Gi*^8k  Tersions,  namely,  those  of  Sym* 
machtts,  Aquila,  and  Tbeodotion ;  of  Origen^s  **  Hexapla,*' 
and  other  ancient  editions,;  and  subjoins  lists  of  the  book« 
of  the  Bible  at  different  times,  which  exhibit  a  concise,  but 
foil  and  clear  view  of  the  canon  of  Holy  Scripture. — Upon 
the  whole,  he  thinks  it  probable,  that  the  Greek  version, 
ealled  the  Septuagint,  was  done  in  the  time  of  the  two 
Ptolemies,  Lagus  and  Philadelphus ;  and  that  it  was  not 
done  by  order  of  king  Ptolemy,  or  under  the  direction  of 
Demetrius  Phalereus,  in  order  to  be  deposited  in  the  Alex- 
andrine library,  but  by  Hellenist  Jews  for  the  use  of  their 
own  countrymen. 

In  1689,  he  wrote  the  '^  Prolegomena"  to  John  Malela's 
♦*. Chronicle,"  printed  at  Oxford;  and  the  year  after  was 
made  chaplain  to  Siillingfleet  bishop  of  Worcester,  being 
tutor  to  his  son  at  Wadham  college.     The  deprivation  of 
the  bishops,  who  had  refused  the  oaths  to  king  William  and 
queen  Mary,  engaged  him  in  a  controversy  with  Dodwell, 
who  had  till  now  been  his  friend,  and  had  spoken  hand- 
somely and   affectionately  of  him,  in  his  **  Dissertations 
upon  Irenaeus,- '  printed  in  1669.  The  pieces  Hody  published 
on  this  occasion  were,  in  1691,  ^^  The  Unreasonableness  of 
a  Separation  from  the  new  bishops :  or,  a  Treatise  out  of 
Ecclesiastical  History,    shewing,    that  although  a   bishop 
was  unjustly  deprived,  neither  he  nor  the  church  ever  made 
a  separation,  if  the  successor  was  not  an  heretic.     Trans- 
lated out  of  an   ancient  manuscript  in  the  public  library 
at  Oxford,"  one  of  the  Baroccian  MSS.     He  translated  it 
afterwards  into  Latin,  and  prefixed  to  it  some  pieces  out 
of  ecclesiastical  antiquity,  relating  to  the  same  subject. 
Dodwell  publishing  an  answer  to  it,  entitled  <^  A  Vindica- 
tion of  the  deprived  bishops,"  &c.  in  1692,  Hody  replied, 
in  a  treatise  which  he  styled  "  The  Case  of  Sees  vacant 
by  an  unjust  or  uncanonical  deprivation  stated ;  in  answer 
to  a  piece  intituled,  A  Vindication  of  the  deprived  Bishops, 
&c.     Together  with  the  several  pamphlets  published  as 
answers  to  the  Baroccian  Treatise,  1693."    The  part  he 
acted  in  this  controversy  recommended  him  so  powerfully 
to  Tillotson,  who  had  succeeded  Sancroft  in  the  see  of 
Canterbury,  that  be  made  him  his  domestic  chaplain  in 
May  1694.     Here  he  drew  up  his  dissertation  <<  concern- 
ing the  Resurrection  of  the  same  body,"  which  he  dedi- 
caited  to .  Stillingfleet,  whose  chaplain  he  had  been  from 

H  O  D  T.  29 

1690.  Tillotson  dying  NoTcmber  Following,  he  was  con- 
tinued chaplain  by  Tenison  his  successor;  who  soon  after 
gave  him  the  rectory  of  Chart  near  Canterbury,  vacant 
by  the  death  of  Wharton.  This,  before  he  was  collated, 
he  exchanged  for  the  united  parishes  of  St.  MichaePs 
Royal  and  St.  Martin's  Vintry,  in  London,  being  instituted 
to  these  in  August  1695.  In  1696,.  at  the  command  of 
Tenison,  he  wrote  *^  Animadversions  on  two  pamphlets 
lately  published  by  Mr.  Collier,  &c."  When  sir  WiUiaiH 
Perkins  and  sir  John  Friend  were  executed  that  year  for 
the  assassination*plot,  Collier,  Cook,  and  Snatr,  three 
nonjuring  clergymen,  formally  pronounced  upon  them  the 
absolution  of  the  church,  as  ic  stands  in  the  office  for  the 
visitation  of  the  sick,  and  accompanied  this  ceremony  with 
a  solemn  imposition  of  hands.  For  this  imprudent  actioi> 
they  were  not  only  indicted,  but  also  the  archbishops  and 
bishops  published  ^^  A  Declaration  of  their  sense  concern- 
ing those  irregular  and  scandalous  proceedings.'*  Snatt 
and  Cook  were  cast  into  prison.  Collier  absconded,  and 
from  his  privacy  published  two  pamphlets  to  vindicate  bis 
own,  and  his  brethren's  conduct;  the  one  called,  <<A  De- 
fence of  the  Absolution  given  to  sir  William  Perkins  at  the 
place  of  execution  ;"  the  other,  "  A  Vindication  thereof, 
occasioned  by  a  paper,  intituled,  A  Declaration  of  the 
sense  of  the  archbishops  and  bishops,  &c."  ;  in  answer  to 
which  Hody  published  the  **  Animadversions"  above-men* 

lV£arch  1698,  be  was  appointed  regius  professor  of  Greek 
in  the  university  of  Oxford ;  and  instituted  to  the  arch- 
deaconry of  Oxford  in  1704.  In  1701,  he  bore  a  part  in 
the  controversy  about  the  convocation,  and  pUbKshed  upon 
that  occasion,  ^*  A  History  of  English  Councils  and  Con- 
vocations, and  of  the  Clergy's  sitting  in  Parliament,  in 
which  is  also  comprehended  the  History  of  Parliaments^ 
with  an  account  of  our  ancient  laws."  He  died  Jan.  20,  , 
1706,  and  was  buried  in  the  chapel  belonging  to  Wad- 
ham-coilege,  where  he  had  received  his  ^ucation,  and  to 
which  he  bad  been  a  benefactor  :  for,-in  order  to  encourage 
the  study  of  the  Greek  and  Hebrew  languages,  df  which 
he  was  so  great  a  master  himself,  he  founded  in  that  col- 
lege ten  scholarships  of  ten  pounds  each ;  now  increasekl 
to  fifteen  pounds  each;  and  appointed  that  four  of  the 
scholars  should  apply  themselves  to  the  study  of  the  He- 
brew, and  six  to  the  study  of  the  Greek  language.     He 

30  BODY. 

left  behind  him  in  MS.  a  valuable  work  formed  frotdube 
lectures  which  he  had  read  in  the  course  of  his  professor^- 
sbip^  t^ontaining  an  account  of  those  learned  Grecians  who 
retired  to  Italy  before  and  after  the  taking  of  Constanti* 
nople  by  the  Turks^  and  restored  the  Greek  tongue  and 
learning  in  these  western  parts  of  the  world.  This  was 
published  in  1742,  by  Dr.  S.  Jebb,  under  this  title,  "  De 
Graecis  illustribus  linguae  Grsscae  literarumqge  humanio- 
rum  instauratoribus,  eorum  vitis,  scriptis,  et  elogiis  libri 
<luo.  £  Codicibus  potissimum  MS8.  aliisque  authenticis 
ejusdem  aevi  monimeutis  deprompsit  Huoifredus  tiodius, 
S.  T.  P.  baud  ita  pridem  Regius  Professor  et  Archidiaco- 
nus  Oxon.^'  Prefixed  is  an  account  in  Latin  of  the  author^s 
life,  extracted  chiefly  from  a  manuscript  one  written  by 
himself  in  English. ' 

HOE  (Matthias  de  Hoenegg),  of  a  noble  family  at 
Vienna,  was  born  Feb.  24,  1580.  After  being  eight  years 
superintendant  of  Plaven  in  Saxony,  he  took  holy  orders 
at  Prague  in  1611.  In  1613  he  left  Prague,  and  was  ap«^ 
pointed  principal  preacher  to  the  elector  of  Saxony  at 
Dresden,  where  he  died  March  4,  1645.  He  wks  a  stre- 
nuous Lutheran,  and  wrote  with  as  much  zeal  against 
Calvinists  as  Papists.  His  works,  which  are  very  numerous 
both  in  Latin  and  German,  are  not  at  this  day  much 
esteemed,  or  indeed  known.  Their  titles,  however,  are 
given  by  the  writers  of  his  life,  and  among  them  we  find« 
*^  Solida  detestatio  Papife  et  Calvinistarum,"  4to.  '^  Apo- 
logia pro  B.  Luthero  contra  Lampadium,''  Leipsic,  1611, 
4to.  '^  PhiiosophisB  Aristotelicse,  partes  tres.**  ''  Septem 
verborum  Christi  explicatio.*'  The  greater  part  of  bis 
tracts  appear  evidently,  from  their  titles,  to  be  contro*- 
versial.  • 

HOELTZ LINUS  (Jeremias),  a  philologer,  was  born  at 
Nuremberg,  but  settled  at  Leyden,  and  is  best  known  by 
his  edition  of  ApoUonius  Rhodius,  which  was  published 
there  in  1641.  This  edition  is  generally  esteemed  for  the 
beauty  of  the  printing;  but  Rubnkenius,  in  his  second 
Epistola  Critica,  calls  the  editor  *^  tetricum  et  ineptum 
Apollonii  Commentatorem  ;^*  and  bis  commentary  has  been 
censiired  also  by  Harwood,  Harles,  and  other  learned 
men.     He  published  in  1628,  a  German  translation  of  the 

t  Life  M  above.— Biog.  Brit«-»Birch*s  Tillotson.— Chalmen's  Hist,  of  Oxfoi]^. 
s  Freheri  The atruip.'-Gen.  Diet.— Moeheioi.-— Saxii  Onomafit. 


H  O  E  S  C  H  E  L  I  U  S.  31. 

Pskims,  wbich  has  the  credit  of  being  accui'ate.     He  died 
in  1641.^ 

HOESCHELIUS  (David),  a  learned  German,  was  born 
at  Augsburg  in  1556;  and  spent  his  life  in  teaching  the 
youth  in  the  college  of  St.  Anne,  of  which  he  was  made 
principal  by  the  magistrates  of  Augsburg,  in  1593.     They 
made  him  their  hbrary- keeper  also,  and  he  acquitted  him- 
self with  true  literary  zeal  in  this  post :  for  he  collected  a 
great  number  of  MSS.  and  printed  books,  especially  Greeks 
and  also  of  the  best  authors  and  the  best  editions,  with 
which  he  enriched  their  library ;  and  also  published  the 
most  scarce  and  curious  of  the  MSS.  with  bis  own  notes. 
His  publications  were  very  numerous,  among  which  were 
editions  of  the  following  authors,  or  at  least  of  some  part 
of  their  works;  Origen,  Philo  Judseus,  Basil,  Gregory  of 
Nvssen,  Gregory  of  Nazianzen,  Chrysostom,  Hori  Apol- 
linis   Hierbglypbica,    Appian,    Photius,    Procopius,  Anna 
Comnena,  &c.     To  some  of  these  he  added  Latin  transla- 
tions, but   published   others   in    Greek  only,  with   notes. 
Huetius  has  commended  him,  not  only  for  the  pains  he 
took  to  discover  old  manuscripts,  hut  also  for  his  skill  and 
ability  in  translating  them.     Re  composed,  and  published 
in  1595,  "  A  Catalogue  of  the  Greek  MSS.  in  the  Augs- 
burg library,"  which,  for  the  judgment  and   order   with 
which  it  is  drawn  up,  is  reckoned  a  masterpiece  in  its  kind. 
He  may  justly  be  ranked  among  those  who  contributed  to 
the  revival  of  good  learning  in  Europe ;  for,  besides  these 
labours  for  the  public,  he  attended  his  college  closely ; 
and  not  only  produced  very  good  scholars,  but  is  said  to 
have  furnished  the  bar  with  one  thousand,  and  the  church 
with  two  thousand,  young   men    of  talents.     He  died  at 
Augsburg  in  1617,  much  lamented,  being  a  man  of  good  as 
well  as  great  qualities,  and  not  less  beloved  than  admired. ' 
HOET  (Gerard),  an  eminent  historical  and  landscape 
painter,  born  at  Bommel  in  1648,  was  a  disciple  of  War- 
,nard  van  Rysen,  an  excellent  ardst,  who  had  been  bred  in 
the  school  of  Polemburg.     He  was  at  first  invited  to  Cleve, 
where. his  paintings  procured  him  very  great  credit;  but 
he  was  afterwards  prevailed  on  to  visit  Paris,  where  not 
meeting  with  encouragement  in  any  degree  proportioned 
to  his. merit,  he  turned  his  attention  to  England,  whither  he 

*  Gen.  Diet. — Moreri.— ^Saxii  Oiiomaat. 

'  NiceroD,  vol.  XXVllI.— Freberi  Theatrum* — Gen.  Dict-^Saxii  Oo^HnaaU 

82  H  O  E  T. 

certainly  would  have  directed  his  course,  bad  he  not  been 
dissuaded  by  Vosterman.  After  practisingi  therefore,  for^ 
some  time  at  Paris  and  Cleves,  he  settled  at  Utrecht,  and 
in  that  city  and  its  neighbourhood  displayed  bis  abiiitiea,  in 
executing  several  grand  designs  for  ceilings,  saloons,  and 
apartments,  and  also  in  finishing  a  great  number  of  easel 
pictures  for  cabinets ;  and  his  reputation  was  so  universally 
established  at  Utrecht,  that  be  was  appointed  director  of 
an  academy  for  drawing  and  painting,  which  he  ^conducted, 
with  great  honour  to  himself,  and  remarkable  advantage  to 
bis  pupils.  He  had  a  lively  imagination,  a  vefy  ready  iu* 
vention,  a  talent  for  composition  and  correctness  in  the  cos- 
tume. His  manner  of  painting  was  clean  and  neat,  and  he 
was  thoroughly  master  of  the  true  principles  of  the  chiaro*- 
scuro.  His  figures  in  general  are  designed  with  elegance, 
bis  colouring  is  vivid,  natural,  and  harmonious,  his  touch 
is  light  and  firm,  and  his  pictures  have  a  great  deal  of  trans- 
parence. His  small  easel-paintings  are  as  distinctly  touched 
as  highly  finished ;  and  yet  his  larger  works  are  always 
penciled  with  a  freedom  that  is  suitable  to  those  grander 

Many  capital  pictures  of  this  master  are  in  the  palace  of 
Slangenberg;  and  his  eminent  talents  may  be  seen  in  the 
grand  staircase  at  Voorst,  the  seat  of  the  earl  of  Alben>arle. 
In  Holland,  and  also  in  our  kingdoms,  several  charmiuf^ 
pictures  of  Hoet  are  preserved  ;  some  of  them  in  the  maa* 
ner  of  Polemburg,  and  others  in  the  style  of  Carel  du  Jjir* 
din.     He  died  in  1733.' 

HOFFMAN  (Daniel),  a  Lutheran  minister,  superin- 
tendant  and  professor  at  Helmstad,  was  the  author  of  an 
idle  controversy  towards  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
He  started  some  difficulties  about  subscribing  the  concord, 
and  refused  to  concur  with  Dr.  Andreas  in  defence  of  this 
confession.  He  would  not  acknowledge  the  ubiquity,  but 
only  that  the  body  of  Jesus  Christ  was  present  in  a  great 
many  places ;  this  dispute,  though  laid  asleep  soon  after, 
left  aspirit  of  curiosity  and  contradiction  upon  people's 
minds,  so  that  in  a  little  time  they  began  to  disagree  and 
argue  very  warmly  upon  several  other  points,  HofFoiaa 
being  always,  at  the  head  of  the  party.  Among  other  things 
in  an. academical  disputation,  he  maintained  that  the  light 
of  reason,  even  as  it  appears  in  the  writings  of  Plato  and 

*  Pjlkington. 


Aristotle^  is  aver&e  to  religion ;  and  the  more  the  hamaa 
iindersundiug  is  culurateli  by  philpsapbical  studyi  the 
more  perfectly  is  tbe  enemy  supplied  with  weapons  of  de« 
fence*  Tbe  partiality  which  at  this  time  universally  pre- 
?ailed  in  favour  of  the  Aristotelian  philosophy  was  such^ 
that  an  opinion  of  this  kind  could  dot  be  advanced  publiclyi 
without  exciting  general  dissatisfaction  and  alarm.  A  nu- 
merous band  of  professors,  though  they  differed  in  opinion 
among  themselvesi  united  to  cake  op  arms  against  the 
*  .common  enemy.  At  the  bead  of  this  body  was  John  Caa« 
sel ;  whence  the  advocates  for  philosophy  were  called  tbe 
Casselian  party.  They  at  first  challenged  Hoffman  to  a 
private  conference,  in  expectation  of  leading  him  to  a 
sounder  judgment  concerning  philosophy  ;  but  their  hopea 
were  frustrated.  Hoffman,  persuaded  that  interest  and 
envy  liad  armed  the  philosophers  against  him,  in  bis  reply 
to  bis  opponents  inveighed  with  great  bitterness  against 
philosophers,  and  acknowledged,  that  be  meaut  to  oppose 
not  only  the  abuse  of  philosophy,,  but  the  most  prudent  and 
legitimate  use  of  it,  as  necessarily  destructive  of  theology. 
This  extravagant  assertion,  accompanied  with  many  con- 
tumelious censures  of  philosophers,  produced  reciprocal 
vehemence;  and  Albert  Graver  published  a  book  ^^  De 
Unica  Veritate,"  which  maintained  '^  the  Simplicity  of 
Trutb;'*  a  doctrine  from  which  tbe  Casselian  party  were 
called  Simplicists,  whilst  the  followers  &f  Hoffman  (for  he 
fmnd  means  to  engage  several  persons,  particularly  among 
the  Theosopbista,,  in  his  interest)  (^posing  this  doctrine^ 
were  calledj  on  the  other  hand„  Duplicists,  John  Angel 
Werdeobagen,  a  Boehmenite,  who  possessed  some  poe«- 
tical  lalenta,  wrote  several  poems  against  the  phifoso^ 
phenu  In  short,  tbe  disputes  ran  so  Ugh,  and  produced 
no  SHich  persotial  abuse,  that  tbe  court  thought  it  neoes* 
aacy  to  interpose  its  authority,  and  appointed  arbitrators  to 
examine  the  merits  of  the  controversy.  Tha  decision  waa 
against  Hoffman,  and  ha  was  obliged  to  make  a  public  re- 
cantation ot  bis  errors,  acknowledging  tbe  utility  and  OKr 
ceUence  of  philosophy,  and  declaring  that  bis  invective#^ 
bad  been  only  directed  against  its  abuses. 
.  Hofthian  and  Beaa  wrote  against  each  other  upon  tb# 
sbbject  of  tbe  Holy  Eucharist  Hoffman  aAQUsed  Hommis, 
an  eminent  Lutheran  minister,  for  having  misrepresent^ 
the  book  of  tbe  Concord ;  for  here,  says  Hoffman,  the 
cause  of  election  i*  not  made  ttt  ctefKWd  upon  the  qualifi* 
Vol-  XVIIL  J> 

34  »  O  F  F  M  A  N- 

cations  of  the  person  elected  ;  but  Hdnniusi  says  be,  and 
Myiius  assert,  that  the  decree  of  election  is  founded  upon 
the  foresight  of  faith.  Hunniiis  and  Myiius  caused  Hoff- 
man to  be  condemned  at  a  meeting  of  their  divines  in 
1593,  and  threatened  Him  with  excommunication,  if  be 
did  not  comply.  The  year  following,  Hoffman  publtsbed 
an  apology  against  their  censure.  Hospinian  gives  the 
detail  of  this  controversy :  he  observes,  that  some  divines 
of  Leipsic,  Jena^  and  Wittemburg,  would  have  h^d  Hoff-' 
man  publicly  censured  as  a  Calvinist,  and  such  a  heretic 
as  was  not  fit  to  be  conversed  with  ;  others  who  were  more 
moderate,  were  for  admonishing  him  by  way  of  letter  be- 
fore they  came  to  extremities :  this  latter  expedient  was 
approved,  and  Hunnius  wrote  to  him  in  the  name  of  all  his 
brethren.  Hoffman's  apology  was  an  answer  to  this  letter, 
in  which  he  gives  the  reasons  for  refusing  to  comply  with 
the  divines  of  Wittemburg,  and  pretends  to  shew  that  they 
were  grossly  mistaken  in  several  articles  of  faith.  At  last 
he  was  permitted  to  keep  school  at  Helmstadt,  where  be 
died  in  1611.  He  must  not  be  confounded  vnth  Mekhior 
Hoffman^  a  fanatic  of  the  sixteenth  century,  who  died  in 
prison  at  Strasburgh.  There  was  also  a  Gasper  Hoffman 
(the  name  being  common),  a  celebrated  professor  of  medi- 
cine at  Altdorf,  who  was  born  at  Gotha  in  lii72,  and  died 
in  1649  ;  and  who.  left  behind  him  many  medical  works. ' 

HOFFMAN  (John  James),  professor  of  Greek  at  Bale, 
was  born  in  that  city  in  1635,  and  died  there  in  1706. 
Little  besides  is  known  of  his  history.  His  great  work,  the 
•*  Lexicon  Universale  Historico-Geographico-Poetico-Phi- 
losopbico-Politico-Philologicum,^*  was  first  published  at 
Geneva,  in  1677,  in  two  volumes,  folio.  This  being  re* 
ceived  by  the  learned  with  great  avidity,  he  published,^  9 
few  years  after,  a  Supplement ;  which  was  also  rapidly  sold 
of£  In  1698,  some  of  the  principal  booksellers  at  Leyden, 
encouraged  by  this  success  of  the  work,  and  having  re<* 
ceived  from  the  author  all  his  subsequent  collections,  and 
many  other  additions  from  various  learned  men,  digested 
the  whole,  with  the  Supplement,  into  one  alphabet,  and 
published  it  in  four  volumes,  folio.  In  this  form  it  is  now 
Known  as  a  most  useful  book  of  reference,  and  finds  a 

{>lace  in  every  learned  library.     For  this  edition  the  aii-* 
hor  wrote  a  new  pre&ce.    He  also  published  a  '*  History 

HOFFMAN.  8jr 

of  the  Popes'*  in  Latin^  1687,  2  vols,  and  <^  Historia  Au-* 
gusta,*'   1687,  fol.» 

HOFFMAN  (Maurice),  a  physician,  was  born  of  a  good 
-family,  at  Furstenwalde,  in  the.  electorate  of  Branden** 
bourg,  Sept.  20, .  1621  ;  and  was  driven  early  from  bis  na« 
tive  country  by  the  plague,  and  also  by  the  war  that  fol-^ 
lowed  it.  His  parents^  having  little  idea  of  letters  or 
sciences,  contented  themselves  with  having  him  taught 
writing  and  arithmetic ;  but  Hoffman's  taste  for  books  and 
study  made  him  very  impatient  under  this  confined  instruc** 
tion,  and  he  was  resolved,  at  all  events,  to  be  a  scholar. 
He  first  gained  over  his  mother  to  his  scheme ;  but  she 
died  when  he  was  only  fifteen.  This,  however,  fortunately 
proved  no  impediment  to  his  purpose;  for  the  schoolmaster 
of  Furstenwalde^  to  which  place  after  many  removals  he 
bad  now  returned,  was  so  struck  with  his  talents  and  laud* 
able  ambition,  that  he  instructed  him  carefully  in  secret* 
His  father,  convinced  at  length  of  his  uncommon  abilities^ 
permitted  bim  to  follow  his  inclinations;  and,  in  1637, 
sent  him  to  study  in  the  college  of  Cologtie*  Famine  and 
the  plague  drove  him  from  hence  to  Kopnik,  where  be  bu*' 
ried  his  father;  and,  in  1638,  he  went  to  Altdorf,  to  an 
uncle  by  his  mother's  side,  who  was  a  professor  of  physic. 
Here  he  finished  his  studies  in  classical  reaming  and  philo-* 
sophy,  and  then  applied  himself,  with  the  utmost*  ardour, 
to  physic.  In  1641,  when  he  had  made  some  progress, 
be  went  to  the  university  of  Padua,  which  then  abounded 
with  men  very  learned  in  all  sciences.  Anatomy  and  bo-* 
tany  were  the  great  objects  of  bis  pursuit ;  and  he  became 
very  deeply  skilled  in  both.  Bartholin  tells  us,  that  Hoff- 
man, having  dissected  a  turkey-cock,  discovered  the  pa- 
nacreatic  duct,  and  shewed  it  to  Versungus,- a  celebrated 
anatomist  of  Padua,  with  whom  he  lodged;  who,  taking 
the  hint,  demonstrated  afterwards  the  same  vessel  in  the. 
human  body.  When  he  had  been  at  Padua  about  three 
years,  he  returned  to.  Altdorf,  to  assist  his  uncle,  now 
growing  infirm,  in  his  business ;  and  taking  the  degree  of 
doctor,  he  applied  himself  very  diligently  to  practice,  in 
which  he  had  abundant  success,  and  acquired  great  fame. 
Id  1 648,  be  was  made  professor  extraordinary  in  anatomy 
and  surgery ;  in  1649,  professor  of  physic,  and  soon  afteir 
member  of  the  college  of  physicians ;  in  1653,  professor 

1  Jdoren*— Diet.  Hi8t.*-Saxii  Onomatt. 

D  2 

%i  »  a  S  F  M  A  N. 

ef  bota»;p^  and  director  of  the  physic^ garden.  He  acquit- 
ted himself  Tery  ably  in  these  various  employments,  uojt 
neglf  etiog^  in  tb#  nvean  tiia^  tke  Vusineaa  of  his  profession ; 
ta  whieh  hi»  reputation  was  sa  extensive,  that  many  prii>- 
ees  ef  Gepma^y  appointed  k^im  their  pby^ician.  He  died 
e£  an  apoptexy  ii>  169^,  aftec  having  fwbHsb.ed  several 
botanicaJ  wWks^  and  marrv^  the ee^  wives,  by  whom  be  had 
eighteen  okildrieD^  H4&  works^  are,  1.  <^  Ahdorfi  dehcise 
kovtensefr/*  1677,  4to.  2*.  ^<  Appendix  ad  Catalo^umPhn* 
tamun  koctensiotn,'^'^  1691,  4to«  3.  *<  Delicis  silvestres,'* 
lft7<7>,  4t(K  4.  <<  FkMilegiim  Altdorfinum,''  1676,  &c.  4tOw^ 
HOFFMAN^  (John  Ma v&ice),  son  of  the.  for^per  by  kis 
firsi  wifev  was.  hw»  a^  Alidorl  in  1653 ;  and  sent  to.  school 
ab  Hevsapvuck,  where  haMi<*^  acquired  a  oonatpetent  know-r 
ledge  of'  the  Giseek  and  Laim  to»gi4es,  Ive  returned  to  his 
father  9M  Ahdavf  an  the  age  of  sixteen,  and  studied  feat 
pbilosophy,'  and  then  physic.  He  went  afterwards  to 
J^ancfovt  upon  the  Oder,  and  proposed  to  visit  ^he  United 
Provinces  9^  Engtand ;  but  being  prevemed  by  the  waps, 
%e  went  y>  Padi\^  whefe  b^  studied  two  y^avs.  Tfaeo 
waking  a  tour  of  pavt  of  Italy,  he  vdiurned  to<  Altdorf,  in 
1674,  and  was  acinwited  ta  tlK&deg«^e*of  M;  Dv  He  spent 
two  yeaps  in  adding  to  the  bnojwvsdge  be  had  acquired ; 
and  tbe%  i;i^  16*^7,  was  made  pt^ofessor  exti»aordinary  in 
pbysic>  whieh  title,  in.  » 631,  was  cbanged  to  that  of  pro-> 
fefi^C  in  ordinary.  He  how  ajpptied  hionseU  earne&Ucy  to  the 
praotix^e  ef^  pbysie  y  and  in  time  hi«  fame  was  spread  so  faif, 
that  he  me^  sought  by  papsons*  of  tke  fivst  rank.  George 
Frederic,  meiquis  of  Aiyspack^  of  t^e  houa^  of  3rande»« 
beurg,  chose  him  in  169^3  for  bis  pb.ysiciai^;  and  ^bout  the 
laHep  end  of  the  year^  HQ^an  attendted'  tki^.  prince  into 
itaty,  and  renewi^d  hk  acquaintance  witb  the  teamed  therek 
Vpo»  the  dea^b  qS  bis  fatl>er  in  1 6dd>  b^  was  chosen,  to  soc-» 
eeed  him>  in  his  places  of  botanic*  professor  aed»  director  of 
tbepbysio  gavden.  He  was  elected  also  the-  same  year 
reotor*  of  the  univevsity  oil  Altdopf  ;>  a  post  vidiicb.  he  had 
occupied  in  1 6;^.  Be  lost  his*  great  ftie^d  and  patwo, 
Ibe  marquis  of  Ansp^auih,  ia  170S;  but  fiH^qd  the  same 
kindHess-  ^j^om-  hi^  succeasQV  WiUiaru  Feeder ie>  who  pressed 
]|im^  so  earnestly  to  come  nearer  him,  and  made  ki^  suck 
advantageous  o|fer$,  that  Hofftnaip  i^  1*7 1  Si  r^nao^ed-  frona 
AMoi^f  to  Anspaoh,  wheite  bi^  died  i^  1727.     He  had  auu^^ 

1  mo^  wok  XV'I.— RalkFBtlik  Am*,  U  Botan. 

«  O  F  F  M  A  N.  «7 

Tied  t  wife  in  16«I|  by  whota  hfe  btd  five  ehildrm.  Hi 
left  «ev«ral  wt>rks  of  fepdte :  riis.  two  difoertatrons  on  aim^ 
tomy  aoil  phyviokgy ;  one  ea  whaft  had  !Btfiee  been  caiHeA 
moibid  aitotbfny^  efitttled  *<  Disquiaitid  bonpoiis  hamttni 
ADatoaiicb-Fathol()gfea ;"  ibid.  1713.  <<  Acta  LabofotodI 
€faemi4:i  AltdorffinV*  17 19^  ^<  Syntagma  Patbologico-tlitf- 
ri^euiicuoii'*  1788^  in  9  vok.  4toy  and  <' Sciagrafiifa  fo>- 
iBUtutionam  Medicaniln^''  a  posthumoiis  pnUkatton.  Mb 
also  <&ontkiaed  bis  fadler's  <<  Fioise  AltderSin«.*' ' 

HOFFMANN  (FftESiEai€&)^  the  most  earineht  pbyt{w 
ciaii  of  his  itaoie,  was  born  at  Halle,  in  Saxony^  Feb^  19^ 
1660.  He  received  his  eariy  education  ki  hi^  ^mtii^e  towil^ 
and  bad  foade  great  pirogress  in  philosophy  ai^d  the  mathe- 
ikiatics,  when,  ^t  the  agie  bf  fifteen^  lie  lost  htl  fatiher  and 
mother  duriing  the  prevaienbe  of  an  ^tdeinic  disease.  Ill 
1679  he  commenced  the  study  of  medieine  at  J^na^  and  in 
tbe  following  year  attended  the  eh^tniciBl  leettires  of  Oai- 
}>ar  Cramer,  at  Erfarth ;  and,  on  bis  return  to  Jena^  re- 
ceived tbe  degree  of  M.  D.  in  February  l€8i.  In  16B2Me 
published  an  l&xcellelit  tradt  *^  De  Cinnabari  Antimomi/' 
which  gained  htm  great  applanse^  and  k  crowd  of  pupils 
to  th^  chefbiclil  Iieetures^  which  he  delivered  there.  lie 
was  then  induced  to  vitit  Minden>  in  W^tphalia,  oA  the 
invitation  of  a  relation^  And  practised  there  for  t^  y^ars 
with  tconslderaUe  success*  He  then  travailed  into  HoHaM 
and  tbsnce  to  Engtand>  where  he  ivas  received  with  dit- 
tinction  by  tnlen  of  s^cience,  and  particulhriy  by  Paul  HaN 
man,  the  botanist^  in  th6  fommi*,  and  Robert  Bayle  ih  tile 
latter*  On  bik  return  to  Minden^  ih  1€S£^  IM  Was  lia^de 
physiciah  to  the  garrison  thefe^  and  in  the  foMclwibg  year 
Was  honoured  by  Fr^eric  William,  elector  of  Brahdta<- 
burg,  with  tbe  ap^bintm^nts  of  physician  to  bis  own  per- 
son, and  to  the  whole  principality  of  Minden.  ¥^t  lie 
quitted  that  city  in  1686|  in  consequence  of  an  invitatidn 
to  settle  at  Halbersladt^  in  Lower  Sa^ony^  ab  public  phy« 
sicitafc  Here  he  published  a  treatise  *^  I><3  insufficientia 
acidi  €t  viscidii'*  by  which  he  overthrew  the  system  of 
Corl>eUu8  Boni^km.  In  1689  he  iliarried  the  only  daugh- 
ter of  Andrew  Herstel,  an  eihinent  apothecary^  with  whom 
hd  had  liv^d  forty-^ight  years  in  perfect  union^  when  she 
died.  About  €bis  tim^,  j^rederic  III.^  dftoerwards  first  kiilg 
f>f  Prtisiia^  feUod^d  tbe  university  of  Halle;  Andta  1613 

1  i^ictroDj  Tol.Xvl. 


Hoffmann  Was  appointed  primary  professor  of  medicine^ 
composed  the  statutes  of  that  institution,  and  extended  its 
fame  and  elevated  its  character,  while  his  own  reputation 
procured  him  admission  into  the  scientific  societies  at  Ber- 
lin, Petersburgh,  and  Loudon,  as  well  as  the  honour  of 
•being  consulted  by  persons  of  the  highest  rank.     He  was 
called  upon  to  visit  many  of  the  German  courts  in  his  ca- 
'pacityof  physician,  and   received  honours  from   several 
princes ;  from  whom  some  say  that  he  received  ample  re- 
muneration in  proportiou  to  the  rank  of  his  patients ;  while 
,others  have  asserted  that  he  took  no  fees,  but  contented 
.himself  with  his  stipends.'    Haller  asserts  that  he  acquired 
great    wealth  by  various    chemical    nostrums   which    be 
vended.     In  ITO*  he  accompanied  some  of  the  Prussian  mi- 
nisters to  the  Caroline  warm  baths  in  Bohemia,  on  which 
occasion  he  examined  their  nature,  and  published  a  dis- 
sertation concerning  them.     On  subsequent  visits,  he  be- 
came acquainted  with  the  Sedlitz  purging  waters,  which 
he  first  introduced  to  public  notice,  having  published  a 
treatise  on  them  in  1717  i  and  he  afterwards  extended  his 
inquiries  to  the  other  mineral  waters  of  Germany.     In  1 708 
•he  was  called  to  Berlin  to  take  care  of  the  declining  health 
of  Frederic,  and  was  honoured  with  the  titles  of  archiater 
and  aulic  counsellor,  together  with  a  liberal  salary.     After 
V three  years  residence  at  this  court  he  returned  to  Halle, 
and  gladly  resumed  his  academical  functions.     He  con- 
tmued  also  to  labour  in  the  composition  of  his  writings ;. 
and  in  1718,  at  the  age  of  60,  he  began  the  publication 
of  his  "  Miediciiia  Rationalis  Systematica,"  which  was  re- 
ceived with  great  applause  by  the  faculty  in  various  parts 
of  Europe,   and  the  completion  of  which  occupied  him 
nearly  twenty  years.     He  likewise  published  two  volumes 
of  *^Consultations,"  in   which   he  distributed  into  three 
"centuries,*'  the  most  remarkable  cases  which  had  oc- 
curred to  him ;  and  also  "  Observationum  Physico-Che- 
micarum   Libri   tres,"  1722.     In   1727    he   attended   the 
pnnce  of  Schwartzemburg  through  a  dangerous  disease; 
in  recompence  for  which  his  noble  patient  created  him 
'  count  palatine.     He  quitted  Halle  in   1734,  in  order  to 
pay  a  short  visit  to  his  daughter  and  son-in-law  at  Ber- 
lin, and  was  detained  five  months  by  the  king  of  Prussia^ 
.  Frederic  William,  in  order  to  attend  hiih  during  a  danger- 
ous illness,  by  whom  he  was  treated  with  great  honour, 
feeing  elevate^  tp  the  rank  of  privy  counsellor^,  and  pr§^ 

H  O  F  F  M  A  N  N.  S9 

senled  with  a  poitrait  of  the  king,  set  in  diamonds.  Hoff- 
>mann  declined  a  pressing  invitation  to  settle  at  Berlin,  on 
accoant  of  bis  advanced  age,  and  returned  to  Halle  in 
April  1735.  The  illness  and  death  of  his  beloved  wife,  in 
1737,  turned  his  thoughts  to  the  consolations  of  religion, 
and  he  drew  up  in  I^tin  a  summary  of  Christian  doctrine, 
which,  at  the.  king's  desire,  was  translated  into  German. 
He  continued  to  perform  his  academical  duties  until  1742, 
wbea  he  died  in  the  month  of  November,  aged  eighty-two. 
Frederick  Ho£Pmann  was  an  industrious  and  copious  writer. 
Haller  has  occupied  thirty-eight,  quarto  pages  in  the  enu- 
meration of  his  works  in  detail.  The  principal  of  these 
were  collected,  during  the  life  of  the  author,  by  two  Ge« 
nevese  booksellers,  and  published  with  his  approbation, 
and  with  a  preface  from  his  pen,  in  1740,  in  six  vols,  folio. 
It  was  reprinted  by  the  same  booksellers,  the  freres  de 
Tournes,  in  1748;  and  itt  the  following  year,  having  raked 
together  every  thing  which  bis  pen  had  touched,  they  pub- 
lished a  supplement  in  t:hree  additional  volumes  folio,  which 
was  also  reprinted  in  1753-4.  The  writings  of  Hoffmann 
contain  a  great  mass  of  practical  matter  of  considerable 
value,  partly  compiled  from  preceding  writers,  and  partly 
the  result  of  his  own  observation ;  but  they  contain  also 
many  trifling  remarks,  and  not  a  little  hypothetical  con- 
jecture, which  was  indeed  a  common  fault  of  the  times ; 
and  in  the  detail  there  is  considerable  prolixity  and  repeti- 
tion. As  a  theorist  his  suggestions  were  of  great  valu^^ 
and  contributed  to  introduce  that  revolution  in  the  science 
of  pathology,  which  subsequent  observation  has  extended 
and  confirmed.  His  doctrine  of  atony  and  spasm  in  the 
living  solid,  by  which  he  referred  all  internal  disorders  tQ 
some  ^^  preternatural  affection  of  the  nervous  system/* 
rather  than  to  the  morbid  derangements  and  qualities  of 
the  fluids,  first  tprned  the  attention  of  physicians  from  the 
mere  mechanical  and  chemical  operations  of  the  animal 
body  to  those  of  the  primary  moving  powers  of  the  living 
system.  To  Hoffmann  Dr.  Cuilen  acknowledges  the  obli-» 
gations  we  are  under  for  having  first  put  us  into  the  proper 
train  of  investigation ;  although  be  himself  did  not  apply 
bis  fundamental  doctrine  so  extensively  as  he  might  have 
done,  and  every  where  mixed  with  it  a  humoral  pathology 
as  incorrect  and  hypothetical  as  any  other.  Hoffmann  par"* 
sued  the  study  of  practical  chemistry  with  qonsiderable 
ardour,  and  improved  tbe  department  of  pharmacy  hy  thfi 

42  H  O-G  A  R  T  H. 

There  are  still  many  family  pictures  by  Hogarth  existing;^ 
in  the  style  of  serious  conversation -pieces.  What  the 
prices  of  his  portraits  were,  Mr.  Nichols  strove  in  vain  to 
discover ;  but  he  suspected  that  they  were  originally  very 
low,  as  the  persons  who  were  best  acquainted  with  them 
chose  to  be  silent  on  the  subject.  At  Rivenhali,  in  Essex^ 
the  seat  of  Mr.  Western,  is  a  family-picture,  by  Hogarth, 
of  Mr.  Western  and  his  mother,  chancellor  Hoadly,  arch- 
deacon Charles  Plumptre,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Cole  of  Milton 
BOfi'  Cambridge,  and  Mr.  Henry  Taylor,  the  curate  there 
173B.  In  the  gallery  of  Mr.  Cole  of  Milton,  was  also  a 
wbole-lipngth  picture  of  Mr.  Western  by  Hogarth,  a  striking 
resemblance.  He  is  drawn  sitting  in  his  fellow-commonei^^s 
habit,  and  si^uare  cap  with  a  gold  tassel,  in  his  chamber  at 
Clare-hall,  tuver  the  arch  towards  the  river ;  and  the  artist, 
lis  the  chimifey  could  not  be  expressed,  has  drawn  a  cat 
sitting  near  it,  agreeable  to  his  humour,  to  shew  the  situ* 
ation.  Mr.  Western's  mother,  whose  portrait  is  in  the  con- 
versation-piece at'Rivenhall,  was  a  daughter  of  sir  Anthony 

It  was  Hogarth's  custom  to  sketch  out  on  the  spot  any 
remarkable  face  which  particularly  struck  him,  and  of  which 
be  wished  to  preserve  the  remembrance.  A  gentleman 
informed  his  biographer,  that  being  once  with  him  at  the 
Bedford  coffee-house,  he  observed  him  drawing  something 
with  a  pencil  on  bis  nail.  Inquiring  what  had  been  his 
employment,  he  was  shewn  a  whimsical  countenance  of  a 
person  who  was  then  at  a  small  distance. 

It  iiappened  in  the  early  part  of  Hogarth's,  life,  that  a 
nobleman  who  was  uncommonly  ugly  and  deformed,  came 
to  sit  to  him  for  his  picture.  It  was  executed  with  a  skill 
that  did  honour  to  the  artist's  abilities ;  but  the  likeness 
was  rigidly  observed,  without  even  the  necessary  attention 
to  compliment  or  flattery.  The  peer,  disgusted  at  this 
coiitnterpart  of  his  dear  self,  never  once  thought  of  paying 
for  a  reflector  that  would  only  insult  him  with  his  de- 
formities. Some  time  was  suflered  to  elapse  before  the 
artist  applied  for  his  money;  but  afterwards  many  appli- 
cations were  made  by  him  (who  had  then  no  need  of  a 
banker)  for  payment,  but  without  success.  The  painter, 
however,  at  last  hit  upon  an  expedient  which  he  knew  must 
.alarm  the  nobleman's  pride,  and  by  that  means  answer  his 
purpose/  It  was  couched  in  the  following  card ;  ^'  Mr. 
Hogarth's  dutiful  respects  to  lord  >-*-— ^ ;  fiading  that  be 


does  not  faiean  to  have  the  picture  which  was  dr^Wn  for  hiin« 
is  informed  again  of  Mr.  H.'s  necessity  for  the  money ;  if, 
therefore,  his  lordship  does  not  send  for  it  in  three  days^; 
it  will  be  disposed  of,  with  the  addition  of  a  tail,  and  some 
other  little  appendages,  to  Mr.  Hare,  the  famous  wijd-beast 
man  ;  Mr.  H.  having  given  that  gentleman  a  conditional 
promise  of  it  for  an  exhibition  picture,  on  his  lordship's 
refusal.''  This  intimation  had  the  desired  effect.  The 
pictnre  was  sent  home,  and  committed  to  the  flames. 

Mr.  Walpole  has  remarked,  that  if  our  artist  ^^  indufged 
hiis  spirit  of  ridicule  in  personalities,  it  never  proceeded 
beyond  sketches  and  drawings,^'  and  wonders  **  that  her 
never,  without  intention,  delivered  the  very  features  of 
any  identical  person.''  But  this  elegant  writer,  who  may 
be  said,  to  have  received  his  education  in,  a  court,  had  per«> 
haps  few  opportunities  of  acquaintance  amMg  the  low 
popular  characters  with  which  Hogarth  occasionally  peopled 
his  scenes.  The  friend  who  contributed  this  remark,  was 
assured  by  an  ancient  gentleman  of  unquestionable  veracity 
and  acuteness  of  remark,  that  almost  all  the  personages 
who  attended  the  levee  of  the  Rake  were  undoubted  por* 
traits ;  and  that  in  <^  Southwark  Fair,^'  and  the  <'  Modern 
Midnight  Conversation,"  as  many  more  were  discoverable* 
In  the  former  plate  he  pointed  out  Essex  the  dancing* 
master ;  and  in  the  latter,  as  well  as  in  the  second  plate  to 
the  **  EUike's  Progress,"  Figg  the  prize-fighter.  He  men- 
tioned several  others  by  name,  from  his  immediate  know- 
ledge both  of  the  painter's  design  and  the  characters  re- 
presented ;  but  the  rest  of  the  particulars  by  which  he 
supported  bis  assertions,  have  escaped  the  memory  of  our 
informant.  While  Hogarth  was  painting  the  ^^  Rake's  Pro- 
gress," he  had  a  summer  residence  at  Islewortb,  and  never 
failed  to  question  the  company  who  came  to  see  these  pic- 
tures if  they  knew  for  whom  one  or  another  figure  was 
designed.    When  they  guessed  wrongly,  he  set  them  right 

The  duke  of  Leeds  has  an  original  scene  in  the  Beggars 
Opera,  painted  by  Hogarth.  It  is  that  in  which  Lucy  and 
Polly  are  on  their  knees  before  their  respective  fathers,  to 
intercede  for  the  life  of  the  hero  of  the  piece.  All  the 
figures  are  either  known  or  supposed  to  be  portraits.  If 
we  are  not  misinformed,  the  late  sir  Thomas  Robinsoti 
(better  known  perhaps  by  the  name  of 'long  sir  Thomas)  is 
standing  in  one  of  the  side-boxes.  Macheath,  unlike  his 
spruce  representative  on  our  present  stage,  is  a  slouching 


bully ;  aiid  Pally  appears  happily  discncumberedl  iff  svrdl 
a  hoop  as  the  daughter  of  Peachuitt  within  ih^  reach  of 
younger  tneoiories  has  f?orn.  The  dtike  gafe  35/«  for  this 
picture  at  Mr.  Rich's  auction.  Another  copy  of  tM  same 
scene  was  bought  by  the  late  Sir  Wiiiiam  Saunderson,  and 
is  now  in  the  possession  of  sir  Harry  Gough.  Mr.  Walpole 
has  a  picture  of  a  scene  in  the  same  piece,  where  Macheatb 
is  going  to  execution.  In  this  also  the  likenesses  of  Walker 
and  Miss  Fenton,  afterwards  duchess  of  Bolton  (the  original 
Macheatb  and  Polly)  are  preserve. 

In  the  year  1726,  when  the  aBair  of  Mary  Tofts,  tb* 
rabbtt-breederofGodalming,  engaged  the  public  attention^ 
a  few  of  the  principal  surgeons  subscribed  their  guinea 
a-piece  to  tiogeith,  for  an  engraving  from  a  ludicrous 
sketch  he  had  made  on  that  very  popular  subject.  This 
plate,  amongst  other  portraits,  contains  that  of  St.  AndriS^ 
then  anatomist  to  the  royal  household,  and  in  high  credit 
as  a  surgeon. 

In  1727,  Hogarth  agreed  with  Morris^  an  upbotsterer,  to 
furnish,  him  with  a  design  on  canvas,  representing  the  ele- 
ment of  earth,  as  a  pattern  for  tapei^tfy.  The  work  not 
being  performed  to  the  satisfaction  of  Morris,  he  refused 
to  pay  for  it,  and  the  artist,  by  a  suit  at  law,  recovered 
the  money^ 

In  17S0,  Hogarth  married  the  only  daughter  of  sir  James 
Tbornhill,  by  whom  he  had  no  child.  This  union^  indeed^ 
was  a  stolen  one,  and  consequently  without  the  approbation 
of  sir  James,  who,  considering  the  youth  of  his  daughter, 
then  barely  eighteen,  and  the  slender  Bnances  of  her  hus<- 
band,  as  yet  an  obscure  artist,  was  not  easily  reconciled  to 
^he  match.  Soon  after  this  period,  however,  he  began  his 
^^  Harlot's  Progress,"  and  was  advised  by  lady  Thornhill 
to  have  some  of  the  scenes  in  it  placed  in  the  way  of  his 
father-in-law.  Accordingly,  one  mortiing  early,  Mrs.  Ho- 
garth undertook  to  convey  several  of  tbem  into  his  dining- 
room.  When  be  arose,  he  inquired  whence  they  came ; 
and  being  told  by  whom  they  were  introduced,  he  cried 
out,  <*  Very  well ;  the  man  who  can  furnish  representatiotia 
like  these,  can  also  maintain  a  wife  without  a  portion."  He 
designed  this  remark  as  an  excuse  for  keeping  his  purse- 
strings  close ;  but,  soon  after,  became  both  reconciled  and 
generous  to  the  young  people.  An  allegorieal  cieling  by 
sir  James  Thornhill  is'at  the  bouse  of  the  iaie  Mn  Hoggins, 
at  Headly-park,  Hants.    The  Mibjeet  of  it  ia  the  story  of 


£epbyru9  and  Flora ;  and  the  figure  ef  a  satyr  and  smM 
others  were  painted  by  Hogartb. 

In  17S2  he  venlur^d  to  attack  Mr.  Pope,  in  a  plate  eaMed 
^  The  Man  ef  Taste,"  containing  a  Tiew  of  the  gate  ef 
BurlingtoR«house,  with  Pope  wbite«>washing  it,  and  be^ 
^Mtttering  the  duke  of  Chandos's  coach.  This  plate  was 
intended  as  a  satire  on  the  translator  of  Homer,  Mr.  Keoi 
the  architect,  and  the  earl  of  Burlington.  It  was  fortunate 
ibr  Hosarth  that  he  escaped  the  lash  of  the  first.  Either 
Hogarth's  obsourity  at  that  time  was  bis  protection,  or  the 
bara  was  too  prudent  to  exasperate  a  painter  who  had 
ahready  gi?ea  saeh  proof  of  his  abilities  for  satijre*  What 
must  he  have  felt  who  could  complain  of  the  ^pictured 
abape**^  prefixed  to  *^  GuUiveriana,'*  *'  Pope  Alexander^ 
Supreoiacy  and  InAtllibiNty  examined,^*  &e.  by  Ducket^ 
and  other  pieces^  bad  such  an  artist  as  Hogarth  undertaken 
to  express  a  certain  transaction  recorded  by  €ibber  >    • 

Soon  after  his  marriage,  Hogarth  bad  summer  iodgrings 
at  8out)i^ Lambeth;  and,  being  intimate  with  Mr.  Tyers, 
contributed' to  the  icnproTement  of  the  Spring  Gardens  at 
yauxhaW,  by  the  bint  ef  embeUisbtng  them  with  pamtings, 
some  of  whicb  were  the  suggestions  of  his  own  truly  comic 
penciL  Foe  his  assistance,  Mr.  Tyers  gratefuNy  presented 
kim  witb  a  gold  ticket  of  admission  foe  himself  and  bis 
friends,  inscribed 


This  ticket  remained  in  the  possession  of  his  widow,  and 
was  by  ber  oceasibnally  employed. 

lu  (7^3  bis  genius  became  coospieiiously  known.  The 
third  scene  (df  his  ^^Harlot^s  Progress,^*  introduced  him  to 
the  notice  of  the  great.  At  a  board  of  treasury  which  was 
held  a  day  ec  two^  aftef  the  appearance  of  that  print,  a 
copy  of  it  was  shewn  by  one  of  the  lords,  as  cpntadning, 
amon^  Other  excej|fenci€s,  a  striking  likeness  of  sir  Sohn 
Gonsoo.  It  gave  universal  satisfaction  :  from  the  treasury 
each  tordt  repaired  to  the  print- siiep  f^r  a  copy  of  it,  and 
Hogarth  rose  eompletel^jr  into  fame. 

The  ingeoious  abb^  du  Bos  has  often  complained',  that 
no  history- paki^ei?  of  his  time  went  through  a  aeries  of 
actions,  and  thus,  like  an<  historian,  painted  the  successire 
fortuue  of  an  hero,  from  the  cradle  to  the  ^ave.  What' 
Du^  Bos  wished  to  see  done,  Hogarth  performed.  He 
launches  out  his  young  adventurer  a  simpte:  girl  upon  the 
town,   and  conducts  her  through  ail  the  vicissitudes  of 


wretchedness  to  a  premature  death.  This  was  painting  to 
the  understanding  and  to  the  heart ;  none  had  ever  before 
made  the  pencil  subservient  to  the  purposes  of  morality 
and  instruction*;  a  book  like  this  is  fitted  to  every  soil  and 
every  observer,  and  he  that  runs  may  read.  Nor  was  the 
success  of  Hogarth  confined  to  his  figures.  One  of  his 
excellencies  consisted  in  what  may  be  termed  the  furniture 
of  his  pieces ;  for  as  in  sublime  and  historical  representa- 
tions the  seldomer  trivial  circumstances  are  permitted  to 
divide  the  spectator's  attention  from  the  principal  figures^ 
the  greater  is  their  force ;  so  in  scenes  copied  from  fitmiliar 
life^  a  proper  variety  of  little  domestic  images  contributes 
to  throw  a  d^ree  of  verisimilitude  on  the  whole.  ^'  The 
Rake's  levee- room,'*  says  Mr.  Walpole,  *^  the  nobleman'a 
dining-room,  the  apartments  of  the  husband  and  wife  in 
Marriage  a  la  Mode,  the  alderman's  parlour,  the  bed* 
chamber,  and  many  others,  are  the  history  of  the  manners 
of  the  age."  The  novelty  and  excellence  of  Hogarth's 
performances  soon  tempted  the  needy .  artist  and  print* 
dealer  to  avail  themselves  of  his  designs,  and  rob  him  of 
the  advantages  which  he  was  entitled  to  derive  from  them« 
This  was  particularly  the  case  with  the  ^^  Midnight  Con- 
versation," the  "  Harlot's"  and  ♦*  Rake's  Progresses,"  and 
Others  pf  his  early  works.  To  put  a  stop  to  depredations 
like  these  on  the  property  of  himself  and  others,  and  to 
secure  the  emoluments  resulting  from  his  own  labours,  as 
Mr.  Walpole  observes,  he  applied  to  the  legislature,  and 
obtained  an  act  of  parliament,  8  Geo.  II.  cap.  38,  to  vest 
an  exclusive  right  in  designers  and  engravers,  and  to  restrain 
the  multiplying  of  copies  of  their  works  without  the  con<? 
sent  of  the  artist.  This  statute  was  drawn  by  his  friend 
Mr.  Huggins,  who  took  for  his  model  the  eighth  of  queen 
Anne,  in  favour  of  literary  property ;  but  it  was  not  so 
accurately  executed  as  entirely  to  remedy  the  evil ;  for,  in 
a  cause  founded  on  it,  which  came  before  lord  Hardwicke 
in  chancery,  that  excellent  lawyer  determined,  that  no 
assignee,  claiming  under  an  assignment  from  the  original 
inventor,  could  take  any  benefit  by  it.  Hogarth,  imme- 
diately after  the  passing  of  the  act,  published  a  small 
print,  with  emblematical  devices,  and  an  inscription  ex* 
pressing  his  gratitu(|e  to  the  three  branches  of  the  legisla- 
ture. Small  copies  of  the  '.^  Rake's  Progress"  were  piib* 
lisbed  by  his  permission. 

HOGARTH.         ^  4» 

In  1745,  finding  that,  however  great  the  success  of  his 
prints  might  be,  the  public  were  not  indined  to  take  his 
pictures  oiF  his  hands,  he  was  induced  to  offer  some  of 
them,  and  those  of  the  best  he  had  then  produced,  for 
•disposal  by  way  of  auction  ;  but  after  a  plan  of  his  own, 
-viz.  by  keeping  open  a  book  to  receive  biddings  from  the 
^rst  day  of  February  to  the  last  day  of  the  same  month,  at 
12  o^clock.  The. ticket  of  admission  to  the  sale  was  his 
print  of  "  The  £attle  of  the  Pictures,"  a  humourous  pro^ 
Auction,  in  which  he  ingeniousJy  upheld  his  assertions 
concerning  the  preference  so  unfairly  given  to  old  pictures^ 
And  the  tricks  of  the  dealers  in  tbem. 
•    The  pictures  thus  disposed  of  were,  £.     s.   d. 

The  six  of  the  Harlot's  Progress,  for 88     4     0 

Eight  of  the  Rake's  Progress ;184  16     a 

Morning 21     0    O 

Noon 38   17     O 

Evening • 39  18     0 

Night , ^ 27     6     O 

Strolling  Players  dressing  in  a  Bam.. 27     6     O 

In  the  same  year  he  acquired  additional  reputation  by 
the  six  prints  of  ^^  Marriage  a  la  Mode,  which  may  be 
regarded  as  the  ground- work  of  a  novel  called  *'The  Mar- 
riage Act,"  by  Dr.  Sfaebbeare,  and  of  '^  The  Clandestine 

Hc^arth  had  prcgected  a  '^  Happy  Marriage,"  by  way  of 
counterpart  to  his  '^  Marriage  a  la  Mode.*'  A  desugn  for 
the  first  of  his  intended  six  plates  he  had  sketched  out  iu 
colours ;  and  the  following  is  as  accurate  an  account  of  it 
as  could  be  furnished  by  a  gentleman  who  long  ago  etgoyed 
only  a  few  minutes  sight  of  so  great  a  curiosity.  The  time 
supposed  was  immediately  after  the  return  of  the  parties 
from  church.  The  scene  lay  in  the  hall  of  an  antiquated 
country  mansion.  On  one  side  the  married  couple  were 
represented  sitting.  Behind  them  was  a  group  of  their 
young  friends  of  both  sexes,  in  the  act  of  breaking  bride* 
cake  over  their  heads.  In  front  appeare<|  the  father  of  the 
young  lady,  grasping  a  bumper,  and  drinking,  with  a 
seeming  roar  of  exultation,  to  the  future  happiness  of  her 
and  her  husband.  By  his  side  was  a  table,  covered  With 
refreshments.  Jollity  rather  than  politeness  ^Was  the  desig* 
nation  of  his  character.  Under  the  screen  of  the  hall, 
several  rustic. musicians  in  grotesque  attitudes,  together 
with  servants,  tenants,  &c.  were  arranged*    Through  the 


««  HO  Q  ART  tt 

ftrch  by  wfaicli  ttSe  room  was  enteibd^  tifae  eye  ira^  l^d  ^\bng 
m  pasfsige  into,  the  Idccheny  Wfaicli '  afforded  a  glimpse  of 
•acerdbtat  luxuty.  Before  tbie  dripping-pan  stood  a  well- 
fed  dif  ine,  in  his  gown  arid  cassock,  with  bis  watch  in  bis  ' 
Kand,  giving  directions  tor  a  cook,  dressed  ail  in  ^liite,  wb^ 
was  employed  in*  basting  a  bauncb  of  irenison.  Atpoh^ 
tbc^  faces  of  the  principal  figures,  none  but  Ibal  of  tbe 
young  lady  was  completely  finished.  Hogarth  bad  beefi 
ofcen  reproached  for  bis  inability  to  impart  gt'ace  and  dig- 
nity to  bis  heroines.  The  bride  was  tfaereforei  meari.t  tb 
i4ndicate  his  pencil  from  so  degrading  an  imputtation.  Th^ 
effort,  however,  was  unsuccessfuL  The  girLwas  certainlif^ 
preity ;  but  her  features,  if  we  may  use  the  term,  wer^ 
uneducated.  She  might  have  altractedtiotice  as  a  chamber- 
maid, but  would  bave  fajled  to  extort  applausle  as  a  vlbma^n 
of  fashion.  The  clergyman  and  bis  cuLLaary  associate  were 
more  laboured  tbaa  any  other  parts  of  the  picture.  It  isi 
natural  for  us  to  dwell  longest  on  that  division  of  a  subject 
which  is  most  congenial  to  our  private  feelings*  The 
painter  sat  down  with  a  resolution  to  delineate  beautj^ 
improved  by  art,  but  seems,  as  usual,  to  bave  deviated  into, 
ineanness,  or  could  not  help  neglecting  his  or^nal  pur- 
pose,  to  luxuriate  in  such  ideas  as  his  situation  in  early  life 
bad  fitted  him  to  express.  He  footid  himself,  in  abort. 
Out  of  his  element  in  the  parlour,  and  therefore  hastened 
in  quest  of  ease  and  amusement,  to  the  kitcbeo  iire.. 
ChuFC&ill,  with  more  force  than  delicacy,  once  observed 
of  him,  that  be  only  painted  the  backside  of  natitre.  X% 
most  be  allowed,  that  sock  an  artist,  however  excellent^n 
bis  vralb^  was  better  qualified  to  represeat  the  low-^borii 
parent  than  the  royal  preserver  of  a  foundlings. 

Soon  after  the  peace  of  Aix  la  Cbapelle,  be  t^nt  a^ver  t0 
France,  and  was  taken  into  custody  at  Calais,  wbi^be.was 
drawijig  the  gate  of  thail  towtt,  a  circumstanea  wbieb  he 
has;  reeqrded  in  his  picture  entitled  '^  O  the  Roast  Beef  of 
Old  England  !'*  published  March  96, 1749=.  He  was  mtaif. 
alty  carried  before  the  governor  as  a  spy,  and,,  after  a  Tery 
strict  examination,  committed  a  prisoner  to  Gransife,  hiei 
laiKilord,  on  hi»  promise  that  Hogarth  should  not  g^  oot  of. 
bis  house  till  he  was  to  embark  for  England.  .  Soon,  after 
tbift  period  he  purchased  a  small  house  at  Chiswick^  whete. 
be  usually  passed  the  greatest  part  of  tbesuamec  seasoo^ 
3ret  not  without  dccasioaal  vi^itato  kia  house  in  LeicaUear^ 

II  Q  O  A  H  T  H.  49 

.  Ifi  1753  be  uppttred  19  ibe  worid  in  the  character  4>f  aa 
Autbor^  and  published  a  4io  volume  entitled  **  The  Analysis 
pf  Beaucy^  written  with  .a  view  of  fixing  the  fluctuating 
ideas  of  Taste/*  In  this  performance  be  shews  by  a  variety 
Qf  examples!  that  a  curve  is  the  line  .of  beauty,  and  that 
round  swelling  figures  are  most  pleasing  to  the  eye  ;  and 
the  truth  of  bis  opinion  has  been  countenanced  by  subse*^ 
^uenl  writers  on  tbe  subject  In  this  v\ork|.  the  leading 
idea  pf  which  was  bieroglypbically  thrown  out  in  a  frontis* 
piece  to  his  works  in  1745,  he  acknowledges  himself  in- 
debted to  bis  friends  for  assistance^  and  particularly  to  one 
gentleman  for  his  corrections  and  amendments  of  at  leajst 
a  third  part  of  the  wording.  This  friend  was  Dr.  Benjamin 
Hoadiy  tbe  physician,  who  carried  on  the  work  to  about  tbe 
third  part  (chap,  ix  ),  and  theti,  through  indisposition,  de- 
clined the  friendly  office  with  regret.  Mr.  Hogarth  applied 
to  his  neighbour,  Mr.  Ralph ;  but  it  was  impossible  for  two 
such  persons  to  agree,  both  alike  vain  and  positive.  He 
proceeded  no  further  thaii  about  a  sheet,  and  they  then 
parted  friends,  and  seem  .to  have  continued  such.  7*he 
kind  office  of  finishing  the  work  and  superintending  the^ 
publication  was  lastly  taken  up  by  Dr.  Morell,  who  went 
through  the  remainder  of  the  book.  The  preface  was  iu 
like  manner  corrected  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  TownIt*y.  The; 
family  of  Hogarth  rejoiced  when  the  last  sheet,  of  the 
**  Anaiys^*^  was  printed  off;  as  the  frequent  disputes  he 
had  wiUi  bis  coadjutors  in  the  progress  of  the  work,  did 
not  oiucb  harmonize  his  disposition.  This  work  was  trans- 
lated into  German  by  Mr.  Mylins,  when  in  England,  under 
tbe  author's  inspection ;  and  the  translation  was  printed  in 
London,  price  five  dollars.  A  new  and  correct  edition 
was,  in  1754,  proposed  for  publication  at  Berlin,  by  Ch. 
Fn  Vok,  with  an  explanation  of  Mr.  Hogarth's  satirical 
prints,  translated  from  the  French ;  and  an  Italian  transia*  ^ 
tion  was  published  at  Leghorn  in  1761. 

Hogarth  had  one  failing  in  common  with  most  people  who 
attain  wealth  and  eminence  without  the  aid  of  liberal  ed.u« 
cation.  He  affected  to  despise  every  kind  of  knowledge 
which  he  did  not  possess.  Having  established  his  fiime 
with  little  or  no  obligation  to  literature,  he  either  conceived 
it  to  be  needless,  or  decried  it  because  it  lay  out  of  his^ 
reach.  His  seiitiments,  in  short,  resembled  those  of  Jack 
Cade,  who  pronounced  sentence  on  the  clerl^  of  Chatham,, 
because  \ie  could  write  and  read.    Tilj,  in  evil  hour,  thia 

Vou  XVIIL  E 


so  RO  O  ikIt'Plll 

eelellirated  artist  coiiraneiiced  author,  and  #a»' obligecTtO 
employ  tbe  friends  already  inerftiofied  to  coFre<:t  bis  f^  Ana^ 
lysis  of  Beauty,^'  he  dld-not  s^em  to  havediscovere^d  thiaM 
even  spelHng  was  a  neeei^sary  qiialifioatiou ;  and  yet  be 
had  vetHured  to  ridi€ule>the  late  Mr.  Rich's  deficieificy  as 
t6  tlhis  particular,  in  a  n^te  irhicb  iies  before  the  *ItsLke 
whose  play  is  refused  while  he  remains  iiv  eonfiiicaieiit  fol^ 
debt.  Before  tbe  time  o# 'which  we  are  liow  sp^akitfigy  Otfie 
of  our  artist's  cooinion  topics  of  declamation,' was  the  use-^ 
lessness  of' books  to  a  man  of  bis  profession.  In  ^Beer^ 
^reel,  among  other  volumes  consigned  by  him  to  tbe 
pastry-eook,  we  find  ^^TurnbuU  on  Ancient  Painting,''  m 
freattse  which  Hogarth  should  have  been  able  to  under- 
stand  before  he  ventured  to  condemii.  Garrtch  himseliv 
however,  was  not  more  ductile  to  flattery.  A  word  in- 
&vour  of  Sigismunda^"  might  have  coc^maoded  a  proof 
print,  or  forced  an  original  sketch  out  of  our  artist's  hands.- 
The  person  who  supplied  this  remark  owed  one  of  Hogarth's; 
scarcest  performances  to  the  success  of  a  compliment^ 
which  nHght  have  seemed  extravagant  even  to  sir  Godfreys 

The  following  well-authenticated  story  will  also  serve  ta. 
shew  how  much  more  easy  it  is  to  detect  ill-placed  or  hy« 
perbohoal  adulation  respecting  others,  than  when  applied 
to  ourselves.  Hogarth  being  at  dinner  with  the  celebrated 
Cheselden,  and  some  other  company,  was  told  .that  Mr.* 
John  Freke,  surgeon  of  St.  Bartholomew's  hospital^  a  few* 
evenings  before  at  Dick's  coffee-house,  had  asserted  tHab^ 
Greene  was  as  eminent  in  composition  as  Handel.  ^<  That- 
fellow  Freke,"  replied  Hogarm,  ^^  is  always  shooting  bis^ 
bolt  absurdly  one  way  or  another !  Hafidel  is  a  giant  ii^ 
music ;  Greene  only  a  tight  Florimel  kind  of  a  compjoser.'^ 
— **  Ay,*'  said  the  informant,  "  but  at  the  same  time  Mr* 
Freke  declared  you  were  as  good  a  portrait-^painter  a» 
Vandyck." — "  There  he  was  in  the  right,'?  adds  Hogarth  v 
*  **  aiid  so  I  am,  give  me  my  time,  and  let  me  choose  my 

Hogarth  was  the  most  absent  of  men.  At  table  he  wouid- 
•sometimes  turn  round  his  chair  as  if  he  had  finished  eat* 
ing,  and  as  suddenly  would  return  it,  and  commencie  hi» 
meal  again.  He  once  directed  a  letter  to  Dr.  Hoadly, 
thus:  "To  the  Doctor  at  Chelsea."  This  epistle,  how- 
ever, by  good  luck,  did  not  miscarry ;  and  was  preserved" 
hj  the  late  chancellor  of  Winchester^  as  a  plea&ant  memo^ 

hooarth:  St 

ml  of  his  fnend't  extraoirdiiiliry  itmlteatioti.  Awkhet  ire^^ 
markafate  instance  of  Hogarth's  absence  was  rekited  by  006 
of  bis  intimate  friendsi  8oon  after  he  aet  up  his  camage^^ 
he  had  occasion  to  paya  visift  to  the  lord-mayor^  Mr.  Btek-" 
ibrd.  When,  he  went^  the  vreatfaer  was  fine ;  but  bustn^a* 
detained^ him  till  a  violent  shower  of  rain  came  on.  H^* 
was  let  cot  of  the  mansion-house  foy  a  different  door  from 
diat  at  which' he  entered ;  and,  seeing  the  rain,  began  im<^' 
niediatelj  to  oati  for  a  haokney-<coacb.  Not  one  was  to  be' 
met  with  on  any  of  the  neighbouring  stands ;  and  the  ar-^ 
dst  sallied  Forth  to  brave  the  storm,  and  actuaOy  reached 
Leicester- fielda  without  bestowing  a  thought  oh  bis  own* 
carriage)  till  Mrs;  Hogarth  (surprised  to  see.  him  so  wet; 
aad  splashed)  asked  him  where  be  had  left  it. 
-  A  specimen  of  Hogarth^s  propensitf  to  merriment,  on 
the  most  trivial  occasions,  is  observable  in  one  of  bis'tsards' 
requesting  the  coQipany  of  Dr.  Arnold  King  to  dine  with 
bioi'  at  the  Mitre.  Within  a  circle,  to  which  a  knife  and 
fork  are  the  supporters,  tb^  written  part  is  contained*  In 
the  centre-  is  drawn  a  pye«  with  a  mitre  on  the  top  of  it ; 
and  the  invitation  concludes  with  the  following  sport  on 
three  of*  the  Greek  lettenn^to  Eta  Beta  Pi.  The  rest  of 
the  inacriptioo  is  not  very  accurately  spelt  A  quibble  by 
Hogaitb  is  surely  as  respectable  as  a  conundrum  by  Swift. 

In  one  of  the'  early  exhibitions  at  Spring-gardens,  a  very 
pleasing  amaU  picture  by  Hogarth  made  its  first  appear- 
ance. It  was  painted  for  the  earl  of  Cbarlemont,  in  whose 
coUectiein'itrefimna;  and  was  entitled  ''  Picquet,  or  Virtue  in 
Danger,^'  and  shews usayounglady,  who,  during  a /^^^-d-^^le;, 
had  just  losf  all  her  money  and  jewels  to  a  handsome  officer 
of  her  own  age.  He  is  represented  in  the  act  of  offering  hef 
the  contents  of  his  hat,,  in  which  are  bank-notes,  jewels,  and 
trinkets,  with  the'  hope  of  exchan^ng  them  for  a  softer 
acquisition,  and  more'd^licate  plunder.  On  the  chimney-' 
piece  a  wacch*case  and  a  figure  of  Time  over  it,  with  tbia 
motto — ^NUNCc  Hogarth  has  caught  his  heroine  during 
this  moment  of  hesitation,  this  struggle  with  herself,  and 
has  marked  her  feelings  with  uncommon  success. 

In  the  **  MiaerS  Feast,"  Mr.  Hogarth  thought  proper 
to  pillory  an" Isaac  Shard,  a  gentleman  proverbially  avari- 
eioas.  'Hearing  this,  the  son  of  sir  Isaac,  tb^  late  Isaac? 
KadltUB  Siiard,esq.  a  young  man  of  spirit,  just  returned 
from  bis  tcoveis,  calfedat  the  painter^s  to  see  the  picture ; 

wz  HO  &  A  B  T  H. 

and  tellong  the  retti  Mkipg  the  Cicerone  <*  wbedier  tbiit 
odd  figure  was  intended  for  any  particular  person  ^J*  oil 
his  replying,  '*  that  it  was  tbdught  to  be  very  like  one  sir 
.Ispac  Shard,**  he  imoiediately  drew  bis  sword,  find  slashed 
the  canvas  Hogarth  appeajred  insuntly  in  great  wrath ; 
tp  whom  Mr.  Sbajrd  calmly  justified  what  he  had  donci  say* 
ipg,  *<  that  this  was  a  very  unwarrantable  lijcence  \  that 
he  was  the  injured  party's  son,  and  that  he  was  ready  to 
defend  any  suit  at  law ;''  which,  however,  was  never  insti- 

.  About  1757,  his  brodier-ip*law,  Mr.  ThombiU,  resigned 
the  plaiee  of  king's  seijeant-painter  in  favour,  of  Mr.  Ho- 
garth«    '*  The  last  memorable  event  in  our  artist's  Jife,'^  as 
Mn  Walpole  observes*  '*  was  his  quarrel  with  Mr.  Wilkei, 
in  wbich^  if  Mr.  Hogarth  did  not  commence  direct  bpstili* 
ties  on  the  latter,  he  at  least  obliquelv  gave  the  first  of** 
fence,  by >n  attack,  oq  the  friends  and  party  of  that  geu* 
tleman.    This  conduct  was  the  more  surprising,  as  he  bad 
all  his  life  avoided  dipping  his  pencil  in  political  contests, 
and  had  early  refused  a  very  lucrative  offer  that  was  made, 
to  engage  him  iu  a  set  of  prints  against  the  head  of  a  court- 
party*    Without  eotmng  into  the  merits  of  the  cause^  I 
shall  only  state  the  fact,    in  September  1762^  Mr.  Hogarth 
published  his  print  of  f  The  Times.'     It  was  answiered  by 
Mr.  Wilkes  in  a  severe  ^  North  Briton.*  On  this  the  painter 
exhibited  the  caricatura  of  the  writer.    Mr.  Chiircblll,  the 
poet,  then  engaged  in  the  war,  and  wrote  his  ^  Epistle  to 
Hogarth,'  not  the  brightest  of  bis  works,  and  in  which  the 
severest  strokes  fell  on  a  defect  tbat  the  painter  had  nei- 
ther caused  nor  could  amend— rhis  age  \  and  which,  how- 
ever, was  neither  remarkable  nor  decrepit ;  much  less  had 
it  impaired  his  talenu,  as  appeared  by  bis  having  composed 
but  six  months  before,  one  of  his  most  capital  works,  the 
sadre  on.  the  Metbodii^ts.    In  revenge  for  this  epistle^  Ho- 
garth caricatured  Churchill,  under  the  form  of  a  canonical 
bear,  with  a  club  and  a  pot  of  porter— >1C  vi/u/^  tu  dignus 
K  Aic—* never  did  two  angry  men  of  their  abilities  throw 
mud  with  less  dexterity. 

:  <*  When  Mr.  Wilkes  was  the  second  time  brought  from 
the  Tower  to  Westminster^ball,  Mr.  Ho|pdrth  skulked  be* 
hind  in  a  corner  of  the  gallery  of  the  court  of  Common 
Pleas ;  and  while  the  chief  justice  Pratt,  with  the  elo« 
quence  and  courage  of  old  Rome,  was  enforcing  the  great 

ttaGABTa  53 

jpKoeipIes  of  Magna  Ghana,  and  the  English  constitution^ 
while  every  breast  from  htm  cau^t  the  holy  flame  of  li- 
berty, the  painter  was  wholly  employed  in  caricatuiing 
the  person  of  the  man,  while  all  the  rest  of  his  fellow* 
citizens  were  animated  in  his  cause,  for  they  knew  it  to 
be  their  own  cause,  that  of  tlieir  country,  and  of  its  laws. 
It  was  declared  to  be  so  a  few  hours  after  by  the  unanimous 
sentence  of  the  judges  of  that  court,  and  they  were  all 

''  The  print  of  Mr.  Wilkes  was  soon  after  published, 
irwwnjtom  the  l^e  by  William  Hogarth,  It  must  be  al- 
lowed^ to  be  an  excellent  compound  caricatura,  or  a  cariea* 
tura  of  what  nature  bad  already  caricatured.'    I  know  but 

'  one  sbort  apology  that  can  be  made  for  thi$'gentleman,  or, 
to  speak  more  properly,  for  the  person  of  Mr.  Wilkes.    It 

'  is/  that  he  did  not  make  himself,  and  that  he  never  waa 
solicitous  about  the  case  of  his  soul,  as  Sh^d^spealHe  calls  It, 
only  so  far  as  to  keep  it  clean  and  in  health,  \  xkexet  beard 
that  he  once  hung  over  the  gUs^  stream,  like  another 
Narcissus,  admiring  the  image  in  it,  nor  that  he  ever  stole 
an  amorous  look  at  his  counterfeit  in  a  side  mirrdur.  His 
formi  such  as  it  is^  ought  X^  give  bin)'  nd  pain,  because  i( 
is  capable  of  giving  pleasure  to  othersi  I  f^ney  he  finds 
fainiseif  tolerably  happy  in  the  clay-cottage  tb  which  be  is 
tenant  for  life,  because  he  has  leartit  to  keep  it  in  good 
jlrd^r.  While  the  share  bf  health  anil  animal  spirits,  which 
h^ven  hsM  giveii  him,  sh^aUbold  out^  I  icah  scarcely  ima* 
gine  he  wiirbe  one  inoinent  peevish  about  the  outside  of 
so  precarious^'  so  temporary  a  habitation,  or  will  even  be 
brought  to  own,  tn^mium  Cdlta  male  habitat.  Monsieur 

'^*  Mr.  Churchill  was  exasperated  at^  this  personal  attack 
on  his  friend.  H^  soon  alter  published  the  *  Epistle  to 
Wilfilun  Hogarth,'  and'tobk'  for  the  motto,  ut  pietura pdesin 
Mr.  Hogarth's  t^Y&i^e  against  the  po^t  teritiinatrid*  in, 

'  vad(^^if)g  lip  an  old  print  of  a  ptig-dog  ai\d  a.  bear,  which 

■   he  published  under  the  title  of  ^  The  Bruiser  C.  Churchill 
(once  the  Revd.!)'  in  the  character  Qfa^  Russian  Hercules. 

At  .the  time  when  these  hostilities  ^ere  carrying  on  ip^  ^ 

;i^nii|er  s^^  Vir^ilent  and  disgraceful  to  all  the  parties,  Ha-> 

^"' 1^1^  Wsis  v^^      declining  in  bis  health.     In  1762,  ho 

''  cdmpiaShed  of  an  inward  pain,  wbicb>  continuingi  brought 

M  H  O  G  A  E  T  U. 

on  a  general  decay  that  proved  incurable  *.  This  I  ast  year 
of  his  life  be  employed  in  re-toucbing  bis  plates,  witli  the 
assistance  of  several  engravers  whom  be  took  with  him  to 
Chiswick.  Oct.  25,  17.64,  he  was  conveyed  from,  theilce 
to  Leicester-6elds,  in  a  very  weak  couditioiH  yet  remark* 
ably  cheerful ;  and^  receiving  an' agreeable  letter  from  the 
American  Dr.  Franklin,  drew  op  a  rough  *  draught  of  an 
answer  to  it ;  but  going  to  bed,  be  was  seized  with  a 
Vomiting;  upon  which  he  ruog  his  bell  with  such  violence 
that  he  broke  it,  and  expired  about  two  hours  afterwards, 
'His  disorder  was  an  aneurism ;  and  his  corpse  was  interred 
in,  the  church-yard  at  Chiswick,  where  a  monument  is 
erected  to  his  memory,  with  an  inscription  by  his  friend 
'Mr.  Garrick. 

',  It  may  be  truly  observed  of  Hogarth,  that  all  his  powers 
!6f  delighting  were  restrained  to  his  pencil*  Having  rarely 
been  admitted  into  polite  circles,  none  of  his  sharp  corners 
liad  been  rubbed  off,  so  that  he  continued  to  the  last  a 
gross  uncultivated  man.  The  slightest  oootradictioa  trans- 
jported  him  into  rage.  To  some  confidence  in  himself  be 
was  certainly  entitled ;  for,  as  a  comic  painter,  he  could 
iave  claimed  no  honour  that  would  not  'most  readily  have 
lieen  allowed,  him  ;  but  he  was  at  once  unprincipled  and 
Variable  in  his  political  conduct  and  attachments.  He  is 
j^lso  said  to  have  beheld  the  rising  eminence  and  p(q>a- 
larity  of  sir  Joshua  Reynolds  with  a  di&gree  of  envy ;  and, 
if  we  are  not  misinforo^ed,  frequently  spoke  with  asperity 
|)oth  of  him  and  his  performances..  Justice,  however,  ob- 
liges us  to  add,  that  our  artist  was  liberal,  hospitable,  and 
the  most  pdnctual  of  paymasters ;  so  that,  in  spite  of  the 
emoluments  his  works  had  procured  to  him,  he  left  but  an 
inconsiderable  fortune  to  his  widow.     His  plates  indeed 

^  It  maybe  worth  obsenring,  that  ed  in  November  1764,  the  compiler  of 

in  *'  Ivdependeoce,"  a  poem  whfch  was  this  artrcle  took  occasion  to  Inment  that 
not  published  by  Churchill  tiU  U|e  last         "  -^— ^Seavee  bad  Ae  friendly  tear, 

week 'of  September  1764,  he  con<<iders  For  Hogarth.shed,  escaped  the  generoua 
his  antagonist  as  a  departed  Oenitis  ;  '   eye 

^  ^ogarth  WDuFd  draw  him  (Envy  jnnst  Of  feeling  PUy ,  when  again  h  flow*t] 

allow)                            [now.*'  F«r  Cburohill*!  fate.    Ill  can  we 

JPin  to' the  life,  wa$  Hogarth  liyinc.  '  the  loss'                           [ally'd 

How  little  did  the  sportive  satirist  ima-  Of  Fancy's  twin-bom  offspring,  close 

gine  the  power  of  pleasing  was  so  soop  In  enev|^  of  thought,  tboogh  dUTerent 

to  cease  in  both  \  Hogarth  died  in  four  paths               Tpassions  sway'd 

weeks  after  the  publication  of  this  pdem;  They  sought  for  fame  f  Though  jarring 

and  Churchill  surviv^  bim  but  nine  The  living  artists,  let  the  funeral  wreath 

flays.   In  some  lioM  which  were  pnat-  UuUcf  their  mtwory  I" 

HOG  A  R  T  H.  ;A5 

were  fpch-jcesqacces  ^ o  ber  ^b  could  not  speedily  be  ex- 
bf^Qst^d.  I  Sw^  ^  ^is  domestics  bad  lived  many  years  in 
Jiis  serviq^i  a  ^ircunisMLnce  ibat  always  reflects  credit  on-^ 
oaast^i^. .  Of  most  of  these  be  painted  strong  likenesses^  o^ 
a  csuivaf  .wbicb  was  lefy  in  Mrs.  Hogarth's  possession. 
.  His  widow  had  al#Q  ^  portrait  of  ber  husband,  and  |in  ex- 
•CQllent  bust  of  him  by  lio^biUiac,  a  strong  resemblance  ; 
i^d  i»ae  of;  bis  brotber^ip-ipiwi  Mr.  Tbornhill,  much  resenv- 
JbUeg  the  countenance  of  Mrs.  Hogarth  Si^veral  of  his 
portraits  also  remaine^din  ber  possession,  but  at  ber  death 
were  disperseicU 

OC  Hogarth's  smi^Uer  plates  many  were  destroyed.  When 
be  W9Pt€^d  a  piece  .of  copper  on  a  sudden^  he  would  take 
any  plate  from .  which ,  he  had  already  worked  off  such  a 
,niimb(^  of  impressipos  as  be  supposed  be  should  sell.  He 
then  seii^  it  to  be  effaced,  beat  out,  or  otherwise  altered 
.to  his-  pr^seiS^  purp^e^ 

The  fpUt^.  whiph  remained  in  bis  possession  were  se-^ 
cor^d  itojMr^  Hogarth  by, his  will,  dated  Aug.  12,  1764^ 
chargeable  wiib  .&u  it^iniiity  of  80/,  to  his  sister  Anne,  who 
surviy^  bioi.  Wh^u^  on  the  dei^  of  his  other  sister,  she 
left  off  the.  business  in.  which  she  was  engaged,  be  kindly 
took  bet  home,  and  generously  supported  her,  making  her, 
at  the  s.aoie  Ume,  useful  in  the  disposal  of  bis  prints^  Want 
.of  teod^B^ss  and  liberality  to  his  relations  was  not  amon^ 
,tbe  failings,  of  Hogarth^ 

In  .174$»  one  Lauocdiot  Burton  was  appointed  naval 
officer  at  QeaU  Hogarth  had  seen  him  by  accident;  and 
on  a  pie^e,^  pape(|  .previc^usiy  impressed  by  a  pl^in  cop- 
per •platj^|:. -drew  bis  %ure  with  a  pen  in.  imitation  of  a 
coarse  etpbing.  He  w^g  represented  on  a  lean  Canterbury 
haoky  with  ^  ^ot^le  sticking,  out  of  hia  pocket;  and  uitder*' 
Death,  wf^  'an  inscription^  intimating  that  he  was  going  ^ 
doilv'n. to. take, possess! (H).pfbi$. place..  This  was  inclosed  to 
bim  in  '.a. letter ;  and,,sQme  of  bis  friends^  who  were  in.the 
seereti  protested  the  drawing  to  be  a  print  wbich  they  bad 
seen  i«xpp$^d  ly>  sale  at  the:sbops  in  London ;  a  cir^iii^ir 
stance. tb^. p^t  bitn  in  a  vi<>lent  passion,  during  whigh  bf. 
wrptCiW  Abjiiilive  letter  to. Hogarth,  wbosQ  miin^e  was^ub«- 
Bcrib^d  ibo  tbe  work*  Put,.af^^  po^r.'^non's  tormentors 
badtopt  bim  in.suspepsethrpugbout  an, uneasy  three  weeks, 
tbey^rdi^^dt^o  him  tbajc  it  w#s  no  engravir)gi.  but  a  sketeb 
with  a  jpienk  (kOtl  ink.  .  He  then  became  so  perfectly  reoon* 
ipiied  to  bi»  re«ettibbiiH^|  jbteftt  be  sbewQ^  it  with  e^iUatioa 


to  admiral  Vernon,  and  aU  the  res^  of  bU  fiiendg;  lo  195  9^ 
Hogarth  returning  with  a  firiend  from  a  visit  to  Mn  Rich 
at  Cowley,  stopped  bis  chariot,  and  get  out,  being  ^uck 
by  a  large  drawing  (with  a  coal)  on  the  wail  of  an  alehouse^ 
He  immediately  made  a  sketch  of  it  with  tfiiim|lb ;  it  was 
a  St.  Gt  orge  and  the  Dri^on^  all  in  straight  iiiies. 

Hogarth  made  one  essay  in  scolpiiirew    He  wanted  a 

sign  to  distinguish  his  boose  in  Leieoi^er'rfieldt ;  and  tfaink^ 

ing  none  more  proper  than  the  Grotden  Bead,  he  out  of  a 

mass  of  corlfL  made  up.of  severai  thicknesses  compacted  tOr 

gether,  carved  a  bust  of  Vandyck,   which  be  gilt  end 

pimped  over  his  door.     It  decayed,  and  was -succeeded  by 

a  head  in  plaster,  which  in  its  turn  was  supplied  k^y  a  heoSd 

of  sir  Isaac  Newton.     H/:>garth  also  moiielled  another  re« 

semblance  of  Vaiid)  ck  in  cUy ;  which  has  also  perisbedi 

His  works,  as  lus  elegant  biogmpher  has  well  o4iserved|  are 

bis  history;  and  the  curioMS  are  highly  indebted  to  Mhr« 

Walpole  ibr.  a  catalogue  of  bis  printi^,  drawn  t^p  from-  his 

own  valuable  collection,  in  177i*    Bui  as  neither  that  ea^ 

talogue,  nor  iiis  appendix  to  it  in  1 780,  have  given  tbe 

whole  of  Mn-Hogartb*s  labours,  Mr.  Nicbolsi  including 

Mr.  Walpole-s  c^aJoguC)  has  endeavoured,  f^om  later  4^is«« 

eoveries  of  our  artistes  prints  in  other  colief|ioH&,  to  ar^ 

range  them  in  chroooiogical  order.    IPbere  are  three  large 

pictures  by  Hogartht  Over  the  ^tarin  the  ebureb^  of  Sli 

Mary  Redcliff  at  6i:ialol.  .  Mr.  Forrest,  of  York4>uilding9^ 

was  in  possession  of  a  sketch  in  oil  ofourf>avioiir(<1esigrfced 

as  a  pattern  for  painted  glass) ;  and  several  drawings  do* 

scriptive  of  the  incidents  th$ithappeaed  during  a  five  days^<: 

tour  by  land  and  water    Tbe  parties  ^ere  Messrs.  Hoga#tfa^{ 

Tbornhill  (son  of  the  late  sir  James),  Scott  .{an  tngeniooa 

landseape-'painter  of  that  name),  Tothall, .  and  ^  forresfe 

They  set  out  at  midnight^  at  a  moment^s  werniiigy  ff!om> 

the  Bedford-Arms  uvero*  with  each  a  shirt,  in  his  pocket^l 

They  had  all  their  particular  departments^.    Hcfpanb  ^and* 

Scott  made  the  drawings;  Tbornhill  the  ma|pi;.TotbaU: 

faithfully  dtscbarged  the  joint  offices  q$  tireasiirer.and  et^s 

terer;  and  Forrest  wrote  the  journal    They  were^ont  fivo^ 

days  only  ;  and  on  the  second  night  after  their  retarD^-ibtf^ 

book  was  produced,  bound,  gilt,  and  lettered,  and  iread^ 

at  the  same  tavern  to  the  above  parties  tb^  present^^ 

Mr.  Forresit  had  also  drawings  of  two  of  the  m€Hp))^ll»Li^  i^ 

markably  fat  men,  in  ludit;rous  situations.     Etchings  from 

all  these  have  been  inade^aad'fbelotirnat-^  been  printed^ 

H  0  G  A  R  t  B.  ij 

A  i^«iy*efilertmdiig  woric,  bjr  Mr.  John  Iriel^lid^^entitle^ 
^<  Hpl^nbilhMtfaiedt^  was  ptrblished  by  Metsrs.  Boydet^t 
ia  1799,  wld'iits^shide  been  reprinted:  It  conUins  tiiife 
MoaHrplatdi  wiginalty  engraved  for  %  ptrltry  work,  calte<i 
^^  Ht^Mk  moidiixed/'  and  aa*  «itact  aecoutit  of  all  iriii 
prints.  9ilice  that,  ^  bav«  appcfared  ^  Grapbic  illastration^ 
^f'^Hopnrtta}  -from  (nottfres,  4trawtngs,  and  scarce  prints,  in 
tile  posseision^of  ^MAoel  IretamI/'  Some  curious  articled 
were  Gonuined  in  this  votume.  A  sopplementary  volinne 
%cr<^  Uogxnk  tlhistrated,*^  has  more  recently  appeared,  con* 
tainiiig  the"^ original  mannsertpt  of  the  Analysis,  with  tb^ 
iS^t  sketebes  of  the  figiures.'  2.  A  Supplemem  to  the  Ana^ 
}ysia,  ^e^er  flablisbed.  >'  3.  Original  Memdranda.  4.  Ma<^ 
teriads  Ibr'bik  ^own  Life,  &c.  But  the  most  ample  Me* 
Inoirs  of  Hogarth  ^  are  conuifned  in  Mr.  Nichols's  spiendidt 
poblication  of  bis  life  sind  works,  2  toIs.  Ai<r^  with  cbpies 
of  all  bis  ptetes  accurately  redo^ed.*  Z 

HOLBEIN  {IcmN),  better  known  by  bis  €^rma|[i  nailiift 
Hans  HolbefR)  a  ifiost  excetient  painter,  wis  born,  accord^ 
faig  to  some  accounts,  at  BAsil  in  Switsserland  in  1498,  hii 
Charles  Patin  places  bis  birth  three  years  earlier,  supposin^^ 
k  tBeryimproteil^e  that  he  cotrid  have  arrived  at  such  ma^ 
tority  of  jmlgment  and '  perfection  in  painting,  as  be  shewed 
m  1514  and  IS  re,  if  be  had  been  bom  so  late  as  1498? 
He  learned  tfye  rudiments  of  Us  ^trt  from  bts  father  Johii! 
IJoMbN^n,' Who  was  a  paititer,  and  badiremoved  from  Augs«^ 
burg.,  to  Basifl ;  but  the  sufiertority  of  his  genius  soon  raised 
bbn  above  his  master.  He  painted  out  SaViour^s  Passiott 
ih  the  tewn-konse  of  Basil ;  and  in  the  fish-market  of  the 
saltier toiii^,a^  Dance  tyf  peasants,  and  Deatb^s  dance.  Tbescf 
pieces  were  ekceediilgly  "striking  to  the  curious ;  and  £ras» 
mus  wat  so  affe<Sted  with  them,  that  be  requested  of  hii&; 
to  Arturhis  picture,  and  was  ever  after  his  friend.  HbU 
bdn,  vi  the  me^n  time,  though  a  great  genius  and  fine  s(r 
tfsfe,  had^  wo  ^gaiice  or  delicacy  of  tnanners,  but  was  gtveit 
tii'-wine  and-' ve veiling  company;  for  which  be  met  with 
tbe>M)owing  getitle  rebuke  fh>m  Erasmus;  When  Eras*^ 
laaa  wrote  his  ^  Moii»  Bncdtnium,^  or  **  Pan^ric  upon 
Solly,^  iie  sent-a  eopy  of  it  to  Hans  Holbein,'  who  was  so 
iAe»ieA*w4tb  tbe  several  deikcriptions  of  foHy  there  given,- 
tfalat^^e'4es«gn^d  them  all  in  the  margiti;*  and  where  be 
bad>  net  YMm  to  draw  the  wholi  figures,  p«i^ed  h  |>iece  of 


«»  9  9  I-  B  E  IN. 

paper  to  the  leayes.  He  <tlien  (returned  \\ie  book  to  Era^ 
musy  who  seeing  that  he  had  xejpresented  an  amorous  fo^I 
by  the  figure  of  a  fatJDutch  lovef»  hugging  bis  bottle  and 
his  lass,  wrote  under  it,  *'  Hans  JHolbein,"  and  so  sent  it 
iback  to  the  painter.  Holbein^  l^ow^ver,  .t;o  be  revenged 
of  hin»^  drew  the  picture  of  Erasmusfor  ^.oiusty  book- worm, 
v^ho  busied  himself  in  scraping  together  old  MSS.  and  an^ 
ticjuities,  and  wrote  under  it  f'  Adagia.^*      , 

It  is  said,  that  an  English  nobleman,  who  accidentally 
saw  some  of  Holbein's  pprform^nces  at  Basil,  invited  him 
to  come  to  England,  where  his  art  was  in  high  esteein ;  and 
promised  him  great  encouragenaent  from  Henry  VIII. ;  but 
Holbein  was  too  much  engage^l  in  his  plea&ures  to  listen  to 
so  advantageous  a  proposal.'  .  A  few  years  after,  however, 
moved  by  the,i|ecessit»es^to  yvhich  ^n  increased  family  ancl 
Eis  own  mismanagement  had  reduced  him,  as  well  as  by 
the  persuasions  of  his  friend  Erasmus,  who  told  him  hovif 
improper,  a  country  his  own  was  to  do  justice  to  km  merit, 
he  consented  to  go  to  Epgland  :  aiul  he  consented  the  more 
readily,^,  as  he  did  not  live  on  the  happiest  terms  with  hi$ 
wife,  who  is  said  to  have  been  a. termagant.  In  bis  journey 
thither .  he,  stayed  some  days,  at  Strasburg,  and  applying  to 
a  very  great  master  in  rtb^at  city  for  work,  was  taken  in, 
and  ordered  tq  give  a  specimen  of  hi3.  skill.  Holbein 
finished  a  piece  with  great^  care,  and  paint^  a  fly  upoii 
the  most  conspicuous  part  of  it ;  after  which  he  withdrew 
privily  in  the  absence  Qf  his  master,  and  pursued  his  jour« 
ney.  .When  the  painter  returned  home,  be  was  astonished 
at  the  beauty  and  elegance  of  the, drawing ;  and  especially 
at  the  fly,  which,  upon  his  fiirst  casting  his  ^ye  upon  it,  he 
so  far  took  for  a  real  fly,  that  he  .endeavoured  to  remove  it 
with  his  hand.  He  sent  all  oyef  the  city  for  his  journey- 
man, who  was  now  missiag ;  but  after  many  i.nqpiries, 
found  that  he  had  been  thus  deceived  by  the  famous  Hot* 
bein.  This  story  has  been  somewhat  diSeren^tly  told,  as 
if  the  painting  was  a  portrait  for  ope  of  his, patrons  at  B^w 
sil,  but  the  eifect  was  the  same,  for  befof^  he  was  disco^ 
yered,  he  had  made  his  escape.  '-     / 

After  almost  begging  his  way  to  Englac^d,  ^  f!ftifi  telU 
us,  he  found  ao  easy  admitta^e  to  the  lprd*-chancellor| 
sir  Thomas  More,  having ,  bjpught  with  him  %a^mais-g 
picture,  ajnd  letters  recommendatofy  from  him  to  that  gr4^ 
man.  Sir  Thomas  received  him  with  all  the  joy  imagina- 
ble, and  kept  him  ia  )iis  bwse  be%^mem  two  and  three 


years ;  duriog  which  time  he  drew  sir  Thomases  picture, 
and  those  of  many  of  his  friends  and  gelations.     One  liay 
Bolbein  happening  to  mention  the  nobieman  who  had  some 
years  ago  invited  him  to  England,  sir  Thomas  was  very 
solicitous  to  know  who  he  was.     Holbein  replied|  that  he 
had  indeed. forgot  .bis  title,  but  remembered  his  face  so 
well,  that  he  thought  he  could  draw  his  likeness  ;  and  this 
he  did  so.  very  strongly,  that  the  nobleman,  it  is  said,  was 
immediately  known  by  it*     This  nobleman  some  think  was 
the  earl  of  Arundel,  others  the  earl  of  Surrey.     The  chan- 
cellor, having  now   sufficiently  enriched  his  apartments 
with  Holbein's  productions,  adopted  the  following  method 
to  introduce  him  to  Henry  Vlll.     He  invited  the  king  to 
an  entertainment,  and  hung  up  all  Holbein's  pieces,,  dis- 
posed in  the  best  order,  and  in  the  best  light,  in  the  great 
hall  of  his  house.     The  king,  upon  his  first  entrance,  was 
so  charmed  with  the  sight  of  them,  that  he  asked,  *^  Whe- 
ther such  an  artist  were  now  alive,  and  to  be  had  for  mo- 
ney ?''  on  which  sir  Thomas  presented  Holbein  to  the  bing^ 
who  immediately  took  him  into  his  service,  with  a  salary  of 
200  florins,  and  brought  him  into  great  esteem  with  the 
nobility  of  the  kingdom.     The  king  from  time- to  time  ma- 
nifested the  great  value  he  had  for  him,  and  upon  the  death 
of  queen  Jane,  his  third  wife,  sent  him  into  Elandersi  to 
draw  the  picture  of  the  duchess  dowager  of  Milan,  widow 
to  Francis  Sforza,  whom  the  emperor  Charles  V.  had  re- 
commended to  him  for  a  fourth  wife ;  but  the  king^s  de-* 
fection  from  the  see  of  Rome  happening  about  that  time, 
he  rather    chose   to   match   with   a   protestant  princess. 
Cromwell,  then  his  prime  minister  (for  sir  Thomas  More 
bad  been  removed,   and  beheaded),  proposed    Anne  of 
Cleves  to  him  ;  but  the  king  was  not  inclined  to  the  match, 
till  her  picture,  which  Holbein  had  also  drawn,  was  present- 
ed to  him.  There,  as  lord  Herbert  of  Cherbury  says,  she  w'as 
represented  so  very  charming,  that  the  king  immediately  re«« 
solved  to  marry  her;  and  thus  Holbein  was  unwittingly  the 
fcause  of  the  ruin  of  his  patron  Cromwell,  whom  the  king 
nevef  forgave  for  introducing  him  tpAnne  of  Cleves. 

In  England  Holbein  drew  a  vast  number  of  admirable 
portraits;  among  otliers,  those  of  Henry  VII.  and  Henry 
yill.  on  the  wall  of  the  palace  at  Whitehall,  which  perished 
when  it  wjas  burj^t,  though  sooie  endeavours  were  made  to 
remove  tha^  part  of  the  wall  on  which  the  pictures  were 
(irfiwn*    There  happened,  however^  an  atfair  in  England, 

60  HO  LB  EI  ». 

Which  might  have  been  fatal  to  Hblbetti|  if  the  king  had 
hot  protected  hinv*.    On  the  report  of  his  character,  a  no^ 
bleman  of  the  first  quality  wanted  one  day  to  see  faim,  wheh 
lie  was  drawing  a  fignre  after  the  life.     Holbein,  in  an^wer^ 
bagged  his  lordship  to  defer  the  honour  of  bis  visit  to  ano- 
ther day ;  which  the  nobleman  taking  for  an  affront,  came  arid 
broke  open  the  door,  and  very  rudely  went  up  stairs.  Holbein, 
bearing  a  noise,  left  his  chamber ;  and  meeting  the  lord  at 
his  door,  fell  into  a  violent  passion,  and  pushed  Itim  back- 
wards from  the  top  of  the  stairs  to  the  b(ittom.    Consider- 
ing, however,  imme<iiately  what  he  had  done,  he  escaped 
from  the  tumult  he  had  raised,  and  made  the  best  6f  Eis 
way  to  the  king.    The  nobleman,  tnucti  hurt,  tbougb  not 
90  much  as  be  pretended,  Was  there  soon  after  him;  and 
upon  opening  bis  grievance,  the  king  ordered  Holbein  tb 
ask  pardon  for  his  offence;     But  this  only  irritated  the  no- 
bleman'the  more,  who  would  not  be  satisfied  with  less  than 
his  life;  upon  which  the  king  sternly  replied,  <^My  lord, 
you  have  not  now  to  do  with  Holbein^  but  with  tne ;  what- 
ever punishment  you  may  qontrive  by  way  of  revenge 
agiiinst  him,  shall  assurealy  be  inflicted  upon  yourself': 
remember,  pniy  my  lord,  that  I  can,  whenever  I  please, 
make  seven  lords  of  seven  ploughmen,  but  I  cannot  make 
one  Holbein  even  of  seven  lords.*' 

We  cannot  undertake  to  give  a  list  of  Holbein*!  works^l 
but  this  may  be  seen  in  Walpole^s  Anecdotes.  Soon  after 
the  accession  of  the  late  king,  a  noble  collection  of  his 
drawings  was  found  in  a  bureau  at  Kensington,  amounting 
td  eighty- nine.  These,  which  are  of  exquisite  merit,  h^ve 
been  admirably  imitated  in  engraving,  in  a  work  publbhecl 
lately  by  John  Chamberlaine,  F.  S.-A.  certainly  one  of  the 
most  splendid  books,  and  most  interesting  collections  oJF 
portraits  ever  executed.  Holbein  painted  eqdalty  well  ib 
oil,  water-colours,  and  distempef,  in  large  and  in  niinia:^ 
ture :  but  he  had  never  practised  the  art  of  painting  in 
'miniature,  till  be  resided  in  England,  and  learned  it  from 
Lucas  CoriieUi ;  though  be  afterwards  carried  it  to  its 
bighest  perfection.  His  paintings  of  that  kind  have  all 
the  force  of  oil-colourd,  and  are  finished  with*  the  utmoist 
delicacy.  In  general  he  painted  on  a  green  ground,  bqt 
in  bis  small  pictures  frequently  he  painted  on  afalue.  T4ie 
onyention  of  Jlolbeiyi  4vas  surprisingly  fruitful,  ^iid  often 
poetical ;  his  execution  was  remarkably*^ quick)  «nd  his  ap* 
plication  indefatigable.    His^  pencil  was  exceedingly  deB* 

HOLBEIN..  «l 

C$tk^ ;  bis  coloqritig.  bad  a  wonderfql  degree  of  force ;  he 
finished  his  pictures  with  exquisite  neatness ;  and  his  car* 
iiations  were  life  itself.  His  genuine  works  are  alwws  dis* 
tinguisbablebjrthe  troe^  rounds  lively  imitation  of  fleshy 
visible  in  all  his  portraits,  and  also  by  the  amazing  deli* 
cacy  of  bis  finishing. 

It  is  obsenred  by  most  anthors,  that  Holbein  alwayi 
|]iainted  with  his  left  hand ;  though  Walpole  objects  against 
that  traditioh)  (what  he  considers  as  a  proof),  that  in  a  por- 
trait of  Hoibein  painted  by  himself,  which  was  in  the  Arun* 
delian  collection,  he  is  represented  holdinsr  the  pencil  ia 
the  right  hand.    But  that  evidence  cannot  be  suifncient  to 
set  a^de  so.  general  a  testimony  of  the  most  authentic  writers 
Qn.tbis,  subject;   because,   although  habit  and  practice 
^igbt  enable  him  to  handle  the  pencil  familiarly  with  his 
Ie(t  band,  yet,  as  it  is  so  unusual.  It  must  hatte  had  but  an 
unseemly  and  awkward  appearance  in  a  picture ;  which  pro* 
bably  might  have  been  his  real  inducement  for  represent- 
ing himsejif  without  9UGh  a  particularity.    Besides,  the 
writer  of  .Holbein^ sft  life,  at  the  end  of  the  treatise  by  De,  mentions  a. print  by  HpUar,  still  extant,  which  de- 
scribes Holbein  drawing  with  his  left  hand. .   Nor  is  it  so 
extraordinary  or    incredible  a  circumstance ;    for  other 
artists,  mentionied  in  this  volume,  are  remarked  for  the  very 
saipe  hi^bit  ^ .  particularly  Mozzo  of  Antwerp,  who  worked 
with  the:  left ;  and  Amico  Aspertino,  as  well  as  Ludovico 
Cangiagio,    who  worked  equally  well  with   both  hands. 
This  great  artist  died  of  tbe  plague  at  London  in  1554; 
lonie  think  at  hi^  lodgiugs  in  Whitehall,  where  he  had 
Jived  fromjtbe  time  that  the  king  became  his  patron,  but 
y^riue  rather  thQUght  at  the  duke  of  Norfolk^s  house,  in 
tbe„  priorv  of.  Christ  church,  near  Aldeate,  then  called 
Dake^s-pface.  '  Strype  says  that  be  was  buried  in  St.  Ca- 
tberiiie  Cree  chgrcb  ;  but  this  seems  doubtful.^ 

HOLBERG  (Loui^  pe),  a  Danish  historian,  lawyer, 
and  poet,  was  born  at  Bergen  in  Norway,  in  1.685.  His 
family  i*  l^aid  by  some  to  have  been  low,  by  others  noble ; 
b,ut  it  i$  agreed  that  he  commenced  life  in  very  poor  cir* 
.<:uQastaoces,  and  picked  up  bis  education  in  his  travels 
.through  various*  parts  of  Europe,  where  he  subsisted  either 
by.  charity,  or  by  his  personal  efforts  of  various  kinds.    Qn 

't  Viti  MlbenPi  a  Car.  Patiito,  preflited  to  Sraiurat^fl  Mori*  Coconi7a«.«» 
WalpolO.  Aascdottf,-P»air  i*  Reytt<»ldt*i  Wocks. 

€2  H  O  L  B  ERG* 

his  rQtnftt  to  Copenbageh,  be  foand  tneans  to  be  appbitited^ 
assessor  of  tbe  consistory  court,  which  place  aflPording  faioi 
a^  competent  subsistence,  be  was  able  to  indulge  his  ge- 
nius,, and  produced  several  works,  which  gave  him  great 
celebrity*  Among  these  are  some  comedies,  a  volume  of' 
which  has  been  translated  into  French.  He  wrote  also  a 
History  of  Deninark,  in  3  volt.  4tOy  which  has  been  consi- 
dered- as  tbe  best  that  hitherto  has  been  produced,  though' 
in  some  parts  rather  minute  and  uninteresting.  Two  vo* 
lumes  of  "  Moral  Thoughts,"  and  a  work  entitled  *^  The 
Danish  Spectator,"  were  produced  by  him  :  and  he  is  ge- 
nerally considered  as  the  author  of  the  ^^  Iter  subterraneum 
of  KHmius,"  a  satirical  romance,  something  in  the  style  of' 
Gulliver's  Travels.  Moot  of  tliese  have  lieen  translated 
also  into  German,  and  are  much  esteemed  in  that  country* 
Hb  ^^  Introduction  to  Universal  Histofy"  was  translated 
int<>  English  by  Dr.  Gregory  Sbarpe,  with  notes,  1755, 
Svo»  ^  his  publications,  and  his  place  of  assessor,  he 
had  ceeonomy  enough  to  amass  a  considerable  fortune,  and' 
even  in  bis  life  gave  70,000  crowns  to  the  university  of 
Zealand,  for  the  education  of  young  noblesse ;  thinking 
it  right  that  as  his  wealth  had  been  acquired  by  literature, 
it  should  be  employed  in  its  support.  This  munificence 
obtained  him  the  title  of  baron.  At  his  death,  which  hap-r 
pened  in  1754,  he  left  also  a  fund  of  16,000  crowns  to  por- 
tion out  a  certain  number  of  young  women,  selected  from 
the  families  of  citizens  in  Copenhagen.^ 

HOLBOURNE  (^ir  Robert),  a  lawyer  of  considera-' 
ble  eminence,  and  law  writer,  flourished  in  the  time  of 
Charles  I.  but  of  his  early  history,  we  have  no  account.  In 
1640  he  was  chosen  represifentative  for  St.  Michael  in  Corn- 
wall in  the  Long-parliament,  and  on  one  occasion  argued 
for  two  hours  in  justification  of  the  canons.  In  1641  he 
was  Lent  reader  of  Lincohi's-inn,  but  soon  after  quitted  the 
parliamient  when  be  «aw  the  extremities  to  which  they  were 
proceeding.  He  had  formerly  given  his  advice  against 
ahip-motiey,  but  was  not  prepared  to  overthrow  the  consti- 
tution entirely,  and  therefore  went  to  Oxford,  where,  in 
1643,  he  sat  in  the  parliament  assembled  there  by  Charles 
I.  was  made  the  princess  attorney,  one  of  the  privy  coun- 
cil, and  received  the  honour  of  knighthood.  In  1644  he 
was  present  at  the  .treaty  of  Uxbridge,  and  afterwards  at 

1  Diet  Hist.— Amiual  Re^^Uter  for  1759. 

H  O  L  B  O  U  RN£.  €S 

Aat^  thelde  of  Wight  Beturmsg  to  hotkd'oa^  «fter 
ineffectual  attempts,  to  restore  peace^  be  was  forced  to  com- 
poond  for  his  estate^  and  was  not  permitted  to  remain  in 
any  of  the  inns  of  court.  He  died  in  1647,  and  was  in- 
terred in  the  crypt  under  Lincoln^s-inn  chapel.  His  ^^  Read<^ 
iogsen  the  Statute  of  Treasons,  25  Edward  III.  c.  2.'*  were 
published  in  1642^,4to^  and  m  1661.  He  was  the  author 
ako  of  ^'  The  Freehqider's  Griand. inquest  touobing  our  So^ 
vereign  Lord  th&  King  and  his,  Parliament,"  viihich  bears 
the  name  of  sir  Robert  Filmer^  wha  reprinted  it  in  1679, 
and  1680,  8vo^  with  observations  upon  forms  of  govern^ 
ment.     He  left  also  some  MSS«^    • 

HOLCROFT  (Thomas),  a  draonatic  and  miscellaneoua 
writer  and  translator,  was  born  in  Orange-court^  Leicester- 
fields,  Dec.  22, 1744.     His  frtber  was  in  the  humble  oc-*. 
cupation  of  a  shoe-maker,  and  does  not  appear  to  hav0 
given  his  son  uiy  education.     The  first  employment  men** 
tioned}  in  which  the  latter  was  concerned,  was  as  servant 
to  the  hop.  Mr*.  Veruon^  of  whose  race-horses  he  had  the 
care,  and  became  very  expert  in  the  art  of  horsemanships 
He  is  said  also  to  have  worked  for  many  years  at  bis  fa* 
therms  trade.     He  possessed,  however,  good  natural  abili^ 
ties,  and  a  thirst  for  knowledge,  of  which  he  accumulated 
a  considerable  fund,  and  learned  with  facility  and-  suocesr 
the  French,  German,  and  Italian  languages.     When  abou^ 
his  twenty-fifth  year,  he  conceived  a  passion  for  the  stage^ 
and  his  first  performance  was  in  Ireland.     He  had  after^ 
wards  an  engagement  of  the  same  kind  in  London,  but 
never  attained  any  eminence  as  an  actor^  although  he>al-' 
ways  might  be  se6n  to  understand  his  part  better  than  those 
to  whom  nature  was  more  liberal.    He  quitted  the  stage  in 
1781,  after  the  performance  6f  bts  first  play,  ^^  Duplicity/^ 
which  was  successfol  enough  to  encourage  his  perseverance 
as  a  djramatic  writer.     From  this  time  he  contributed  up* 
wards  of  thirty  pieces,  which  were  either  acted  oa  Xhe- 
London  stages,  or  printed  without  having  been  performed* 
Scarcely  any  of  them,  however,  have  obtMned  a.  perma- 
nent situation  on  the  boards.     He  published  also  tiie  fol- 
lowing novels  :  **  Alwyn,'*  1780  ;  *«  Anna  St.  Ives,''  1 792  j: 
"  Hugh  Trevor,"  1794  ;  and  "  Brian  Perdue,"  1807.    Hi« 
translations  were,  ^^  The  private  Life  of  Voltaire/' •12mo ;: 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  Ilk— Lloyd's  Memoirs,  foIio>  pr584. — Bridgmao';}  JCegal  Bib^ 

U  H  O  LC  R  O^T. 

*<  Memoirs  of  Baron  Trenck,**  S  volt.  1 2iiio ;  M trrilmm^tf 
*'  Secret  History  of  the  Court  of  Berlin,*'  2  vols.  8vo;  m*-' 
dame  de  Genlis's  <*  Tales  of  the  Castle,*'  5  voir*  I2ido^ 
^  Tbe-  postbumoos  Works  of  Frederick  11.  of  ProsMa,'*  IS 
vols.  8vo ;  **  An  abridgment  of  Lavater^s  Physiognomy/'  ft 
vols.  8vo.  Mr.  Holcroft  having  imbibed  tbe  revolutionarj 
principles  of  France,  bad  joined  some  societies  in  thia 
coontrv,  which  brought  him  under  suspicion  of  being  con« 
cemed  with  Hardy,  Tooke,  and  Thelwall,  who  were  tried 
for  high  tre<)s*)n  in  1794,  but  they  being  acquitted,  Mn 
Holcroft  was  discharged  without  being  put  upon  his  trii^ 
His  last  work  was  his  **  Travels,**  in  Germany  and  France^ 
2  vols.  4to,  which,  like  some  other  of  his  speculations,  was 
less  advantageous  to  his  bookseller  than  to  himself.  Jn 
1782  he  published  a  poem  called  ^  Human  happiness,  or 
ibe  Sceptic,**  which  attracted  little  notice  on  the  score  of 
poetical  merit,  but  contained  many  of  those  loose  senti* 
ments  on  religion,  which  he  was  accustomed  to  deliver 
with  more  dogmatism  than  became  a  man  so  little  ac- 
quainted with  the  subject.  In  these,  however,  he  persisted 
almost  to  tbe  last,  when,  on  his  death- bed,  be  is  said  toi 
have  acknowledged  his  error.     He  died  March  23,  1809.^ 

HOLDEN  (Henry),  an  English  Roman  catholic  divine, 
was  born  in  LAncashire  in  1596^  and  in  1618  was  admitted 
*a  student  in  the  English  college  at  Doway,  where  be  took 
tbe  name  of  Johnson.  Here  he  improved  himself  in  the 
classics,  and  studied  philosophy  and  divinity,  and  going 
to  Paris  in  1623,  took  the  degree  of  D.  D.  in  that  univer- 
sity,  to  which  he  continued  attached  during  the  remainder 
oi  his  life,  having  no  other  preferment  but  that  of  peniten* 
tiary  or  confessor  in  the  parish  church  of  St.  Nicholas  da 
iCbardonet.  He  died  about  |66S,  esteemed  one  of  the 
ablest  controversial  divines  of  bis  time,  and  in  this  respect 
has  been  highly  praised  by  Dupin.  Some  suspected  him 
of  Jansenism,  but  his  biographers  wish  to  repel  I  thia 
charge,  as  they  think  it.  Among  his  works  are  three^ 
whi<db  chiefly  contributed  to  his  fame,  I.  **  Analysis  Fidei,** 
Paris,  I6S2,  8vo,  translated  into  English  by  W.  G.  4to, 
1658.  Of  this  Dupin  has  given  a  long  analysis.  It  waa 
reprinted  by  Barbou  in  1766,  and  conuins  a  brief  sum* 
snary  of  the  whole  ceconomy  of  faith,'  its  principles  and 
motivesy  with  their  application  to  controversial  questions. 

'  Blof.  Draniw*--OcBt«  Msf. 

»  O  L  D  E  N.  W 

It  l^teifsidered  as  argumentative  and  sound.     2.  ^^  Mar-- 
gilial  Notes  on  the  New  Testament,"  Paris,  16^60,  2  vols. 
i2fnt>;     3.  **  A  Letter  concerning  Mr.  White's  Treatise 
Be  Media  Animarum  statu/'  Parts,  1661,  4to.' 
-  HO i.]>ER  (William),  a  learned  English  pbilosopher^i 
i^s  born  in  Nottinghamshire,  educated  in  Pembroke  hall| 
Gainbridge,  and,  in  1642,  became  rector  of  Blecfaingdon^ 
Oxfordshire.     In  1660  he  proceeded  D.  D;  was  afterwardsi 
o^nofi  of  Ely,  fellow  of  the  royal  society,  eanoti  of  St* 
Paul'%  sub-dean  of  the  royal  chapel,  and  sab-almoner  to 
1h»  majesty.     He  gained  particular  celebrity  by  teaching 
sk'yQung  gentleman  of  distinction,  who  was  bom  deaf  and 
dlHnb,  to- speak,  an  attempt  at  that  time  unpTecedented, 
This  gentleman^'s  name  was  Alexander  Poph'amr,  son  of 
colonel  Edward  Popham,  who  was  some  time  at^  admiral 
ia  thesevtice  of  tfafe  long  parliament.     The  cure  was  per- 
foraied  by  bimin  his  hquse  at  Blechingdon,  in  1659  ;  but 
Pdpbaim,  Josiffg  what  he  had  been  taught  by  Holder,  after 
he  was  called  hdme  to  bis  friends,  was  sent  to  Dr.  Wallis^ 
wfa6  brought  him  to  bis  speech  again.     On  this  subject 
Holdei!  puWi^bed    9,  book   entitled  ^*  The  Elements   of 
Speech-;  an  essay  of  inquiry  into  the  natural  production  of 
letters  :  witb  an  appendix  concerning  persons  that  are  deaf 
aiiddamb/*  1669,. Sva     In  the  appendix  he  relates  how 
soon,  and  by^  what-methods,  he  brought  Popham  to  speak,- 
latbift^essi^'be  has  aoalysed,  dissected,  and  classed  tbe*^* 
l^tef4  of-oud^  alphabet  •  so  miAutely  and  clearly,  that  it  19 
weH^^wortliy  the  attentive  perusal  of  every  lover  of  philology^ ' 
butpaniottlarly,  say^  BiSb  Bumey,  of  lyric  poets  andcom^ 
posers  of  ^ocal  music ;.  to  whom;  it  will  point  out  such  harsh 
and  uDtaoable  combinations  of  letters  aiid  syilables^as-from 
their  difficult  utterance  impede  and  corrupt  the  ^ceiii 
its^paesage.     In  167B  he  published,  in  4to,  ^' A  Supple^ 
ment  ta  tim^Philosopbicat  Tr»cisaetions:xkt.  July  1670,  witk 
some  Reflections  oa  Dr.  WaUis^s  Let)ter  thece'ittserted.'?<- 
TUs  waa  writteO'to  clainfi  the  glory  of  having  taugfatHPp^ 
ham  to  4peak,  -whidh. Wallis  in  the  letter  there  mentioned 
Imd'elaimed  to  himself :  upon  which  the  doctor  soon  aftet^- 
pnhliKhed^  ^'^  A  Defence  of  the  Roy^l  Society  and  the  Pniii'. 
iosqphixsal  TransactiOB%  particularly  those  of  July  t679/«> 
In  answer  to  the  cavils  of  Dr^r  William  Holder,"  1678^'  4t^i 
Hohler^. was  skilled  in  the  theory  and  practice  of  .mtisiQir 

1  Dttp'ta*'^DocM's-€)mrcli  Hfjit.  tol.  lit 


66  HOLDER. 

and  composed  some  anthems,  three  or  four  of  which  are - 
preserved  in  Dr.  Tudway*s  collection  in  the  British  mu- 
seum. In  1694  he  published  **  A  Discourse  concerning 
Time,'*  in  which,  among  other  things,  the  deficiency  of 
the  Julian  Calendar  was  explained,  and  the  method  of  re- 
ibrming  it  demonstrated,  which  was  afterwards  adopted  in 
the  change  of  style.  It  is  to  be  lamented  that  in  treating 
this  subject  with  so  much  clearness  and  ability,  so  good  a 
musician  did  not  extend  his  reflections  on  the  artificial 
parts  of  time,  to  its  divisions  and  proportions  in  musical 
measures;  a  sul\ject  upon  which  the  abbate  Sacchi  has 
written  in  Italian,  *^  Del  Tempo  nella  Musica  ;*'  but  which 
rhythniically,  or  metrically   considered   in   common   with 

i>oetry,'  has  not  yet  been  sufficiently  discussed  in  our  own 
anguage.  • 

The  same  year  was  published  l)y  Dr.  Holder,  **  A  Trea- 
tise on  the  natural  grounds  of  Harmony,'*  in  which  the 
propagation  of  sound,  the  ratio  of  vibrations,  their  coinci- 
dence in  forming  consonance,  sympathetic  resonance,  or 
sons  harmomques,  the  difference  between  arithmetical,  geo- 
metrical, and  harmonic  proportions,  and  the  author's  opi^ 
nion  concerning  the  music  of  the  ancients,  to  whom  he 
denies  the  use  of  harmony,  or  music  in  parts,  are  all  s6 
ably  treated,  and  clearly  explained,  that  this  book  may  be 
read  with  profit  and  pleasure  by  most  practical  musicians^ 
though  unacquainted  with  geometry,  mathematics,  and 
harmonics,  or  the  philosophy  of  sound.  This  book  is  snid^ 
in  the  introduction,  to  have  been  drawn  up  chiejfly  for  the 
sake  and  service  of  the  gentlemen  of  the  chapel  royal,  of 
which  he  was  sub-dean,  and  in  which,  as  well  as  othel* 
cathedrals  to  which  his  power  extended,  he  is  said  to  have 
been  a  severe  disci plinariaf) ;  for,  being  so  excellent  a 
judge  and  composer  himself,  it  is  natural  to  suppose  that 
he  would  be  the  less  likely  to  tolerate  neglect  and  igno- 
rance in  the  perforniance  of  the  choral  service.  Michael 
Wise,  who  perhaps  had  fallen  under  his  lash,  u^ed  to  call 
him  Mr.  Snub-dean.  Dr.  Holder  died  at  Amen  Corner, 
London,  Jan;  24,  1696-7,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Paul's^ 
with  his  wife,  who  was  only  sister  to  sic  Christppher  Wren. 
Dr.  Holder  had  a  considerable  share  in  the  eatly  education 

of  that  afterwards  eminent  architect.  ^ 

...  i  .  .  .     ^ 

I  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  n.-^\Vard'i  Lives  of  the  Orefbam  Professon.— .Letters  fram 
the  BddUiaa  Uirdrj,^  3  T^ls.  #to«  1813.— Rees*a  Cyclojpaadia. 


HOLDSWORTH  (Edward),  a  very  polite  and  elegant 
scholieiry  son  of  the  rev.  Thomas  Holdsworth,  rector  of 
North  Stoneham,  in  the  county  of  SoMthampton,  was  borti 
Aug.  6,  1688,  and  trained  at  Winchester-school.  He  was 
thence  elected  demy  of  Magdalen  college,  Oxford,  iti 
July  1705;  toqk  the  degree  of  M.  A.  in  April  1711  ;  be- 
came a  college  tutor,  and  had  many  pupils.  In  17 15^ 
when  he  was  to  be  chosen  into  a  fellowship^  he  resigned 
his  deiny ship,  and  left  the  college,  because  unwilling  to 
swear  allegiance  to  tbe^^ew  government.  The  remainder 
of  his  life  was  spent  in  travelling  with  young  noblemen  and 
gentlemen  as  a  tutor:  in  1741  and  1744  he  was  at  Home 
in  this  capacity,  with  Mr.  Pitt  and  with  Mr.  Drake  and  Mr. 
Townson.  He  died  of  a  fever  at  lord  Digby's  house  at 
Coleshill  in  Warwickshire,  Dec.  30,  1746.  He  was  the 
author  of  the  ^^  Muscipula,''  a  poem,  esteemed  a  master- 
piece in  its  kind,,  written  with  the  purity  of  Virgil  and  the 
pleasantry  of  Luciau,  and  of  whicl^  there  is  a  good  English 
translation  by  Dr.  John  Hoadly,  in  vol.  V.  of  "  Dodsley'd 
Miscellanies,*'  and  another  among  Dr.  Cobden's  poems. 
He  was  the  author  also  of  a  dissertation  entitled  ^'  Pharsalia 
and  Philippi ;  or  the  two  Philippi  in  VirgiPs  Georgics  at- 
tempted to  be  explained  and  reconciled  to  history,  1741,^* 
4to ;  and" of  ^*  Remarks  and  Dissertations  on  Virgil ;  with 
some  other  classical  observations,  published  with  several 
notes  and  additional  remarks  by  Mr.  Spence,  1768," 
Mr.  Spenoe  speaks  of  him  in  his  Polymetis,  as  one  who 
understood  Virgil  in  a  more  masterly  manner  than  any  per- 
son he  ever  knew.  The  late  Charles  Jennens,  esq.  erected 
a  monument  to  his  memory  >t  Gopsal  in  Leicestershire. '  / 

HOLDSWORTH  (Richard),  sometimes  written  Oldsr 
worth f  and  Oldisworth^  a  learned  and  loyal  English  4ivine, 
the  youngest  son  of  Richard  Holdswo»th,  a  celebrated 
preacher  at  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  was  born  in  1590^  and 
after  the  death  of  his  Father  was  committed  to  the  care  of 
the  rev.  William  Pearson,  a  clergyman  of  the  sanle  place, 
who  had  married  his  sister.  He  was  first  educated  at  New*- 
castle,  and  in  July  1607  admitted  of  St.  John!s  coll.ege^ 
Cambridge.  In  1610  he  took  his  bachelor^s  degree,  in 
1613  was  chosen  fellow  of  his  college,  in  16Ji4  was  made 
master  of  arts,  and  incorporated  at  Oxford,  in  tbe  'same, 
diegree  in  1617,  and  in  1620  was  chos^  one  of  the  twelve 

*  Nichols's  Bow]rer«— and  Hwt  of  LeicesUrshire.— Cent.  Mag.  toI.  LXI. 

F   2 

«f       HOLDSWORTR 

univernty  preachers  at  Cambridgie.    While  at  eoUege  fie 
was  tutor,  among  others,  to  the  famous  sir  Symond  D'Eweft. 
After  this   he  was  for  some  time  chaplain  to  sir  Henry 
fiobart,  lord  chief  justice  of  the  common  pleas,  and  thei» 
bad  a  living  given  him  in  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire^ 
whieh  he  exchanged  for  the  rectory  of  St.  Peter  the  Poor> 
Broad-street,«  London.     He  settled  there  a  little  before 
Ibe  great  sickness  in  1625,  during  which  he  continued  to 
do  the  duties  of  his  ofike,  became  a  very  popular  preacber> 
mnd  was  much  followed  by  the  puritans.     In  1629  he  waa 
chosen  professor  of  divinity  at  Gresham  college,  and  in 
iiis  lectures,  afterwards  published,  he  discovered  an  un- 
usual  extent  and  variety  of  learning.     They   were  fre- 
quented by  a  great  concourse  of  divines  and  young  scholars^ 
'About  1631  he  was  made  a  prebendary  of  Lincoln,  and  in 
16S3  archdeacon  of  Huntingdon.     In  the  same  year  he 
4itood  candidate  for  the  mastership  of  St.  John^s  college^ 
Init  neither  be  nor  his  competitor.  Dr.  Latie,  being  ac- 
ceptable at  court,  the  king,   by  mandate,  ordered   Dr. 
Beale  to  be  chosen.     In  1637,  however,  Mr.  Holdsworth 
was  elected  master  of  Emanuel  college,  and  created  doctor 
•of  divinity.   In  the  same  year  he  kept  the  act  at  Cambridge, 
and  in  1639  was  elected  president  of  Sion  college  bytbe 
Lottdon  clergy.     In  1641  he  resigned  bis  professorship  at 
Gresham  college,  and  the  rebellion  having  now  begun,  he 
was  marked  out  as  one  of  tbe  sacri6ces  to  popi^ar  pre}u* 
^ice,  although  he  had  before  suffered  somewhat  from  the 
•court.     While  vice-chancellor  Dr.  Holdsworth  had  sup^ 
plied  the  king  wirh  money  contributed  by  the  university^  a 
erime   not  easily  to  be  forgiven*.     When,  however,  the 
assembly  of  divines  was  called.  Dr.  Holdsworth  was*  no- 
jninafeed  one  of  tbe  number,  biit  never  sat  among  them*. 
Soon  after,  in  obedience  to  the  king^s  mandate,  he  causeA 
such  of  his  majesty^s  declarations  to  be  printed  at  Cam- 
Jbridge  as  were  formeriy  published  at  York,  for  which,  and^ 
^  Dr.  FuUer  sajns,  a  sennon  preached  then  by  him,  be 
-was  forced  fep  leave  tbe  university  before  the  expiration  of 
ills  4>ffiee  as  vice-chancellor.     After  some  concealment  he 
uras  apprehended  near  London,  and  imprisoned,  first  in 
£ly  bouse,  and  then  in  the  Tower.     Such  was  the  regard^ 
ilowever,  in  which  he  was  held  at  Cambridge,  that  while 
mider  4)onfin0ment  be  was  elected  Margaret  professor  oT 
divinity,  which  he  held  until  bis  death,  although  he  could 
neither  attend  tbe  duties  of  it  nor  receive  the  profits ;  hot 


H  O  L  D  S  W  O  RT  H;  W 

Ilk  rectory  of  St  Peter  the  Poor,  and  the  masterahip  of 
Emanuel,  were  both  taken  from  him.  It  seems  uncertain 
when  he  was  released.  We  find  him  attending  the  king  at 
Hampton  Court  in  1647  ;  and  in  January  following,  when 
the  parliament  voted  that  no  more  addresses  should  be 
made  to.  the  king,  he  preached  a  bold  sermon  against  thakt 
iPesolutioni  for  which  he  was  again  imprisoned,  but  being 
leleased,  assisted,  on  the  king's  part,  at  the  treaty  in  the 
Isle  of  Wight  The  catastrophe  that  soon  after  befell  his 
royal  master  is  thought  to  have  shortened  bis  life,  which 
terminated' Aug.  29, 1649.  He  lived  unmarried,  and  left 
his  property  to  charitable  uses^  eiccept  his  books,  part  of 
which  went  to  Emanuel  college,  and  part  to  the  public 
library  at  Cambridge.  He  was  buried  in  the  church  of  St 
Peter  the  Poor,  where  is  a  monument  to  his  memory.  He 
was  of  a  comely  appearance  and  venerable  aspect ;  warm 
in  his  temper,  but  soon  pacified  ;  a  great  advocate  for  the 
king,  and  zealous  in  the  cause  of  episcopacy.  He  was 
devout,  charitable,  and  an  excellent  scholar.  In  bis  **  Prn- 
iectiones*'  he  shows  not  only  an  intimate  acquaintance  with 
the  fathers  and  schoolmen,  but  likewise  most  of  the  emi- 
nent divines  of  later  ages,  popish  as  well  as  protestant, 
and  bis  style  is  good.  His  works  are,  1.  "  AlSermon 
presu^hed  in  St.  Mary's,  Cambridge,  on  his  majesty's  in- 
auguration,*' 1642,  4to,  the  only  thing  he  ever  published. 
2.  ^^  The  Valley  of  Vision ;  or  a  clear  sight  of  sundry  sa- 
cred truths ;  delivered  in  twejity-one  sermons,"  Lond* 
1651,  4to.  These  were  taken  in  short  band)  and  Dr* 
Pearson  says' they  are  very  defective.  3.  **  Praelectiones 
theologicse,"  Lond.  1661,  fol.  published  by  his  nephew, 
Dr.  William  Pearson,  with  a  Kfe  of  the  author.  ^ 

HOLINSHEO  (Raphael),  an  EogUsb  historian,  and  fa- 
mous for  the  Chronicles,  that  go  under  his  name,  was 
descended  from  a  family  which  lived  at  Bosely,  in  Cheshire: 
but  neither  the  place  nor  time  of  his  birth,  nor  scarcely 
any  other  circumstances  of  his  life,  are  ki^own.  Some  say 
be  had  an  university  education,  and  was  a  clergyman  ; 
while  others,  denying  this,  affirm  ths^t  he  was  steward  to 
Thomas  Burdett,  of  ,Bromcote  in  the  county  of  Warwick) 
esq.  Be  this  as  it  will,  he  appears  to  have  been  a  man  of 
considerable  learning,  and  to  have  had  a  particular  turn  for 

^  Life  at  aboTC— Ward's  Grciham  Profetson.-— Atb.  Oz<  toL  L— Barwjck^i 
XHe.— Walker's  S«ff«rings  of  tlw  Clerfy.^Lloyd's  Memoirs,  foL— Peck's  X)e« 
•iderad^  ?al«  IL 


history.  His '<  Chronicles'*  were  first  published  in  ]577> 
in  2  vols,  folio;  and  then  in  1587,  in  three,  the  two  first 
of  which  are  commonly  bound  together.  In  this  second 
edition  several  sheets  were  castrated  in  the  second  and 
third  volumes,  because  there  were  passages  in  them  dis- 
agreeable to  queen  £Iizabeth  and  her  ministry :  but  the 
castrations  were  reprinted  apart  in^  1723.  Holinshed  w^ 
«ot  the  sole  author  or  compiler  of  this  work,  but  was  as- 
sisted in  it  by  several  other  writers.  The  first  volume 
opens  with  ^'  An  historical  Description  of  the  Island  of 
Britaine,  in  three  books/*  by  William  Harrison  ;  and  then, 
**  The  Historic  of  England,  from  the  time  that  it  was  first 
inhabited,  until  the  time  that  it  was  last  conquered,"  by 
R.  Holin^hed.  The  second  volume  contains,  *^  The  de- 
scription, conquest,  inhabitation,  and  troublesome  estate 
of  Ireland  ;  particularly  the  description  of  that  kingdom  :^' 
by  Richard  Stanihurst.  '<The  Conquest  of  Ireland,  trans- 
lated from  the  Latin  of  Giraldus  Cambrensis,*'  by  John 
Hooker,  alias  Vowell,  of  Exeter,  gent.  "  The  Chronicles 
of  Ireland,  beginning  where  Giraldus  did  end,  continued 
untill  the  year  1509,  from  Philip  Flatsburie, '  Henrie  of 
Marleborow,  Edmund  Campian,*'  &c.  by  R.  Holinshed  ; 
and  from  thence  to  1586,  by  R.  Stanihurst  and  J.  Hooker. 
^'  The  Description  of  Scotland,  translated  from  the  Latin 
of  Hector  Boethius,"  by  R.  H.  or  W.  H.  "  The  Historic 
of  Scotland,  conteining  the  beginning,  increase,  proceed- 
ings, continuance,  acts  and  government  of  the  Scottish 
natron,  from  the  original  thereof  unto  the  yeere  1571,'* 
gathered  by  Raphael  Holinshed,  and  continued  from  1571 
|o  1586,  by  Francis  Boteville,  alias  Thin,  and  others.  The 
third  volume  begins  at  <^  Duke  William  the  Norman,  com- 
monly called  the  Conqueror ;  c^nd  descends  by  degrees  of 
yeeres  to  all  the  kings  and  queenes  of  England."  First 
compiled  by  R.  Holinshed,  and  by  him  extended  to  1577  ( 
augmented  and  continued  to  1586,  by  John  Stow,  Fr. 
Thin,  Abraham  Fleming,  and  others.  The  time  of  this 
):iistorian's  death  is  unknown  ;  but  it  appears  from  his  will, 
which  Hearne  prefixed  to  his  edition  of  Camden^s  <^  An- 
nals,** th&t  it  happened  between  1578  and  1582. 

As  for  his  coadjutors;  Harrison,  as  we  have  already 
noticed  in  his  article,  was  bred  at  Westminster  school,  sent 
from  thence  to  Oxford,  became  chaplain  to  sir  William 
Brooke,  who  preferred  him,  and  died  in  1593.  Hookejr, 
frbo  ^i^s  uncl^  to  the  famous  Richard  (iook^r^  will  he  ho^ 

H  0  L  I  N  S  H  E  D. 


ticed  hereafter.  We  know  Nothing  of  Botevil^ ;  Qrtly  that 
Hearne  styles  him  **  a  man  of  great  learniag  and  judgment, 
and  a  wonderful  lover  of  antiquities/'  In  the  late  reprint 
of  the  series  of  English  Chronicles  by  the  booksellers  t{ 
London,  Holinsbed  very  properly  took  the  precedence^ 
and  was  accurately  edited  in  6  vols.  4to. ' 

HOLLAND  (Philemon),  a  noted  translator,  was  de- 
scended from  an  ancient'family  of  the  Hollands  of  Lan« 
cashire,  and  was  the  $on  of  John  Holland,  a  pious  divine, 
who,  in  queen  Mary's  reign,  was  obliged  to  go  abroad  for 
the  sake  of  religion  ;  but  afterwards  returned,  and  became 
pastor  of  Dunmowin  Essex,  where  he  died  in  1578.  Phi- 
lemon was  born  at  Chelmsford  in  Essex,  about  the  latter 
end  of  the  reign  of  Edward  VL  and  after  being  instructed 
at  the  grammar-school  of  that  place,  was  sent  to  Trinity- 
college,  Cambridge,  where  he  was  pupil  to  Dr.  Hampton, 
and  afterwards  to  Dr.  Whitgift.  He  was  adaritted  fellow  of 
his  college,  biit  left  the  university  after  having  taken  the 
degree  of  Ml  A.  in  which  degree  be  was  incorporated  at 
Oxford  in  15S7.  He  was  appointed  head  master  of  the 
free-school  of  Coventry,  and  in  thi^  laborious  station  he  not 
only  attended  assiduously  to  the  duties  of  his'  office,  but 
served  the  interests  of  learning,  by  undertaking  those  nu- 
inerous  translations,  which  gained  him  the  title  of  *^  Trans- 
lator general  of  the  age."  He  likewise  studied  medicine^ 
tmd  practised  with  considerable  reputation  in  his  nei^b- 
foourhood  ;  and  at  length,  when  at  the  age  of  forty,  becam^ 
a  doctor  of  physic  in  the  university  of  Cambridge.  He 
was  a  peaceable,  quiet,  and  good  man  in  all  the  relations 
of  private  life,  and  by  his  habits  of  temperance  and  regu*^ 
larity  attained  his  95th  year,  tiot  only  with  the  full  pos- 
session of  his  intellects,  but  bis  sight  was  iso  good,  that 
he  ne^ver  had  occasion  to  wear  spectacles.  He  continued 
to  translate  till  his  80th  year ;  and  his  translations,  though 
devoid  of  elegance,  are  a<^counted  faithfut  and  accurate^. 
Among  these  are,  translations  into  English  of  **  Livy,** 
written,  it  is  said,  with  one  pen,  which  a  lady  of  his  ac« 
quaintance  so  highly  prized  that  she  had  it  embellished 
with  silver,  and  kept  as  a  great  curiosity.  **  Pliny*s  Na- 
tural History,"  "Plutarch's  Morals,"  "  Suetonius,"  "Am- 
mianus  Marcellinus,"  "  Xenophon^s  Cyropadia,"  and 
^*  Camden's  Britannia,"  to  the  last  o^  which  he  made  seve« 

"       '  1  Biof.  Brit.— tamifrt  Bibliothec*. 


n\  useful  additions :  and  into  Latin  he  traintlated  the  geo- 
graphical part  of  <*  Speed's  Theatre  of  Grslat  Britain,*'  and 
a  French  **  Pharmacopoeia  of  Brice  Bauderon."  A  quib- 
l^ing' epigram  upon  his  translation  of  Suetonius  has  often 
been  recaitod  in  jest  books  : 

**  Philemi^n  with  translations  does  so  fill  us. 
He  will  not  let  Suetonius  be  TranqulUus.'* 

He  died  Feb.  9.  1636,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  of 
oventry.  He  married  a  Staffordshire  lady,  by  whom  he 
bad  seven  ^ons  and  three  daughters,  all  of  whom  he  sur- 
vived except  one  son  and  his  daughters.  One  of  his  sons, 
H£NRY,  appears  to  have  been  a  bookseller  in  London,  and 
ivas  editor  of  the  ^^  Heroologia  Anglicana/'  a  valuable  col* 
lection  of  English  portraits,  with  short  lives,  but  the  latter 
are  not  very  correct,  or  satisfactory.  These  portraits  were 
chiefly  engraved  by  the  family  of  Pass,  and  many  of  them 
are  valued  as  originals,  having  never  been  engraved  since 
jbut  as  copies  from  these.  They  are  sixty-five  in  number. 
tie  also  published  <'  Monumeuta  Sepulchralia  Ecclesise  S. 
t^auli,  Lond."  4to,  and,  ^^  A  Book  of  Kings,  being  a  true 
and  lively  effigies  of  all  our  English  kings  from  the  Con- 
quest,"  1618.     When  he  died  is  not  mentioned.  ^ 

HOLLAR,  or  HOLLA.RD  (Wj^ntzel,  or  Wences- 
Ukus),  a  most  admired  engraver,  was  born  at  Prague  in 
l^hemiai  in  1607.  He  was  at  first  instructed  in  school- 
learning,  and  afterwards  put  to  the  profession  of  the  law  ; 
hut  not  relishing  that  pursuit,  and  his  family  being  ruined 
^ben  Prague  was  taken  and  plundered'  in  1619,  so  that 
they  could  not  provide  for  him  as  had  been  proposed,  be 
jremoyed  from  thence  in  1627.     During  his  abode  in  seve* 

'  iral  tO)vns  in  Germany,  he  applied  himself  to  drawing^and 
jdesigningy  to  copying  the  pictures  of  several  great  artists, 

,  jUtking  geometrical  and  perspective  views  and  draughts  of 
cities,  tpwns^  and  countries,  by  land  and  water ;  in  which 
«t  length  be  grew  so  e^ccellent,  especially  for.  his  land- 
.scapes  in  miniature^  as  not  to  be  outdone  in  beauty  and 
^elicacy  by^  any  artist  of  his  time.     He  had  some  ihstruc- 

.  ^tipns  from  Matthew  Merian,  an  eminent  engraver,  and 
vho  is  thought  to  have  taught  him  that  method  of  pre- 
jparing  and  working  on  his  plates  which  he  constantly  used, 
.jp.e  waa  but  eighteen  when  the  ^i«t  specimens  of  his  art 

1  Atb,  0z.  Yol.  I.— Letters  from  the  9odki«ii»  3  to1«i.  8to.  1813.-i»Fttller's 
Woitluy.  »CeMM»  literaria,  toL  I. 

HOLLAR.  79* 

sppeared ;  and  the  coonoisseurs  in  his  works  have  oh* 
served,  that  he  inscribed  the  earliest  of  tbem  with  ouly  a 
cypher  of  four  letters,  which,  as  they  explain  it,  was  in- 
tended for  the  initials  of,  ^^  Wenceslaus  Hollar  P|^ensi$ 
cxcudit."  He  employed  himself  chiefiy  in  copying  head^ 
and  portraits,  sometimes  from  Rembrandt,  Henzelmat^ 
Fselix  Biler,  ami  other  eminent  artists ;  but  his  little  deli- 
cate views  of  Strasburgb,  Cologne,  Mentz,  Bonn,  Franc« 
fort,  and  other  towns  along  the  Rhine,  Danube,  Necker^ 
&c.  got  him  his  greatest  reputation;  aiid  when  Howar4 
earl  of  Arundel,  was  sent  ambassador  to  the  emperor  Fer« 
dinand  IL  in  1636,  he  was  so  highly  .pleased  with  his  per*^ 
formances,  that  he  admitted  him  into  bis  retinue.  Hollar 
attended  his  lordshipfrom  Cologne  to  the  emperor's  court, 
and  in  this  progress  made  several  draughts  and  prints  of  the 
places  through  which  they  travelled.  He  took  that  view  of 
Wurtzburgb  under  which  is  written,  ^*  Hollar  delineavit, 
in  legatione  Arundeliana  ad  Imperatorem/'  He  then  made 
also  a  curious  large  drawing,  with  the  pen  and  pencil,  of 
the  city  of  Prague,  which  gave  great  satisfaction  to  his  pai> 
tron,  then  upon  the  spot 

After  lord  Arundel  had  finished  bis  negotiations  in  Ger«- 
many,  he  returned  to  England,  and  brought  Hollar  with 
him :  where,  however,  he  was  not  so  entirely  confined  to 
his  lordship's  service,  but  that  he  had  the  liberty  to  accept 
of  employment  from  others.  Accordingly,  we  soon  find 
him  to  have  been  engaged  by  the  printsellers ;  and  Petef 
Stent,  one  of  the  most  eminent  among  them,  prevailed 
upon  him  to  make  an  ample  view  pr  prospect  of  and  from 
the  town  of '  Greenwich,  which  he  finished  in  two  platei, 
16S7  ;  the  earliest  dates  of  his  works  in  this  kingdom.  In 
1698,  appeared  his  elegant  prospect  about  Richmond  ;  at 
which  time  he  finished  also  several  curious  plates  fromjtHe 
fine  paintings  in  the  Arciudelian  collection.  In  the  midstf 
of  this  employment,  arrived^  Mary  ide  Medicis,  the  queen- 
mother  of  France,  to  visit  her  daughter  Henrietta  Maria 
queen  of  England ;  and  with  her  an  historian,  who  recorded 
the  particulars  of  her  journey  and  entry  intotliis  kingdom. 
His  wovit,  written  in  French,  was  printed  at  London  in 
1639,  and  adorned  with  several  portraits  of  the  royal  fa- 
mily, etched  for  the  purpose  by  the  hand  of  Hollar.  Thft 
«ame  year  was  published  the  portrait  of  bis  patron  the  eail 
4>f  Arandel  on  horseback ;  and  afterwards  he  etched  ano- 
ther ^  lum  in  ar»iHir,  aad  sevemi  views  of  his  cofintry- 

t4  H  OL  L  A  R. 


seat  at  Aldbrough  in  Surrey.  In  1640,  be  seems  to  hare 
been  introdoced  into  the  service  of  the  royal  family,  to 
give  the  prince  of  Wales  some  taste  in  the  art  of  design* 
ingi  a^d  it  is  intimated,  that  either  before  the  eruption 
jof  the  civil  wars,  or  at  least  before  he  was  driven  by  them 
abroad,  he  was  in  the  service  of  the  duke  of  York.  Tins 
year  appeared  his  beautiful  set  of  figures  in  twenty-eighl 
piatesy  entitled,  *^  Ornatus  Muliebris  Anglicaims/^  and 
containing  the  several  habits  of  £nglish  women  of  all  ranks 
or  degrees :  they  are  represented  at  fuU  length,  and  have 
rendered  biiti  famous  among,  the  lovers  of  engraving.  In 
1641^  were  ptiblisbed  his  prints  of  king  Charles  and  his 
queen  :  but  now  the  civil  wars  being  broke  out,  and  his  pa* 
tron  the  earl  of  Arundel  leavin^^  the  kingdom  to  attend 
upon  the  queen  and  the  princess  Mary,  Hollar  was  left  to 
support  himself.  He  applied  himself  closely  to  his  busii> 
ness,  and  published  other  parts  oP  his  works,  after  Hoi* 
beiD,  Vandyck,  &c.  especially  the  portraits  of  several 
persons  of  quality  of  both  sexes,,  niinisters  of  state,  com* 
nianders  4)f  the  army,  learned  and  eminent  authors ;  and  es« 
pecially  another  set  or  two  of  female  habits  in  divers  nations 
^in  Europe.  Whether  he  grew  obnoxious  as  an  adherent 
to  the  earl  of  Arundel,  or  as  a  malignant  for  drawing  so 
niany  portraits  of  the  royal  party,  is  not  expressly  said: 
but  hovv  it  seems  he  was  molested,  and  driven  to  tak^ 
•belter  under  the  protection  of  one  or  more  of  them,  till 
they  were  defeated,  and  he  taken  prisoner  of  war  with 
them,  upon  the  surrender  of  their  garrison  at  Basing-house 
in  Hampshire.'  This  happened  on  Oct  14,  1645;  biu 
Hollar,  either  making  his  escape,  .or  otherwise  obtaining 
bis  liberty,  went  over  to  the  continent  after  the  earl  of 
Arundel,  who  resided  at  Antwerp,  with  his  family,  <&nd 
bad  transported  thither  bis  most  valuable  collection  of 

.  He  remained  at  Antwerp,  several  years,  copying  fi-bm 
bis  patron's  collection,  and  working  for  printsellers,  book- 
sellers, and  publishers ;  but  seems  to  have  Cultivated  no 
interest  among  men  of  fortune  and  curiosity  in  the  art,  to 
dispose  of  them  by  subscription,  or  otherwise' tnost  to  his 
advantage.  In  1647,  and  1643,  he  etched  eight  or  ten  of 
the  painters'  heads  with  bis  own,  witb  various  other  curious 
pieces,  as  the  picture  of  Charles  L  soon  after  his  deatb^ 
and  of  several  of  the  royalists ;  and  in  the  three  following ' 
yparsy  many  portraits  and  landscapes  after  Breughill,  £U 

H  O  L  L  A  B.  7* 

sheimer,  and  Teniers,  with  the  Triuinphs  of  Death.  He 
etched  also  Charles  II.  standing,  with  emblems ;  and  also 
published  a  print  of  James  duke  of  York,  setat  18,  ann. 
165  i»  from  a  picture  drawn  of  him  when  he  wns  in  Flan^ 
ders,  by  Teniers.  He  was  more  punctual  in  bis  dates  than 
most  other  engravers,  which  have  afforded  very  agreeable 
lighis  and  directions,  both  as  to  his  own  personal  history 
and  performances,  and  to  those  of  many  others.  At  last^ 
either  not  meeting  with  encouragement  enough  to  keep 
him  longer  abroad,  or  invited  by  several  magnificent  and 
costly  works  pro|)osed  or  preparing  in  England,  in  which 
bis  ornamental  hand  might  be  employed  more  to  his  ad* 
vantage,  he  returned  hither  in  1652.  Here  he  afterwards 
eYecute;d  some  of  the  most  considerable  of  his  publications: 
but  though  be  was  an^  artist  superior  to  almost  most  others 
in  genius  as  well  as  assiduity,  yet  he  had  the  peculiar  fate 
to  work  here,  as  he  bad  done  abroad^  still  in  a  state  of 
subordination,  and  more  to  the  profit  of  other  people  than 
himself.  Notwithstanding  his  penurious  pay,  be  is  said  to 
have  contracted  a  voluntary  affection  to  his  extraordinary 
labour;  so  far,  that  he  spent  almost  two*>thirds  of  his  time 
at  it,  and  would  not  suffer  himself  to  be  drawn  or  disen* 
gaged  from  it,  till  his  hour-glass  had  run  to  the  las^  mo^- 
ment  proposed.  Thus  he  went  on,  in  full  business,  till  the 
restoration  of  Charles  H.  brought  home  many  of  his  friends^ 
and  him  into  fresh  views  of  employments «  It  was  but  two 
years  after  that  memorable  epocha,  that  Evelyn  published 
bis  <' Sculptura,  or  the  History  and  Art  of  .Chalcography 
and  engraving  in  copper :''  in  which  he  gave  the  following 
very  honourable  account  of  Hollar:  ^*  Wincesiaos  Hollar,*' 
says  he,  ^^  a  gentleman  of^  Bohemia,  comes  in  the  next 
plaee :  not  that  he  is  not  before  most  of  the  rest  fbr  his 
choice  and  great  industry,  for  we  rank  them  very  promis*^ 
cuously  both  as  to  time  and  pre-eminence,  hut  to  bring  up 
the  rear  of  the  Germans  with  a  deserving  person,  whose 
indefatigable  works  in  aqua  fortis  do  infinitely  recommend 
themselves  by  the  excellent  choice  which  he  hath  made  of 
the  rare  things  furnished  out  of  the  Arundelian  collection, 
and  from  most  of  the .  best  bands  and  designs :  for  such 
were  those  of  L.  da  Vinci,  Fr.  Parmensis,  Titian,  Julio 
Romano,  A.  Mantegna,  Corregio,  Perino  del  Vaga,  Ra« 
phael  Urbin,  Seb.  del  Piombo,  Palma,  Albert  Durer, 
Hans  Holbein,  Vandyck,  Rubens,  Breughel,  Bassan,  £U 
ihaimer,  grower,  Artois,  and  divers  other  masters  of  priioe 

76  HOLLAR. 

not^y  whose  drawing?  and  paintings  be  hath  fatthfally/co* 
pied;  besides  sevenil  books  of  Ian dscapes^  towns,  solem- 
nities, histories,  heads,  beasts,  fowls,  insects,  vessels,,  and 
other  signal  pieces,  not  omitting  what  he  hath  etched  after 
De  Cieyn,  Mr.  Streter,.  and  Dankerty,  for  sir  Robert  Sta- 
pleton^s  ^  Juvenal,*  Mr.  Ross's  '  Silius  Italicus,*  '  Poly- 
glotta  Biblia,'  *  The  Monasticon,*  first  and  second  part, 
Jdr.  Dugdlale's  *  St.  Paul's,'  and  *  Survey  of  Warwickshire^* 
with  other  innumerable  frontispieces,  and  things  by  hioA 
published,  and  done  after  the  life ;  and  to  be  on  that  ac- 
count more  valued  and  esteemed,  than  where  there  has  been 
more  curiosity  about  chimeras,  and  things  which  are  not  in 
nature :  so  that  of  Mr.  Hollar's  works  we  may  justly  pro- 
nounce, there  is  not  a  more  useful  and  instructive  coUee- 
tion  to  be  made.'* 

Some  of  the  first  things  Hollar  performed  after  the  Re- 
atoratioii,  were,  *^  A  Map  of  Jerusalem ;"  **  The  Jewish 
Sacrifice  in  Solomon's  Temple ;"  ^'  Maps  of  England,  Mid* 
dlesex,  &c."  "  View  of  St.  George's  Hospital  at  Wind- 
aor ;"  ^'  The  Gate  of  John  of  Jerusalem  near  London ;" 
and  many  animals,  fruits,  flowers,  and  insects,  after  Bar- 
low and  others :  many  beads  of  nobles,  bishops,  judges, 
and  great  men ;  several  prospects  about  London,  and  Lon- 
don itself,  as  well  before  the  great  fire,  as  after  ijts  ruin 
^nd  rebuilding :  though  the  calamities  of  the  fire  and  plague 
in  1655  are  thought  to  have  reduced  him  to  such  difiicul- 
;tie8,  as  be  could  never  entirely  vanquish.  ,  He  vvas  after- 
wards sent  to  Tangier  in  Africa,  in  quality  of  his  majesty's 
designer,  to  take  the  various  prospects  there  of  the  garri- 
son, town,  fortifications,  and  the  circumjacent  views  of  the 
country :  and  many  of  his  drawings  on  the  spot,  dated 
.1669,  preserved  in  the  library  of  the  late  sir  Hans  Sloane» 
were  within  three  or  four  years  after  made  public,  upon 
«ome  of  which  Hollar  styles  himself  '^  Stenograpbus  Regis.'' 
After  bis  return  to  England,  he  was  variously  employed, 
in  finishing  his  views  of  Tangier  for  publica.tion,  and  taking 
several  draughts  at  and  about  Windsor  in  1671,  with  many 
jrepresentations  in  honour  of  the  knights  of  the  garter. 
.About  1672,  he  travelled  northward,  and  drew  views  of 
Lincoln,  Southwell,  Newark,  and  York  Minster ;  and  after* 
wards  was  engaged  in  etching  of  towns^  castles,  churches^ 
,and  their  fenestral  figures,  araa3>  &c.  besides  tombs,  manu- 
mental  effigies  with  their  inscriptions,  &c^  in  such  uum* 
ktn  as  it  would  almost  be  isodl^^  itp  enumierate*    Few 


artists  have  been  able  to  imitate  his  works ;  for  wiiich  rea- 
son many  lovers  of  the  art,  and  all  the  curious  both  at 
home  and  abroad,  have,  from  his  time  to  ours,  been 
zealous  to  collect  them.  But  how  liberal  soever  they  might 
be  in  the  purchase  of  his  performances,  the  performer 
himself,  it  seems,  was  so  incompetently  rewarded  for  them^ 
that  he  could  not,  in  his  old  age,  keep  himself  free  frooi 
the  incumbrances  of  debt ;  though  he  was  variously  and 
closely  employed  to  a  short  time  before  his  dedch.  But  as 
many  of  bis  plates  are  dated  that  year,  in  the  very  begins 
ning  of  which  he  died,  it  is  probable  they  were  somewhat 
antedated  by  him,  that  the  sculptures  might  appear  of 
the  same  date  with  the  book  in  which  they  were  printed  t 
thus,  in  '^  Thoroton^s  Antiquities  of  Nottinghamshire/' 
tome  of  them  appear  unfinished ;.  and  the  50  (st  page» 
which  is  entirely  blank,  was  probably  left  so  for  a  plate 
to  be  supplied.  When  he  was  upon  the  verge  of  bis 
seventieth  year,  he  had  the  misfortune  to  have  an  execa« 
tion  at  his  house  in  Gardiner's-lane,  Westminster:  he 
desired  only  the  liberty  of  dying  in  bis  bed,'  and  that  he 
might  not  be  removed  to  any  other  prison  but  his  grave. 
Whether  this  was  granted  him  or  not,  is  uncertain,  fa^t  he 
died  March  28,  1677,  and,  as  appears  from  the  parish* 
register  of  St.  Margaret's,  was  buried  in  the  New  ChaptA 
Yard,  near  the  place  of  his  death.  Noble  and  valuable 
as  the  monuments  were  which  Hollar  had  raised  for 
others,  none  was  erected  for  him :  nor  has  any  person 
proposed  an  epitaph  worthy  of  the  fame  and  merits  of  the 

Mr.  Grose,  from  the  information  of  Oldys,  has  favoured 
the  public  with  some  anecdotes  of  the  conscieiiitiousness  of 
this  eminent  artist  which  are  not  noticed  by  Vertue.  He 
used  to  work  for  the  booksellers  at  the  rate  of  four--peiice 
an  hour ;  and  always  bad  an  hour-glass  before  him.  He 
was  so  very  scrupulously  exact,  that,  when  obliged  to  tu*- 
tend  the  calls  of  nature,  or  whilst  talking,  though  witlk 
persons  for  whom  he  was  working,  and  about  their  own 
business,  he  constantly  laid  down  the  glass,  to  previent  the 
sand  from  running.  It  is  to  be  lamented  that  such  a  man 
should  have  known  distress.  His  works  amount,  according 
to  Vertue^s  catalogue,  to  nearly  24O0  prints.  They  ar^ 
generally  etchings  performed  almost  entirely  with  .the 
point,  yet  possess  great  spirit,  with  astonishing  freedom 
and  lightoess,  especially  when  we  consider  how  highly  be 


bas  fiiiisbed  some  of  them.  In  drawing  the  human  figur0 
he  was  most  defective ;  bis  outlines  are  stiff  and  incorrect^ 
and  the  extremities  marked  without  the  least  degree  of 
knowledge.  In  some  few  instances,  he  had  attempted  to 
execute  bis  plates  with  the  graver  only :  but  in  that<  has 
failed  very  much.* 

HOLLIS  (Thomas),  esq.  of  Corscombe  in  Dorsetshire; 
m  gentleman  whose  "  Memoirs"  have  been  printed  in  two 
splendid  vOhimes,  4to,  1780,  with  a  considerable  number 
of  plates  by  Bartolozzi,*  Basire,  and  other  engravers  of 
eminence,  and  an  admirable  profile  of  himself  in  the  fron- 
tispiece, was  born  in  London,  April  14,  1720;  and  sent 
to  school,  first  at  Newport  in  Shropshire,  and  afterwards 
at  St.  Alban*s«  At  l^,  he  was  sent  to  Amsterdam,  to 
learn  the  Dutch  and. French  languages,  writing,  and  ac« 
compts;  stayed  there  about  fifteen  months,  and  then  rr* 
turned  to  his  father,  with  whom  he  continued  till  his  death 
in  1735.  To  give  him  a  liberal  education,  suitable  to  the 
ample  fortune  he  was  to  inherit,  his  guardian  put  him 
under  the  tuition  of  professor  Ward,  whose  picture  Mr. 
Mollis  presented  to  the  British  Museum;  'and,  in  honcTur 
of  his  father  and  guardian,  be  caused  to  be  inscribed 
roUnd  a  valuable  diamond  ring,  Mneviosyiion  patris  tutt>rU^ 
gue.  He  professed  himself  a  dissenter ;  and  from  Dr.  Fos* 
ter  and  others  of  that  persuasion,  imbibed  that  ardent  love 
of  liberty,  and  freedom  of  sentiment,  which  strongly 
marked  his  character.  In  Feb.  1739-40,  he  took  cham- 
bers in  Lincoln's-Inn,  and  was  admitted  a  law-student; 
but  does  not  appear  ever  to  have  applied  to  the  law,  as  a 
profession.  He  resided  there  till  July  1748,  when  he  set 
out  on  bis  travels  for  the  first  time ;  and  passed  through 
Holland,  Austrian  and  French  Flandets,  part  of  France, 
Switzerland;  Savoy,  and  part  of  Italy,  returning  through 
Provence,  Britanny,  &c.  to  Paris.  His  fellow-traveller 
was  Thomas  Brand,  esq.  of  the  Hyde  in  Essex,  who  was 
bis  particular  friend,  and  afterwards  his  heir.  His  se- 
cond tour  commenced  in  July  16,  1750;  and  extended 
through  Holland  to  Embden,  Bremen,  Hamburg,  the  prin- 
cipal cities  on  the  north  and  east  side  of  Germany,  the  rest 
of  Italy,  Sicily,  and  Malta,  Lorrain,  &c.  The  journals  of 
both  his  tours  are  said  to  be  preserved  in  manuscript. 

On  bis  return  home,  be  attempted  to  get  into  parlia* 

A  life  by  Vcrtue,  1745,  ^.— Bioj^.  Brit.— SUult'fl  Dictnoajy.     . 

.  H  O  L  L  I  ^.  ?!» 

''•■•.  .  .      •       « 

tnetiC;  but^  not  being  able  to  effect  this  without  some 
small  appearance  of  bribery,  he  turned  his  thoughts  en* 
tirely  to  other  objects.  He  began  a  collection  of  books 
and  medals ;  "  for  the  purpose,'*  it  is  said,  **  of  illustra- 
ting and  upholding  liberty,  preserving  the  memory  of  its 
champions,  rendering  tyranny  and  its  abettors  odious,  e?r« 
tending  art  and  science,  and  keeping  alive  the  honour  due 
to  their  patrons  and  protectors."  Among  his  benefactions 
to  foreign  libraries,  none  b  more  remarkable  than  that  of 
two  large  collections  of  valuable  books  to  the  public  libraiy 
of  Berne ;  which  were  presented  anonymously  as  by  "  an 
Englishman,  a  lover  of  liberty,  his  country,  and  its  exceU 
lent  constitution,  as  restored  at  the  happy  Revolution.'* 
tjwitzeriand,  Geneva,  Venice,  Leyden,  Sweden,  Russia,  &c. 
shared  his  favours.  His  benefactions  to  Harvard-college 
commenced  in  1758,  and  were  continued  to  the  amount  of 
14002.  His  liberality  to  individuals,  as  well  as  to  public 
societies,  are  amply  detailed  in  the  **  Memoirs"  above^ 
mentioned,  in  Aug.  1770,  he  carried  into  execution  a 
plan,  which  be  had  formed  five  years  before,  of  retiring 
into  Dorsetshire;  and  there,  in  a  field  near  his  residence 
at  Corscombe,  dropped  down  and  died  of  an  apoplexy,  on 
New-year's-day,  1774.  The  character  of  thi«  singular 
person  was  given,  some  time  before,  in  one  of  the  public 
prints,  in  the  following,  sbmewbsit  extravagant  terms. 
^^ Thomas  Hoilis  is  a  man  possessed  of  a  large  fortune: 
above  half  of  which  he  devotes  to  charities,  to  the  encou- 
ragement of  genius,  and  to  the  support  and  defence  of 
liberty*  His  studious  hours  are  devoted  to  the  search  of 
noble  authors,  hidden  by  the  rust  of  tifne  ;  and  to  do  their 
virtues  justice,  by  brightening  their  actions  for  the  review 
of  the  public.  Wherever  he  meets  the  man  of  letters,  he 
is  sure  to  assist  him  :  and,  were  I  to  describe  in  paint  this 
illustrious  citizen  of  the  world,  I  would  depict  him  leading 
by  the  hands  Genius  and  distressed  Virtue  to  the  temple  of 

^  If  Mr.  Hoilis  had  any  relations,  his  private  affections 
were  pot  as  eniinent  as  bis  public  spirit,  for  he  left  the 
Vvhole  of  his  fortune  to  his  ftiend  T.  Brand,  esq.  who,  on 
titat  account,  took  the  name  of  Hoilis,  and  was  as  violent  a 
zealot  for  liberty  as-  his  patron,  although  less  pure  in  his 
practice.  la  1764,  Mfv  Hoilis  sent  to  Sidney-college, 
Cambridge,  where  Cromwell  was  educated,  an  original 
portrait  of  him  by  Cooper ;  and^  a  fire  happening  at  his 

«0  H  O  L  L  I  S. 

;tngft  in  Bedford^street,  in  176],  he  calmly  walked  ou^ 
taking  an  original  picture  of  Milton  only  in  bis  band*  A 
Dew  edition  of  ^*  Toland^s  Life  of  Milton^'  was  published 
under  bi»  dtrectioni  in  1761;  and,  in  1763,  he  gave  an 
accurate  edition  of  ^*  Algernon  Sydpey^s  Discourses  oa 
Government/'  on  which  the  pains  and  expence  be  be- 
stowed are  almost  incredible.  He  meditated  also  an  edi* 
tion  of  Andrew  Marvell ;  but  did  not  complete  it.  In 
order  to  preserve  the  memory  of  those  patribtic  heroea 
whom  he  most  admired,  he  called  many  of  the  farms  and 
fields  in  his  estate  at  Corscombe  by  their  names;  and^  iq 
the  middle  of  one  of  these  fields,  not  far  from  his  house, 
be  ordered  his  corpse  to  be  deposited  in  a  grave  ten  feet 
deep,  and  the  field  to  be  immediately  ploughed  over,  that 
no  trac^  of  his  burial  place  might  remain*  His  religious 
principles  have  been  suspected,  as  he  joined  no  denomina- 
tion of  Christians,  Another  of  his  singularities  was,  to. 
observe  bis  nominal  birth*day  always,  without  any  regard 
to  the  change  of  style.  He  never  took  it  amiss  that  he  was 
charged  with  singularities;  he  owned  that  he  affected 
them :  "  the  idea  of  singularity,"  says  he,  ^*  by  way  of 
shield,  I  try  by  all  means  to  hold  out,"  and  in  this  way 
got  rid  of  those  who  would  otherwise  break  in  upon  his 
time,  customs,  and  way  of  living.  Mr.  Branp  Hollis,  his 
beir,;died  in  Sept.  1804,  and  bequeathed  his  estates  in 
Dorsetshire  and  Essex  to  his  friend  Dr.  Disney.  Tbim 
Brand  HoUis  did  not  exactly  inherit  the  independent  prin^ 
ciples  of  bis  benefactor ;  for  whereas  Mr.  Hollis  would  not 
accept  of  a  seat  in  parliament,  for  fear  of  being  led  intp 
corrupt  prs^ctices,  Mr.  Brand  bad  no  scruple  to  apply  kis 
fortune  to  acquire  a  seat  for  Hindon,  and  was  convicted  of 
the  most  scandalous  bribery,  and  imprisoned  in  the  King's 
Bench.  It  is  not  unuseful  t9  know  of  what  stuff  clamorous 
patriots  are  made. '  • 

HOLMES  (George),  an  Englishantiquaiy,  born  in  1662, 
at  Skipton,  in  Craven,  Yorkshire,  became  about  1695  clerk 
to  William  Petyt,  esq.  keeper  of  the  records  at  the  Towett 
and  continued  near  sixty  years-  deputy  to  Mr.  P^tyt,  Mr. 
Topham,  and  Mr.  Pdlbilh  On  the  death  of  Mr.  Petyt^ 
which  happened  Oct.  9,  ITO?^  Mr.  Holmes  was,  on  ac»- 
oount  of  his  singular  abilitret  and  industry^  appointed  by^ 

.  1  Memoirt  at  alcove.— Gent.  Mag.  LXX1V. — Ik,  pitne;^  \mm  lately  printed^ 
but  Mot  pttbKahed,  a  Memoir  of  Mr.  Bmid  Holiia. 

HOLMES,  ai 

lo^d  HaUfiuc  (tben  president  of  a  coomiktee  pf  tbe  Houaa 
of  lords)  to  methodize  and  Agest  tbe  records  deposited  int 
tbe  'I'owery  at  n  yearly  salary  of  200iL  vKhicb  was  continued 
tpbisdeatii,  Feb.  16,  1743-9,  in  tbe  87th  year  of  bis  affe« 
lie  wa$  also  barrack- master  of  tbe  Tower.  He  married  a 
daughter  of  Mr.  Marshall^  an  eminent  sword-cmler  in 
fleet-street,  hy  whom  he  had  ^u  only  son  G^eorge,  who 
was  bred  at  Elton,  and  waa  clerk  under  bis  father,  but  diedj 
apred  25,  many  years  before  him.  Holmes  re-pdblisbed 
the  first  17  Tolumes  *  of  Rymer^s  **Foedera,''  in  iizf. 
His  curious  dollections  of  books,  prints,  and  coins,  &c. 
were  so|d  by  anction  in  1749.  His  portrait  was  engravec( 
by  tbe  society  of  antiquaries,  with  this  inscription :  "  Vera 
effigies  Georqu  Holmes  generosi,  a.  s.  s.  &  tabularii  pub- 
lici  in  Turre  Londiaensi  Vicecustodis ;  quo  munere  annos 
ciFciijer  lx  summa  fide  &  diiigentia  perfupctus^.  xiV  l^alend^ 
Mart.  A.  D.  mDccxlvui,  aetatis  suae  Lxxxvn,  fato  demun^ 
concessit^  In  fratris  siii  erga  se  meritorum  testimoniun^ 
b^nc  tabulam  Socicta^  ANTiauARioRUM  Londini,  cujus 
CQoimofia  semper  promqyit,  sumptu  suq  seri  incideadum 
cpravit,  mdccxux-  R.  Van  Bleak,  p.  1743.  G.  Veftpe 
del.  &  sculp.''— ^la  Strype's  London,  1754,  vol.  I.  p.  746^ 
is  a  fac-simile  of  an  antique  insci:iption  over  tbe  liule  door 
next  to  the  cloister  in  the  Temple  church.  It  was  in.  i  old 
Sasou  capital  letters,  engraved  within  an  half-circle ;  de*^ 
noting  tbe  year  when  the  church  was  dedicated,  and  by 
Yfbomy  oamelfyy  Heraclius  the  patriarch  of  the  church  of 
the  Holy  Resurrection  in  Jerusalem ;  and  to  whom,  namely, 
tbe  Blessed  Virgin  ;  and  tbe  indulgence  of  forty  days  par« 
.don  to  such  who,  according  to  the  penance  enjoined  tbem, 
vesorted  thither  yearly.  This  inscription,  which  was  scarcely 
legible,  and  in  1695  was  entirely  broken  by  tbe  workipen, 
having  been  exactly  transcribed  by  Mr.  Holmes,  was  by 
^im  communicated  to  Strype.  Mrs.  Holmes  out-lived  het 
husband,  and  received  of  government  200/.  for  bis  MSS. 
about  the  records,  which  were  deposited  and  remain  in  bis 
pffice  to  this  day.  ^Few  men,  in  a  similar  office,  were  ever 
i^ore  able  or  willing  to  assist  the  researches  of  those  who 
applied  to  him,  than  Mr.  Holmes ;  and  he  received  maay 
handsome  acknowledgen^nts  of  his  politeness  and  abilities^ 
in  that  respect,  from  Browne  Willis,  Dr.  Tovey,  principal 

*  'Before  this  tecoiidi  edition,  a  set  of  the  seveateen  ▼olumet  was  told  for  100 
guineas.    See  the  prefaoa  to  the  **  Acta  Regia,"  17£6,  Svo. 

Vol.  XVI I  L  G 

>  *t 

82  HOLMES.' 

of  New-Inn-hall,  Oxford,  Dr.  Richardson,  editor  of  ^*  God- 
win de  Presulibus,"  and  others.  * 

HOLMES  (Robert),  D.  D.  a  learned  EnglisK  divine, 
rector  of  Stanton  in  Oxfordshire,  canon  of  Salisbury  and 
Christ  church,  and  dean  of  Winchester,  was  born  in  1749, 
and  educated  at  Winchester  school.  He  was  afterwards 
chosen  to  New-college,  Oxford,  where  he  took  hb  degrees 
of  M.  a!  1774,  of  B.  D.  in  1787,  and  of  D.  D.  in  1789. 
lii  1790,  on  the  death  of  Mr.  Warton,  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  poetry.  His  last  ecclesiastical  promotion  was 
to  the  deanery  of  Winchester  in  1804,  which  he  did  not 
long  enjoy,  dying  at  his  bouse  in  St  Giles's,  Oxford, 
Nov.  12,   1805. 

His  first  publication  was  a  sermon  preached  before  the 
university  of  Oxford,  entitled  "  The  Resurrection  of  the 
body  deduced  from  the  Resurrection  of  Christ,'*  1777, 
4to,  a  very  ingenious  discourse,  in  which  the  subject  is  il- 
lustrated in  a  manner  somewhat  new.  In  the  same  year  he 
published  "  Alfred,  an  Ode,  with  six  Sonnets,"  4to,  in 
which  Gray's  style  is  attempted  with  considerable  success. 
In  1782  he  was  chosen  the  third.  Bampton  lecturer,  and  in 
1783  published  his  eight  lectures  *^  on  the  prophecies  and. 
testimony  of  John  the  Baptist,  and  the  parallel  prophecies 
of  Jesus  Christ,"  in  which  he  displayed  great  abilities  and 
judgment.  These  were  followed,  iiv  1788,  by  a  very  able 
defence  of  some  of  the  essential  doctrines  of  the  churchy 
respecting  the  nature  and  person,  death  and  sufferings  of 
Christ,  in  "  Four  Tracts ;  on  the  principle  of  religion,  as 
^  test  of  divine  authority ;  on  the  principle  of  redemption ; 
on  the  angelical  message  to  the  Virgin  Mary,  and  on  the 
resurrection  of  the  body ;  with  a  discourse  on  humility,** 
8vo,  the  whole  illustrated  by  notes  and  authorities.  He 
published  also  one  or  two  other  single  sermons^  and  an  ode 
for  the  eiicoenia  at  the  installation  of  the  duke  of  Portland 
in  1793  ;  but  what  confers  the  highest  honour  on  his  abili- 
ties, critical  talents,  and  industry,  was  his  collation  of  the 
MSS.  of  the  Septuagint  version,  which  he  appears  to  have 
begun  about  1786.  Induced  to  think  that  the  means  of 
determining  the  genuine  tenor  of  the  Scriptural  text  wouldl 
be  mudTi  enlarged  if  the  MSS,  of  the  Septuagint  version 
were  carefully  collated,  as  those  of  the  Hebrew  had  been^ 
and  ibn  collations  published  in  one  vie w^  he  laid  down  his 

HOLMES..  83 

{>lajQ,,.the  essential  parts  of  which  were:  that  all  MSS« 
knoi^o  or  discoverable  at  home  or  abroad^  if  prior  to  the 
invention  of  printing,  should  be  carefully  collated  with 
on^  printed  text;  and  all  particularities  in  which  they  dif- 
fered from  it  distinctly  noted ;  that  printed  editions  and  ver- 
sions, inade  from  all  or  parts  of  that  by  the  seventy,  and 
juitations  from  it  by  eccle^stical  writers  (with  a  distinction 
of  tbos^  who  wrote  before  the  time  of  Aquila  or  after  k), 
should  also  be  collated  with  the  same  printed  teirt,  and  all 
their  variations  from  it  respectively  ascertained;  and  that 
these  materials,  when  collected,  should  all  be  reduced  to 
one  plain  view,  and  printed  under  the  text  with  which  the 
several  collations  have  been  made,  as  by  Pr.  Keunicott— » 
or  without  the  text,  as  by  De  Rossi.  Upon  these  general 
principles.  Dr.  Holmes  embarked  on  his  enterprize,  hav* 
ing  in  the  first  instance  been  patronized  by  the  delegates 
of  the  Clarendon  pre^s,  and  by  liberal  subscriptions  from 
other  universities,  and  the  public  at  large.  The  de^legates 
of  the  press,  agreed  to  allow  him  40/.  a  year  for  three.years, 
^^  on  bis  exhibiting  to  them  his  collations  annually,  to  be 
deposited  in  th^,  Bodleian  library,  and  when  the  whole  was 
finished,  to  be  printed  at  the  university  press,  at  his.  ex- 
pence,  and  for  bis  benefit,  or  of  his  assigns,  if  he  should 
live  to  complete  his  collations ;  or  if  they  were  left  imper.-* 
feet,  they  were  to  be  at  the  discretion  of  the  delegates,  they 
undertaking  to  promote  the  finishing  of  them  to.  the  best 
pf  their  power,  and  to  publish  them  when  finished,  allow- 
ing to  his  assigns  a  just  proportion  of  the  profits.*' 

V^th  these  encouragements.  Dr.  Holmes  exhibited  in 
•1789  .bis  first  annual  account,  by  which  it  appeared  that 
^leven  folio  volumes  of  collations  were  deposited,  at  th^ 
end  of  that  year,  in  the  Bodleian  library ;  subsequent  an- 
nual accounts  followed,  and  at  the  end  of  I7dk3,  the  total 
number  of  MS  volumes  deposited  in  that  library  was  seven- 
ty-three, and  the  sum  received  by  subscriptions  4445/. 
which,  liberal  as  it  may  seem,  fell  very  fur  short  of  the  ex-* 
pences  incurred  by  the  editor.  Notwithstanding  this  W 
proceeded  in  the  last-mentioned  year  to  subo^it  two  folio 
specimens  to  the  opinion  of  scholars  and  critics,  the  first 
containing  cbsCpters  I.  and  J.I.  of  Genesis,  and  the  second, 
chapter  I.  according  to  the  Vatican  text,  the  divisions  of 
.chapters  and  verses  in  which  somewhat  digiar^  from  the 
Vulgate.  He  was  aware,  however,  that  his  original  plan 
was  so  extensively  idborlous,  that  09  perseverance  or  lif^ 

(J   2 

«4  H  O  L  M  fe  S. 


Wbuld  bav^  hken  equal  to  Us  lexectttion.  He  ddte^mtlted, 
therefore,  to  contract  it,  and  in  tHfe  form  published  lii  17M 
ban  of  his  first  volume,  feotitkfmf^g  tfre  book  of  Geilesis, 
*)?bich  exhibits  a  Very  tekttitri'di^ry  itaiohmdi^t  of  diligc^»e<^. 
This  was  followell  in  1801,  by  artoHifer  pdrtion  of  tbe^Btie 
Volume,  coAtaimog  tlx^dhs  tod  L^hiciis ;  ^hd  Ih  1804 
the  tolcrme  was  completed  by  th^  addittdta  6f  Numb^t^ftatid 
Deuterohom^,  with  a  valvafbfe  preface^  givirtg  a  hisitd^y  ef 
the  8eptaa^}nt  and  its  vftrtous  editibtw.  Dr.  Holmes  tbfeh 
'publiibed  the  prophecy  of  Daniel,  According  to  Thifrbdo- 
tlon  and  the  Scptuaginti  departing  from  his  pwpoited 
ordfer,  as  if  by  a  presentiment  of  his  end;  The  Idss  of  WtA 
-a  iiian  at  this  eritical  time  tras  nnqtiestib^bly  gteat,^  tod 
nvft^  duly  Appreciated  by  every  "scholar  who  Wasr  k  jud^e  'crf 
-his  labours.  They  felt  ^herefote  a  proporHorial  grtttificJii- 
^on,  in  seeing  the  work  iresutned,  in  kh  tintform  hianlft^ry 
after  an  interruption  of  only  four -years,  by  the  rcfv.'Jann^es 
Parsons,  M.  A.  of  Wadham  college,  who  in  1810  published 
the  first  part  of  vol.  11.  containing  the  book  of  Joshitia,  and 
^bo  appears  in  every  retpect  qualified  to  carry  oh  -tbela- 
ikH-ious  design  with  honour  to  himself  and  to  the  uniVer^ 
«ty.  * 

HOLSTENIUS,  nr  HOLSTEIN  (Lucas),  an  iiig^ntotis 
'andIearnedGerinan,WasboniatHamburgin  1596;  and  aftet 
%  liberal  education  in  his  own  country,  went  toFranee^'and 
^t  (^aris'distinguished  himself  by  uhfcottimori  parts  and  learn^ 
ing.  He  was  educated  a  protestant,  but  afterwards  by  the 
persuasions  of  Sirmond  the  Jesuit,  embraced  the  Roddati 
*tatholic  religion^  and  going  fromFrance  to  Rotoe,  attat^hed 
biihseif  to  cardinal  Francis  Barberiiii ;  who  took  him  under 
4its  protection,  and  recommended  him  to  favour.  He  was 
iionoured  by  three  popes.  Urban  VIII.  Innocent  X.  and 
'Alexander  VH.  The 'first  gave  him  a  canon  ry  of  St. 
•Peter's;  the  second  made  him  librarian  of  the  Vatican; 
and  the  third  sent  him,  in  1^65,  to  Christina  of  Sweden^ 
w^iose  formal  profession  of  the  Catholic  faith  he  received  at 
inspruck.  He  spent  his  life  in  study,  arid  died  at  Rome 
♦in  1^61.  Cardinal  Barberini,  whom  he  made  his  heir^ 
caused^  marble  monument  to  be  erected  over  his  grave, 
witfaa  Latin  inscription  much  to  his  honour.  He  wins  very 
learned  both  in  sacred  and  profane  antiquity^  was  an  aictiie 
5crhic,  and  wrote  with  the  utmost  purity  and  ele^f^e. 

I  ttMt.  ASag.  x«ir  LXXV.--lVro»lb.  Cnitical,  andl  Brifeisk  Crrttic. 

h    n 


works  eoosiftted  chiefly  of  notes  and  dissertations,  which 
hanre  been  highly  esteemed  forjudgmeDt  and  precision. 
Some  of  these  were  published  by  himself;  but  the  greater 
part  were  eomnunicated  after  his  death,  and  inserted  by 
his  friends  in  their  editions  of  authors,  or  other  works  that 
would  admit  them.  His  notes  and  emendations  upon  Eur 
sebius's  book  against  Hi^rocles,  upon  Porphyry 'S  <'  Life  of 
Pythagoras,"  upon  ApoUooius's  *^  Argonautics,"  upon  the 
fifsgments  of  DemophUus,  Democrates,  ^eci^odus,  and  Sal- 
lustius  the  philosopher,  upon  Stepbanus  Byzaotinus  de 
Urbibus,  8cc.«  are  to  be  found  in  the  best  editions  of  th\>se 
autfaprs.  He  wrote  a  ''  Dissertation  upon  the  Life  and 
Wsitiogrs  of  Porphyry,"  which  is  printed  with  his  notes  on 
f^hyry^gJf  Life  of  Pythagoras ;"  and  other  dissertations 
of  iiis  are  inserted  in  Grsevius's  **  Ck)lleciion  of  Roman  An- 
dquities,"  and  elsewfaere.' 

HOLT  (Sir  Join?),  knight,  lord  chief  justice  of  the  oouft 
of  King's-bench  in  Uie  reign  of  king  Wiiliam,  was  son  of 
sir  Thomas  Ho)t,  knight,  serjeaot  at  law;  and  born  at 
Thame  in  Oafordshire,  1642.  He  was  educated  at  Abing- 
don-school,  while  his  father  was  recmder  of  that  ^wn ; 
Bod  afterwards  became  a  gentleman*commoner  of  Oriel^ 
coliege,  Oxford.  In  165^  he  entered  himself  of  Gray^s« 
inn,  before  be  took  a  degree ;  some  time-  after  which  be 
was  eaHed  to  the  bar,  where  he  attended  constantly,  and 
soon  became  a  very  eminent  barrister.  In  the  reign  of 
Jaases  H.  he  was  made  recorder  of  L<uidon,  which  office 
he  disctiarged  with  much  applause  for  about  a  year  and  a 
half;  but  refusing  to  give  his  hand  towards  abolishing  the. 
testf  and  'to  expound  the  law  according  to.  the  king's  design, 
he  was  removed  from  his  place.  In  16ft6  he.  was  called  to 
the  degree  of  a  seijeant  at  law,  with  many  other^i.  On  the 
arrivat  of  the  prince  of  Orange,  he  was  chosen  a  member 
of  the  convention  parliament ;  and  appointed  one  of  the 
managers  for  the^^ommons  at  the  conferences  held  with  the 
lords,  about  the  abdication  and  the  vacancy ^  of  the  throne. 
He  ^d  here  an  opportunity  of  displaying  his  abilities ;  and 
as  soon  as  the  government  was  settled,  he  was  made  lord: 
chief  justice  of  the  court  .of  King's-bench,  and  admitted 
into  the  king's  privy- council. 

In  1700,  when  lord  Somers  parted 'with  the  great  seal, 
king  William  pressed  chief  justice  Holt  to  accept  of  it : 

.     1  IfHBtrom  vsL  XXXI.--»CbAafepMi— Morf ri.r-.Saxii  Onosiftst. 

S9  HOLT.-; 

but  he  replied,  that  he  never  had  but  one  chancery  eause 
in  bis' life,  which  he  lost ;  and  consequently  could  not'  think 
himself  fitly  qualified  for  so  great  a  trust.  He  continued  in 
his  post  twenty-two  years,  and  maintained  it  with  great 
reputation  for  steadiness,  integrity,  and  complete  know-r 
ledge  in  his  profession.  He  applied  himself  with  great  as* 
siduity  to  the  functions  of  his  important  office.  He  was 
perfect  master  of  the  common  law ;  and,  as  his  judgment 
was  most  solid,  his  capacity  vast,  bnd  understanding  most 
clear,  so  he  had  a  firmness  of  mind,  and  such  a  degree  of 
resolution,  as  never  could  be  brought  to  swerve  in  ^e  least 
from  what  he  thought  to  be  law  and  justice.  Upon  gnoat 
occasions  he  shewed  an  intrepid  zeal  in  asserting  the  au« 
thority  of  the  law ;  for  he  ventured  to  incur  the  indigna* 
tion  of  both  houses  of  parliament,  by  turns,  when  he 
thought  the  law  was  with  him.  Sev^al  oases  of  the  utmost 
importance,  and  highly  affecting  the  lives,  rights,  liberties, 
and  property  of  the  people,  came  in  judgment  before  hifft. 
There  was  a  remarksible  clearness  and  perspicuity  of  ideas 
in  his  definitions ;  a  distinct  arrangement  of  them  in  the 
analysis  of  his  arguments ;  and  the  real  and  natural  differ- 
ence of  things  was  made  most  perceptible  and  obvious^ 
when  he  distinguished  between  matters  which  bore  a  false 
resemblance  to  each  other.  Having  thus  rightly  formed 
his  premises,  he  scarcely  ever  erred  in  his  conclusions ;  bis 
arguments  were  instructive  and  convincing,  and  his  in* 
tegrity  would  not  suffer  him  to  deviate  from  judgment  and 
truth,  in  compliance  to  his  prince,  or,  as  observed  before, 
to  either  house  of  paHiament.  They  are  most  of  theia 
faithfully  and  judiciously  reported  by  that  eminent  lawyer, 
chief  justice  KaynM)nd.  His  integrity  and  uprightness  as 
a  judge  are  celebrated  by  the  author  of  the  *^  Tatler,** 
No.  1 4,  under  the  noble  character  of  Verus  the  magistrate. 
There  happened  in  the  time  of  this  chief  justice  a  riot 
in  Hoiborn,  occasioned  by  an  abominable  practice  then 
prevailing,  of  decoying  young  persons  of  both  sexes  tp  the 
Plantations,  The  persons  so  decoyed  they  kept  prisoners 
in  a  house  in  Hoiborn,  till  they  could  find  an  opportunity 
of  shipping  them  off;  which  being  discovered,  the  enraged 
populace  were  going  to  pull  down  the  house.  Notice  of 
tbis«being  sent  to  Whitehall,  a  party  of  the  guards  were 
commanded  to  march  to  the  place ;  but  they  first  sent  aa 
officer  to  the  chief  justice  to  acquaint  him  with  the^  design, 
and  to  desire  him  to  send  some  of  his  people  to  attend  the 

HOLT.  «7 

Boldiersy  in  ordes  to  give  it  the  better  countenance.  Th^ 
oflicer  having  delivered  liis  message,  Holt  said  to  tiioii 
**  Suppose  the  populace  should  not  disperse  at  your  ap** 
pearance,  what  are  you  to  do  then?''  ^<  Sir,'',  answered 
the  officer,  *'  we  have  orders  to.  fire  upon  theoi."  ^^Have 
you,  Sir  ?  (replied  Holt)  then  take  notice  of  what  I  say ; 
if  there  be  one  man  killed,  and  you  are  triced  before  me,  I 
will  take, care  that  you,  and  every  soldier  of  your  party, 
shall  be  hanged.  Sir,  (added  he)  go  back  to  those  who 
sent  you,  and  acquaint  them,  that  no  officer  of  mine  shall 
attend  soldiers;  and  let  them  know  at  the  same  time,  that 
the  laws  of  this  kingdom  are  not  to  be  executed  by  th^ 
sword :  these  matters  belong  to  the  civil  power,  and  you 
have  nothing  to  do  with  them."  Upon  this,  the  chief  jus* 
tice,  ordering  his  tipsuves  with  a  few  constables  to  attend 
him,  went  himself  in  person  to  the  place  where  the  tumult 
was;  expostulated  with  the  mob ;  assured  them  that  justice 
should  be  done  upon  the  persons  who  were  the  objects  of 
their  indignation  :  and  thus  they  all  dispersed  quietly. 

He  married  Anne  *,  daughter  of  sir  John  Cropley,  hart 
whom  he  left  without  issue;  and  died  in  March  1709, 
after  a  lingering  illness,  in  his  68th  year.  The  following 
re]|orts  were  published  by  himself,  in  1708,  fol.  with  some 
notes  of  his  own  upon  them :  *^  A  Report  of  divers  Cases,  in 
Pleas  of  the  Crown,  adjudged  and  determined,  in  the  reign 
^of  the  late  King  Charles  the  Second,  with  directions  for 
justices  of  the  peace,  and  others,  collected  by  sir  John 
Key  ling,  knight,  late  lord  chief  justice  of  his  Majesty's 
court  of  King's-bench,  from  the  original  manuscript  under 
his  own  hand.  To  which  is  added.  The  Report  of  thiree 
modern  Cases,  viz.  Armstrong  and  Lisle;  the  King  and 
Plumer ;  the  Queen  and  Mawgridge."  A  second  edition 
was  pretendedly  published  in  1739,  but  the  title  only  wsys 
new.  * 

HOLT  (John),  a  miscellaneous  writer  of  considerable 
merit,  was  born  at  Mottram  in  Cheshire  in  1742,  and 
educated  with  a  view  to  the  ooinTstry  among  the  dissenters ; 
but  this  pursuit  he  very  early  relinquished,  in  consequence 

*  Dr.  Arbuthnot  iii  a  Letter  to  Swift  jastice  Hott'i  wife,  whom  he  attended 

says,   **  I  t6ok  the  same  pleasure  ia  out  of  spite  to  the  husband,  who  wished 

saring  hiiQ  (Gay,  the  poet),  as  Rad-  her  dead. 
tUffe  did  in  preserving  my  lord  chief 

I  Life»  1764,  Sto.— Biog.  Brit.  toI.  VI  L  Supplement'— Burnet's  Own  Times. 
•— Atb.  03U  vol.  U.— Nichols's  Atterbury. 

'k»  H  O  L  T; 

of  becoming  z  tneinber  of  the  clitircl^  ol  Englaiid.  tl^ 
icontitnied)  ho^vever,  to  cultivate  his  mind  by*  levery  op^por^ 
tanity  withiti  his  power,  aUhough  his  circumstfthces  in  earFy  * 
Kfe  were  uo^vour^ble  to  a  liberal  education.  Abom  tht 
year  1761  he  removed  to  Walton  in  Lancashire,  three  miles* 
from  Liverpool,  where  be  commenced  ^cfaoolmi^ter  m4 
parish-clierk  ;  the  latter  he  resigned  some  years  lyeibre  h^ 
tieath.  Having  married  a  very  sensibly  and  worthy  wbm^n, 
)re  opened  a  boarding-school  for  yoang  ladies,  with  tfaik 
Assistance  of  his  wife,  and  carried  it  on  with  great  reputa* 
tion.  f)is  time  was  for  many  years  divided  between  l!h^ 
pares  of  the  school  knd  the  study  &f  tigficulture,  ivhich 
had  always  in  some  measure  engaged  his  nmid.  Vdr  bis 
scholars  he  compiled  several  us^nl  manuals,  particulatly 
the  "Characters  of  the  Kings  and  Queens  of  England,'* 
1786—1788,  3  vols,  l12mo,  so  jgdiciousf]y  laid  doWn,  knfl 
Illustrated  by  iso  many  sensible  and  original  temai'ks,  ihA 
bad  Mr.  Holt  applied  himself  to  history  only,  it  is  not 
improbable  he  might  have  produced  a  wotk  of  Iri^er  hn* 
portance  in  that  science.     In  the  course  of  his  agriculttiral 

?)ursuits,  he  wrote  **  An  %iisay  on  the  Curie  in  Potattoes," 
or  which  he  received  the  medal  from  the  society  of  arts, 
manufactures,  and  commerce.  The  many  essays  amd  me- 
moirs which  he  drew  up  on  such  subjects  having  acquired 
him  the  character  of  a  minute  and  sfcilful  observer,  the 
Board  of  agriculture  appointed  hifn  surveyor  of  the  cOunfty 
of  Lancaster,  and  the  ^^  Report"  which  he  returned,  rich 
^1  valuable  diatter,  judiciously  arranged,  *was  the  first  that 
was  republished  by  the  Board ;  and  he  had  various  pre- 
miums and  other  testimonies  of  approbation  adjudged  to 
him.  It  appears  to  have  been  his  utmost  ambition  to  em- 
ploy his  time  in  what  was  useful,  and  no  part  of  that  timei 
was  allowed  to  pass  without  adding  something  to  his  stock 
of  knowledge.  He  was  at  last  employed  in  collecting 
materials  for  a  History  of  Liverpool,  when  a  bilious  disorder 
carried  him  off,  March  21,  1801,  to  the  very  great  regret 
of  all  who  knew  his  amiablp  character.  A  portrait,  and 
some  other  parjticulars  of  his  Kfe,  may  be  seen  in  our 

HOLTE  (J^QK),  author  of  the  first  Latin  grammar  of 
any  note  in  England,  was  a  native  of  the  county  of  Sussex, 
and  flourished  about  the  latter  part  of  the  fifteenth  cen* 

1  Cent  Mag.  toI.  LXXt. 

H  O  L  T  K.  •» 

tury.  After  bavingr  httu  for  sotne  time  usher  of  the  school 
next  to  Magdalen  college  gate  in  Oxford,  be  took  his 
degree  of  B.  A.  and  in  1491  was  admitted  fellow  of  that 
"College.  He  afterwards  compteted  his  degrees  in  atts,  and 
comn^enced  schoolmaster,  in  which  capacity  he  acqaireil 
'great  reputation^  and  prepared  for  college  many  student!, 
who  were  afterwards  men  of  eminence.  When  he  died  Is 
unknown,  bnt  he  was  alive  in  1511.  The  gramriiar  be 
|mhliihed  was  entitled  ^'^  Lac  PHeroruni.  M.  Holti.  Mylke 
for  chy  Wren,"  4to,  printed  by  Wynkyn  de  Worde,  149T. 
It  is  dedicated^  to  Morton  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  anil 
has  some  veiy  elegant  Latin  verses  by  sir  Thomas  More, 
•when  he  was  a  young  man.  The  only  copy  known  is  in 
Mr.  Heber's  fine  collection.  This  grammar,  the  first  me?- 
^odical  piece  of  the  kind  for  the  use  of  schools,  was  long 
-followed  by  John  Stanbiidge,  Robert  Whittington,  Wifliam 
l.ily,  Leonard  Cox,  Henry  Prime,  and  other  sclioc4- 

HOLWELL  (Johk  ZtPHANiAM),  a  learned  EngliA 
'gentleman,  well  known  in  the  history  of  Britirii  India, 
was  the  son  of  Zepbaniah  flolwell,  thnher-merchant  and 
citizen  -of  London,  and  grandson  of  John  Holwell,  a  mathe*  . 
fwaNScal  writer  of  much  feme  in  the  serertieenth  century. 
The  ftither  and  grandfather  of  this  Jchn  Holwell  both  fell 
in  support  of  the  royal  cause  during  the  nsui|yation,  and 
libe  family  estate  of  Holwell- ball,  in  Devonshire,  was  lost 
to  their  descendants  for  ever ;  for  although  Mr.  Holwell 
applied  to  king  Charles  at  the  restoration,  the  only  re* 
compense  he  obtained  was  to  be  appointed  royal  astrono- 
mer and  surveyor  of  the  crown  lands,  and  the  advaneemerit 
of  his  wife  to  a  place  of  some  honour,  but  of  little  emohi- 
ment,  about  the  person  of  the  queen.  Some  years  after  ^ 
lie  was  appointed  mathematical  preceptor  to  the  duke  ^f 
Monmouth,  for  whom  he  conceived  a  warm  attachment, 
-snd,  believing  farm  lo  be  the  legitimate  son  of  the  king, 
-was  ind^^ed  to  take  a  very  active  and  imprudent  pan 
against  the  succession  of  the  duke  of  York,  which  in  the 
end  proved  bis  ruin.  Having  published  in  16S3  a  small 
Latin  tract  called  '^  Catastrophe  Mundi,'*  which  was' soon 
after  translated,  and  is  a  severe  attack  on  the  popish  t^rty, 
he  was  marked  for  destruction  as  soon  as  the  duke  of  York 

4i)QiUe8»  vol.  II. 

dQ  H  O  L  WE  L  L. 

xame  to  the  throne.  Accordingly,  in  1681,  it  was  conr 
trived  that,  in  quality  of  surveyor  to  the  crown,  he  should 
be  sent  to  America,  to  survey  and  lay  down  a  chart  of  the 
town  of  New  York ;  and  at  the  same  time  secret  orderjs 
,  were  sent  to  the  government  agents  there,  to  take  some 
effectual  means  to  prevent  his  return.  In  consequence  of 
this,  it  is  said,  that  he  had  no  sooner  execqt^d  his  commis- 
sion, than  he  died  suddenly,  and  his  death  was  attributed, 
at  the  time  and  on  the  spot,  to  the  application  of  poison 
administered  to  him  in  a  dish  of  coffee.  His  son  was  futher 
to  the  subject  of  the  present  article. 

John  Zephaniah  Holwell  was  bom  at  Dublin,  Sept.  17^ 
1711,  and  at  the  age  of  eight  was  brought  over  to  England, 
and  placed  at  Mr.  M'Kenzie's  grammar-school  at  Richmond 
in  Surrey,  where  he  distinguished  himself  in  classical 
learning.  After  this,  his  father  having  determined  to  breed 
bim  up  to  mercantile  life  in  Holland,  sent  him  to  an  aca- 
demy at  Iselmond  on  the  Mouse,  where  he  learned  th|e 
French  and  Dutch  languages,  and  was  instructed  in  book- 
keeping. He  was  then  placed  in  the  counting-house  of 
Lantwoord,  a  banker  and  ship's-husband  at  Rotterdam^ 
with  a  stipulation  that  he  was  to  be  admitted  as  a  partner  at 
the  expiration  of  five  years.  The  unceasing  toil,  however, 
of  his  new  situation  soon  affected  his  health  to  a  very 
alarming  degree ;  and  although  he  recovered  by  consulting 
the  celebrated  Boerhaave  at  Leyden,  his  inclination  for 
trade  was  gone,'  and  on  his  return  to  England,  his  father, 
finding  him  inflexible  on  this  point,  bound  him  appren* 
tice  to  Mr.  Forbes,  a  surgeon  in  the  Park,  Southwark,  and 
upon  the  death  of  that  gentleman  he  was  placed  under  the 
care  of  Mr.  Andrew  Cooper,  senior  surgeon  of  Guy's 

.  Being  now  duly  qualified,  andf  having  lost  his  father  in 
1729,  who  left  a  very  slender  provision  for  his  widow  and 
son,  he  quitted  the  hospital,  and  engaged  himself  as  sur- 
geon's mate  on  board  the  Duke  of  Cumberland  Indiaman, 
which  jailed  from  Gravesend  Feb.  2,  1732,  and  proceeded 
to  Bengal,  where  he  was  appointed  surgeon  of  a  frigate 
belonging  to  the  company,  bound  for  the  gulph  of  Persia. 
In  the  course  of  this  voyage  he  acquired  some  knowledge 
of  the  Arabic  tongue,  and  on  his  return  to  Calcutta  em- 
ployed his  leisure  hours  in  studying  the  Moorish  ^nd  com- 
mon Hinduee  languages,  and  the  Lingua  Franca  of  the 
Portuguese.    -In  January  1734  he  made  another  voyage,  as 


.  H  0  L  W  E  t  L.  9^ 


sargeoo  of  the  ship  Prince  of  Wales,  to  Suri^^  &c.  aud 
80011  after  his  return  to  Bengal,  he  was  appointed  surgeon* 
major  to  the  Patna  party,  usually  consisting  of  about  400 
European  infaDtry^  frhich  annually  left  the  presidency  in 
the.  latter  end  of  Septeoiber,  with  the  company's  trade  for, 
ibeir  factory  at  Patna.  His  next  voyage  was  in  ;tbe  ship 
Prince  of  Orange^  to  Mocha  and  Judda  in  the  Arabian 
gulph.  During  his  stay  there  he  added  to  his  knowledges 
of  the  Arabic  tongue,  and,  on  his  return  to  Ca\cutta  was 
able  to  speak  it  with  tolerable  fluency.  After  another 
visi](,  however,  to  Patna,  as  surgeon-major,  he  was  anxious 
to  quit  this  rambling  life,  and  by  the  interest  of  his  friends 
was  appointed  surgeon  to  the  company's  factory  at  Decca ; 
and  here,  besides  farther  improving  himself  in  the  Moonsh. 
and  Hinduee  tongues,  he  commenced  his  researches  into 
the  Hindu  theology. 

At  the  close  of  the  year  1736  he  returned  to  Calcutta, 
and  was  elected  an  alderman  in  the  mayor's  court ;  and  in- 
1740  was  appointed  assistant  surgeon  to  the  hospital,  which 
first  g^ye  him  a  solid  establishment  in  the  company's  ser-» 
vice.  In  1746  he  succeeded  to  the  place  of  principal 
physician  and  surgeon  to  the  presidency ;  and  in  the  yeara 
1747  and  1748  was  successively  elected  mayor  of  the  cor- 
poration. In  Sept.  1749  his  bad  state  of  health  rendered 
it  necessary  for  him  to  return  to  England,  where  he  arrived 
in  the  March  following.  During  this  voyage  he  bad  leisure 
to  arrange  his  materials  on  the  theology  and  doctrines  of 
the  ancient  and  modern  Brahmans,  and  to  digest  a  plam 
which  he  had  formed  for  correcting  abuses  in  the  Zemin* 
dar's  court  at  Calcutta.  This  scheme  of  reform  he  sub- 
mitted to  the  court  of  directors,  who,  in  consequence .  of 
the  advantages  it  promised  to  produce,  appointed  him  per*» 
petual  Zemindar,  and  twelfth,  or  youngest,  in  the  cou'ncU 
at  the  board  of  Calcutta ;  but  With  an  exception  to  any 
further  advancement  in  it.  On  his  arrival  in  Calcutta,  in 
August  17^1,  he  immediately  began  his  system  of  reform, 
which  gave  so  much  satisfaction  to  the  directors,  that  tb^: 
exception  against  his  rising,  in  the  council  wa$  removed, 
and  4000  rupees  added  to  his  salary.  I'he  nature  and 
object  of  this  reform  is  fully  delineated  in  his  ^' India  Tsracts^'* 
a  4to  volume,  which  he  published  at  London  in  1764. 

In  1756  he  rose  to  be  seventh  in  council,  and  in  the 
month  of  June  in  that  year,  Surajah  Dowlah,  nabob  of 
bengal,  attacked  Calcutta.    The  governor  and  seniors  iit 

U  H  O  L  W  E  L  L. 

council  having  deserted  the  place,  the  renainifig  memhets^ 
of  the  board,    with  the  inhabitants  and  trbops,    elected 
Mr.  Holwell  governor  and  commander  in  chief  of  the  fort 
and  presidency ;  who,  supported  by  i  few  gallant  friends^ 
•nd  the  remains  of  a  feeble  garrison,  bravely  held  out  l^e 
jbrt  to  the  last  extremity ;  but  a  noble  defence  could  not 
.preserve  an  untenable    place,    or  affect   an   ungenerous' 
eiiemy.    The  opposition  he  had  met  with  so  incensed  the 
habob,  that  although  on  the  surrender  he  had  given  Mr. 
Holwell  his  word  mat  no  harm  should  come  to  him,  he 
ordered  him  and  his  unfortunate  companions  in  arms,  146 
persons  in  number,  to  be  thrust  into  a  close  prison  called 
the  Black  Hole,  not  eighteen  feet  square,  into  which  no 
tfujj^ply  of  air  could  cotae  but  by  two  small  windows  in  one 
end.     Here  for  one  whole  night  they  were  confined,  and 
in  ibe  morning  only  twenty-three  were  found  alive,  one  of 
whom  was  Mr.  Holwetl,  whose  affecting  and  highly  inte- 
resting **  Narrative*'  of  the  event  was  published  at  London 
in  1758  *•    On  his  delivery  from  this  place  he  was  carried 
in  irons  to  Muxadabad,  but  was  released  on  July  31st  fol- 
lowing, by  the  intercession  of  the  Begum,  Surajah  Dbwlab's 
grandmoUier,  vAko  was  influenced  to  this  act  of  compassioo- 
by  the  reports  of  his  upright  and  lenient  conduct  to  the 
natives  during  the  time  he  presided  in  the  Zemindar  and 
Cutcherry  courts.      He  soon  after  joined  the  wretched 
remnins  of  the  colony  at  Fultafa.     In  December  following 
tlie  presidency  was  retaken  by  vice-admiral  Watson  and 
eolonel  Clive,  and  the  governor  and  council  re-established 
by  them. 

Mr.  Holwell  being  in  a  most  deplorable  state  of  health, 
from  bis  unparalleled  sufferings,  obtained  leave  to  take- 
dispatches  for  the  company  to  England,  and  for  that  pur- 
pose embarked  on  board  the  Syren  sloop,  of  no  more  t^an 
eighty  tons  burthen.  In  February  1757,  after  a  most  ha- 
zardous voyage  of  six  months  in  that  small  ve8se;l  (a  very 
curious  journal  of  which  he  nfterwards  published),  he 
arrived  in  England  ;  and  in  consideration  of  his  meritorious 
services,    eminent  abilities,   and  distinguished  integrity, 

*  At  the  ttne  of  Mr.  Ho^reIi*s4e»th  Uemao  vbo,  ms  mmitipiiiBd  m  t^>  par*^ 

in  119%  there  were  two  survivors  of  rati ve,  manifestecl  the  truest  frieDdship, 

that  horrible  tyranny,  in  Eugland :  Mr.  by  resigning  h  is  station  near  the  window 

Bardett»  residing  at  TbitOD  near  South-  of  the  dungeon  to  Mr.  Holwell,  whg* 

an)pton,.aDd  Capt  Mills  on  the  Haap-  otherwise  must  have  expired  in  a  iesr« 

stead-road.     The  latter,   who,  if  we  ,  minutes, 
mietake  loc,  is  still  iiving,  is  the  ge«- 


iwas  appointed^  by  a  nuajoritjr  of  fifteen  aget9«l{  liinti  in 
ihe  court  o^  directofs,  to  return  tM»  Bengal  ai  lucaessQt  to 
eolanel  Clire  in  that  government ;  but  this  i^ipointmeiit 
hey  ^ith  great  modesty^  decUoed  in  favoof  of  Mr*  Manning** 
haoft.  He  was  tbeil  named  second  in  oemncil,  aiMl  aaceea- 
^or  to  that  gentleman.  In  this  situation  ke  embarked  oil 
.board  tbe  Warren  Indtaasan  in  March  1758;  bnt  betn^ 
detained  by  adverse  winds  till  an  election  of  neur  dtrecfeoit 
took  place)  tbey  reversed  the  whole  ptqceedings  of  tha 
former  court,  and  Mr.  Holwell  was  returned  to  fats  previous 
«i|ualrio<)  as  seventh  ia  council.  With  what  justice  or  Ube>» 
raUty  this  proceeding  was  instituted  we  know  not':  Mr. 
•Holwellj  however,  on  his  arrtvid  in  Bengal^  found  himseil^ 
by  the  ^{^arture  of  some  senior  members  of  the  coudoi^ 
Iciartb  in  rank;  and  in  .17 59^  from. a  similar  renuJTal^  he 
became  aecond,  when  colonel  Cbve  resigned  tbe  gov>em«> 
4Rient  to  hia^  The  conduct  of  his  administration,  and  tbe 
lienefits  the  oompany  derived  from  it,  are  displayed  widi 
eQual  truth  and  modesty  in  the  *'  India  Tracts"  already 

.  At  the  close  of  the  year  1760  he  was  superseded  by 
Mr.  Vaosittart,  and  in  February  followiftg  be  resigned  all 
employment  in  the  company'<s  service ;  and  in  the  succeed- 
ing month  embarked  for  England  iii  a  noost  wretched  state 
of  health,  which  it  recfuired  upwards  of  twelve  months 
residence  and  care  to  re-establish.  Tired  of  the  bustle  of 
public  life,  he  now  made  his  election  in  favour  of  retire- 
itient  and  tranquillity,  being  possessed  of  an  ample  and 
independent  fortune,  acc^ired  in  the  most  honourable 
planner ;  although  it  has  been  complained  that  he  did  not 
veceive  those  returns  from  the  East  India  Company^  to 
^wbicfa  he  was  entitled  by  bis  long  and  meritorious  services. 
Mr.  Holwell  was  the  first  European  who  studied  the  Hmdu 
antiquities ;  and  although  be  was  uimvoidahly  led  into 
many  terrors  concerning  them,  from  his  being  totally  un-^ 
acquainted  with  the  Saoscreet  language,  he  must  be 
allowed  the  merit  of  having  poimed  out  the  path  .which  ^hs^ 
fiaally  conducted  others  to  those  repositories  of  learning  By  the  capture  of  Calcutta  in  1756,  governor 
Holwell  lost  maaycvrioiK  Hindu  manuscripts,  and  among 
^bem  two  copies  of  the  Sastras,  or  book  of  divine  autho-* 
rtty,  written  ia  the  common  Hinduee  language,  for  which 
the  comausstoners  of  restitution  allowed  him  two  thousand 
Madras  ri^es«    He  also  lost  a  translation  of  a  considerable 

«  holwell; 

•part;  of  liiat  work,  on  which  be  had  employed  eighteen 
•moqths.  However,  during  his  residence  in  Bengal,  after 
:be  wais  removed  from  the  government,  he  resumed  hit 
^searches,,  and  having  recovered  some  manuscripts  by  an 
unforeseen  and  extraordinary  event,  he  was  enabled,  in 
August  1765,  to  publish  the  first  part  of  bis  *^  Intei^esting 
jiistoiricai  events  relative  to  Bengal  and  Indostan  $  as  also 
^tbe  Mythology  of  the  Gentoos ;  and  a  dissertation  on  the 
Metempsychosis,"  Lxxnd.  8vo.  In  1766  and  1771  he  ptib- 
lisbed  the  second  and  third  parts  of  the  same  work,  in 
which  there  is  much  curious  information,  although  ini'Kis 
reasonings  he  has  been  supposed  to  attribute  too  much  of 
divine  authority  to  the  Sastras.  One  of  his  most  valuable 
publications  was  ^^  An  account  of  the  manner  of  inoculat- 
ing, for  tlie  small  pox  in  India,'*  with  observations  on  the 
medical  practice  and  mode  of  treating  that  disease  in  the 
east.  He  piliblisbed  also  ^*  A  new  experiment  for  the 
prevention  of  crimes,*'  1786,  which  consisted  chiefly  in 
establishing  a  system  of  rewards  for  virtue.  His  last  pub- 
lication, *^  Dissertations  on  the  origin,  nature,  and  pursuits 
of  intelligent  beings,  and  on  Divine  Providence,  Religion, 
and  religious  Worship,'*  which  appeared  in  1788,  bore  some 
marks  of  the  whims  of  old  age^  and  contains  some  singular 
and  fanciful  opinions-,  isuch  as  that  God  created  angels  of 
diiferent  degrees,  who  on  their  fall  became,  the  best  of 
them,  Aien,  dogs,  and  horses ;  the  worst,  lions,  tigei^,  and 
other  wild  bea&ts,  :&c  Mr.  Holwell  survived  this  publica* 
tion  about  ten  years,  dying  Monday,  Nov.  5,  1 798,  at  his 
bouse  at  Pinner,  Middlesex.  He  -was  twice  married,  and 
of  bis  family  three  of  his  children  only  survived  him, 
lieut-col.  James  Holwell,  of  Soutbborough  in  Kent;  Mrs^ 
Birch,  the  wife  of  William  Birch,  esq. ;  and  Mrs;  Swinney, 
relict  of  the  late  Dr.  Swinney. 

Mr.  HolweU's  mind  was  stored  with  general  knowle|3ge  : 
his  understanding  was  at  once  sagacious  and  comprehen- 
sive; while  his  imagination  gave  a  lively  and  pleasing 
i:olour  to  all  be  knew  and  every  thing  he  said.  A  taste  for 
^legant  literature,  and  the  possession  of  elegant  accom-» 
plishments,  completed  bis  intellectual  qualifications.  There 
l^as  a  superior  urbanity  in  bis  manners,  which  did  not  pro- 
Qeed  more  from  the  babtts  of.  his  life  than  the  benevolei^d 
of  his  heart;  and  while  his  demeaiiourassimilated  him  to 
the  highest  station,'  it  tendered  him  emitten^ly  pleasing- in 
every  subordinate  rank  ot  soiial  dife.Xi  <He  was, . indeed. 

H  O  L  Y  I>  A  Y.  is 

throughout  life  a  man  of  great  benevolence,  generosity, 
and  candour.^. 

HOLYDAY  (BARTfiN),  an  ingenious  and  learned  English 
divine,  was  the  son  of' a  taylor  in  Oxford,  and  born  in  the 
parish  of  All  Saints  there  about   15^3;     He  was  entered 
early  of  Christ-church  in  the  time  of  Dr.  Ravis,  his  relation 
and  patroY),  by  whom  he  was  chosen  student;  and  in  1615 
he  took  orders.     He  was  before  noticed-  for  his  skill  in 
poetry  and  oratory,  and  now  distingViished  himself  so  much 
by  his  eloquence  and  populaHty  as  a  preacher,  that  he  had 
two  benefices  conferred  on  him  in  the  diocese  of  Oxford. 
In  1618  he  went  as  ebaplain  to  sir  Francis  Stewart,  wheti 
he  accompanied  the  coijint  Gundamore  to  Spain,  in  which 
journey  Holyday  exhibited  such  agreeable  conversation* 
talents,    that  the  count*  was  greatly   pleased    with  him. 
Afterwards  he  became  chaplain  to  the  king,  aud  was  pro^ 
inoted  to  the  archdeaconry  of  Oxford  before  1626.     In 
1642  he  was  made  a  doctor  of  divinity  by  mandamus  at 
Oxford  ;  near  which  place  he  sheltered  himself  during  the 
time  of  the  rebellion.     When  the  royal  party  declined, 
he  so  far  sided  with  the  prevailing  powers,  as  to  undergo 
the  examination  of  the  triers,  in  order  to  be  inducted  into 
the  rectory  of  Chilton  in  Berkshire ;  for  he  had  lost  his 
livings,  and  the  profits  of  his  archdeaconry,  and  could  not 
well  bear  poverty  and  distress.     This  drew  upon  him  much 
censure  from  his  own  party ;    some  of   whom,  however, 
>  says  Wood, .  commended  him,  since  he  had  thus  made 
provision  for  a  second  wife  he  had  lately  married.     After 
the  Restoration  he  quitted  this  living,  and  returned  to  Iffley 
near  Oxford,  to  live  on  his  archdeaconry  ;  and  had  he  not 
acted  a  temporizing  part,  it  was  said  he  might  have  been 
raised  to  much  higher  promotion.     |lis  poetry,  however, 
got  him  a  name  in  those  days,  and  he  stood  fair  for  pre- 
ferment.     His   philosophy  also,    discovered  in   his  book 
*'  De  Anima,*'  and  his  welManguaged  sermons,  says  Wood, 
speak  him  eminent  in  his  generation,  and  shew  him   to 
have  traced  the  rough  parts  of  learning,  as  well  as  the 
pleasant  paths  of  poetry.     He  died  at  Iffley,  Oct.  2,  1661, 
and  was  buried  at  Christ-church. 

His  works  consist  of  twenty  sermons,  published  at  dif- 
ferent times.  ^'  Technogamia,  or  the  Marriage  of  Arts, 
a  comedy,^*   1630*.     ^*  Philosopbis  pQlito-barbarse  speci- 

I  Asiatic  Annual  Register,' vol.  I. 

*  Wood  teltt'iis  that  thii  ^iec«^  bail      halt  in  the  yenr  1617,  but  witb  do  very 
been  publicly  ade^l  in  Cbrisicburcii     great  applause  ^  but  tbat  tbe  irits  of 


tt  0  t  Y  0  A  Y. 

mevi^  m  c^o  d«  ftnima  &  ^us  habititius  ioteUeetuaUbas 
iqusBstiones  aliquot  libris  duobus  illustrantur^*'  162(3,  4lq4 
*^  purvey  of  the  World,  in  ten  books,  i^  poena/'  1661,  8to. 
B^t  the  work  be  is  koown  for  now  U  his  **  TraasUtion  o^ 
tbe  /Satires  of  Juvepal  and  Persius;''  for  thougpb  bis  poetry 
ia  but  ixidiflPeren^  bis  translation  is  allowed  to  be  faithful^ 
and  bis  nqtes  g^d^.  Tbe  second  edition  of  bis  *'  Persiqs** 
was  published  in  1616  ;  and  the  fourth,  at  tbe  end  of  tb^ 
^<  Satires  of  Juvenal  illustrated,  witb  notes  and  sculptures,^* 
^673,  folio.  Dryden,  in.  the  dedication  of  bis  ''Trans« 
la^on  of  Juvenal  and  Persii^,''  qaakes  tbi^  foiiowiog  critique 
ppou  our  autbor's  performance  :  ^^  If,*'  says  b9,  ^^  rendefiog 
tbe  exact  sense  of  these  autbots,  pdraost  line  for  line,  bad 
be;^  opr  business,  Barten  Holyday  bad  done  it  already  U$ 
our  handa ;  and  by  tbe  help  of  bis  learned  notes  and  illxisr 
tratioQs,  not  only  Juvenal  and  Persias,  but  (what  is  ye€ 
more  obscure)  bis.  own  verses  migbt  be  understood.'* 
Speaking]  a  little  farther  on^  of  close  and  literal  tran8lat.ioni 
be  ad4sy  that  ^f  Holyday,  whq  m^de  this  way  bis  cboi^e^ 
seized  tbe  meaai^  of  Juve;Dal,  but  tbe  poetry  bi|s  alwaya 
escaped  bini^''  In.  bis  account  of  Holyday's  wriiingSf 
Wood  h93  omitted  an  instructive  and  entertaining  litiW 
work  entitled  '^  Comes  jucundus  in  via/'  which  he  pub* 
lished  anonymously  in  1658.  In  the  latter  part  of  tbe 
^cond  addr<ess  to  the  r^tader,  tbed:e  is  s^  quainx  aUusiop  tp 
his  name.' 

HOLYOAKE  (Francis),  a  learned  Englisbipan,  memoirs 
able  for  having  made  an/^  Etymological  Dictionary  of  Latin 
woards,"  was  born  at  Nether  Wtuta(i:re  in  Warwickshirei 
about  156-7,  and  studied  in  the  university  of  Ox£or^  abo^ii 
X582  ;  but  it  does  not  appear  tbat  be  ever  took  a  degree4 

those  times,  being  willing  to  clSstinguish 
themselnes  before  the  king,  were  re- 
solved, with  leave,  to  act  tbe  Mine  co-> 
iqedy  at  Woodstock.  Permission  being 
obtained,  it  was  accordingly  acted  oa 
9nnday  eTeaing^  Aqg.  96,  16^1.  But, 
whether  it  was  too  grave  for  bis  majesty 
and  too  scholastic  for  the  audience,  or 
^belbef,  assoraeeaid*  tbe'aolofs  bad 
taken  too  mnch  wine  before  they  began, 
IQ  order  to  remove  their  timidity,  his 
mejesty  grew  so  lirc^  with  the  perform- 
anee,  tbat»  after  the  two  first  acts  were 
over,  he  several  times  made  efforts  to 
begone.     At  length,  however,  being 

persuaded  by  those  who  were  about 
him  to  have  patience  till  It  was  over, 
lest  tbe  yoqog  men  should  be  disooU'S- 
raged  by  so  apparent  a  slight  shewn  to 
them,  be  did  sit  it  ont,  though  much 
ag«ittst.|iis  will.  Qn  which  tbe  foHow- 
ing  smart  and  ingeoieus  epigram  was 
made  by  a  c<rrtain  scholar: 
**  At  Chnst^bUrch  Marriage,  dent  be- 
fore the  king. 
Lest  tbat  their  mates  should  want  ao 

TbekHSg  bimself  did.o0wv    Wb^t»  I 

pray  ? 
He  oj(fer»d  twice  or  thrice — to  go  away.^ 

>  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  n.— Wood's  Life,  8vo.  177^.— Lloyd's  Memein,  fol — ^Ma- 
tone's  Orjrden,  vol.  IV.  p.  186.  218. 

JI  O  L  Y  O  A  K  E.  S7 

He  taught  school  at  Oxford,  and  in  his  own  country  ;  and 
became  rector  of  Southam  in  Warmckshire,  1604.  He 
was  elected  a  member  of  the  convocation  of  the  clergy  in 
the  first  year  of  Charles  the  First^s  reign  ;  and  afterwards, 
in  the  civil  wai^,  suffered  extremely  for  his  attachment  to 
that  king.  He  died  Nov.  13,  1653,  and  was  buried  at 
i\^arwick.  His  **  Dictionary^'  was  first  printed  in  I60e^ 
4to ;  aqd  the  fourth  edition  in  1633,  augm^ted,  was  dedi-. 
cated  to  Laud,  then  bishop  of  London.  He  subscribed 
himself  in  Latin,  ^' Franciscus' de  sacra  quercu.*^^ 

HOLYOAKE  (Thomas),  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
born  in  1616  at  Stony-Thorp  near  Southam  in  Warwick- 
fibire,  and  educated  in  grammar  learning  Under  Mr.  White 
at  Coventry ;  from  whence  he  Was  sent  in  Michaelmas  term 
1632,  at  the  age  of  sixteen  years,  to  Queen's  college  in 
Oxford,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  bachek>r  of  arts  July 
5, 1636,  and  that  of  master,  May  16,  1639,  and  became 
chaplain  of  the  college.  In  the  beginning  of  the  civfl 
wars,  when  Oxford  became  the  seat  of  king  Charles,  and 
was  garrisoned  for  his  use,  he  was  put  into  commission 
for  a  captain  of  a  foot  company,  consisting  mostly  of 
ftcholars.  In  this  post  he  did  great  service,  and  had  the 
degree  of  doctor  of  divinity  conferred  upon  him  by  the 
fiivour  of  his  majesty,  though  no  such  matter  occurs  in  the 
public  register  of  the  univ^sity,  which  was  then  sometimes 
neglected.  After  the  surrender  of  the  garrison  of  Oxford 
to  the  parliament,  he,  by  the  name  of  Thomas  Holyoke^ 
without  the  addition  of  master  of  arts,  bachelor  or  doctor 
of  divinity,  obtained  a  licence  from  the  university  to  prac- 
tise physic,  and  settling  in  his  own  country,  he  practised 
with  good  success  till  the  Restoration  in  1660,  in  which 
year  Thomas  lord  Leigh,  baron  of  Stone  Leigh  in  War- 
wickshire, presented  him  to  .the  rectory  of  Wbitnash  near 
Warwick.  He  was  soon  after  made  prebendary  of  the  col- 
legiate church  of  Wolverhampton  in  Staffordshire.  In 
1674  Robert  lord  Brook  conferred  upon  him  the  donative 
of  Breamour  in  Hampshire  (which  he  had  by  the  mar- 
riage of  bis  lady),  worth  about  two  hundred  pounds  per 
annum ;  but,  before  he  had  enjoyed  it  a  year,  he  died  of  a 
fever,  June  10, 1 675.  His  body  was  interred  near  that  of  his 
fether  in  the  church  of  St.  Mary  in  Warwick.  His  Dic^ 
tionary  was  published  after  his  death  in  1677^  in  foL  aod^ 

»  Ath.  Ox.,  vol.  II. 

VouXVin.  H 

98     .  H  O  L  Y  O  A  K  E. 

AS. Wood  says^  ^<  i^  made  upon  the  foundation  laid  by 
hi§  father,'*  Before  it  are  two  epistles,  one  by  the 
author's  son,  Charles  Holyoake  of  the  Inner  Temple^ 
dedicating  the  work  to  lord  Brooke,  and  another  by  Dn 
jBarlow,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  which  contains  many  parti- 
culars of  the  work  and  its. author.  He  had  another  soo^ 
the  Itev*  Henry.  Holyoake,  who  was  for  forty  years 
xnaster  of  Rugby  school  in  Warwickshire,  and  died 

HOLYWOOD  (John),  or  Halifax,  or  Sacrohosco^  was, 
according  to  Leland,  Bale,  and  Pits,  born  at  Halifax  in 
Yorkshire,  which  Mr.  Watson  thinks  very  improbable ; 
accordi^ig  to  Stainhurst,  at  Holywood  near  Dublin ;  and 
according  to  Dempster  and  Mackenzie,  in  Nithsdale  ia 
Scotland.  There  may  perhaps  have  been  more  than  one 
of  the  name  to  occasion  this  difference  of  opinion.  Mac- 
kenzie informs  us,  that  having  finished  bis  studies,  he 
entered  into  orders,  and  became  a  canon  regular  of  the 
order  of  St.  Augustin  in  the  famous  monastery  of  Holy- 
wood  in  Nithsdale.  The  English  biographers,  on  the  con- 
trary, tell  us  that  he  was  educated  at  Oxford.  They  all 
agree  however  in  asserting,  that  he  spent  most  of  his  life  ak 
Paris ;  where^  says  Mackenzie,  he  was  admitted  a  member 
of  the  university,  June  5,  1221,  under  the  syndics  of  the 
Scotch  nation ;  and  soon  after  was  elected  professor  of  m^* 
thematics,  which  he  taught  with  applause  for  many  years* 
According  to  the  same  author,  he  died  in  1256,  as  appear^ 
from  the  inscription  on  his  monument  in  the  cloisters  of  the 
convent  of  St.  Maturine  at  Paris. 

Holywood  was  contemporary  with  Roger  Bacon,  but 
probably  older  by  about  20  years.  He  was  certainly  the 
first . mathematician  of  his  time;  and  he  wrote,  I.  ^^De, 
Sphs^ra  Mundi,"  Venice,  1478,  1490,^  4to,  a  work  often 
reprinted,  and  illustrated  by  various  commentators.  2.  ^'De 
Anni  Ratione,  sen  de  Computo  Ecclesiastico.''  3.  ^<  De 
Algorismo/'  printed  with  ^*  Comm.  Petri  Cirvilli  Hisp.'* 
ParijS,.  1498.* 

ROMBERG. (William),  a  cele))rated  chemist,  was  bora 
at  Batavia  in  the  island  of  Java/Jan.  3,  1652|  the  son  of 
John  Homberg,  a  Saxon  gentleman,  governor  of  the 
arsenal  of  that  place.     His  father  at  first  put  him  into  the 

^  Ath^Os.  Vol.  Il.-^^en.  Dkt.— Oent.  Mag«  vol.  L 

•  Mackenzie's  SootclrWriten,  toI.  I.— Harrii'i  •ditioB  of  Ware's  Ircbad««» 
Wstson'i  Haiifaz.-— Hutton*B  Pictionary, 

H  O  M  B  £  R  O; 


army)  but  soon  after  qoitting  .the  service  of  the  Dutcb^  and 
a  military  life,  brought  him  to  Amsterdam,  where  he  settled. 
He,  was  now  educated,  by  paternal  indulgence,  at  Jena  and 
Leipsic,  for  the  law,  and  was  received  as  an  advocate  ia 
1674  at  Magdebourg,  but  the  sciences  seduced  him  from 
the  law  :  in  his  walks  he  became  a  botanist,  and  in  his  noc" 
turnal  rambles  an  astronomer.  An  intimacy  with  Otto  de: 
Guericke,  who  lived  at  Magdebourg,  completed  his  con-> 
version,  and  he  resolved  to  abandon  his  first  profession* 
Otto,  though  fond  of  mystery,  consented  to  communicate 
his  knowledge  to  so  promising  a  pupil ;  but  as  his  friends 
continued  to  press  him  to  be  constant  to  the  law,  he  soon 
quitted  Magdebourg,  and  went  into  Italy.  At  Padua  and 
Bologna  he  pursued  his  favourite  studies,  particularly  me«* 
dicine,  anatomy,  botany,  and  chemistry.  One  of  his  first 
efforts  in  the  latter  science  was  the  complete  discovery  of 
the  properties  of  the  Bologna  stone,  and  its  phosphoric 
appearance  after  calcination,  which  Casciarolo  had  first 
observed.  The  efforts  of  Homberg  in  several  scientific 
inquiries,  were  pursued  at  Rome,  in  France,  in  England 
with  the  great  Boyle,  and  afterward  in  Holland  and  Ger-- 
many.  With  Baldwin  and  Kunckel  he  here  pursued  the 
subject  of  phosphorus.  Not  yet  satisfied  with  travelling. 
in  search  of  knowledge,  he  visited  the  mines  of  Saxony, 
Hungary,  Bohemia,  and  jSweden.  Having  materially  im- 
proved himself,  and  at  the  same  time  assisted  the  progress 
of  chemistry  at  Stockholm,  he  returned  to  Holland,  and 
thence  revisited  France,  where  he  was  quickly  noticed  by 
Colbert.  By  his  interposition,  he  was  prevailed  upon  to 
quit  his  intention  of  returning  to  Holland  to  marry,  accord-; 
ing  to  the  desire  of  his  father,  and  fixed  himself  in  France^ 
This  step  also  alienated  him  from  his  religion.  He  re- 
nounced theProtestaut  communion  in  1682,  and  thus  losing 
all  connexion  with  his  family,  became  dependent  on,  Louis 
XIV.  and  his  minister.  This,  however,  after  the  death  of 
Colbert  in  1683,  ^became  a  miserable  dependence ;  men  of 
learning  and  science  were  neglected  as  much  as  before 
fhey  had  been  patronized;  and  Homberg,  in  1687,  left 
Paris  for  Rome,  and  took  up  the  profession  of  physic.  He 
now  pursued  and  perfected  his  discoveries  on  phosphorus, 
and  prosecuted  his  discoveries  in  pneumatics,  and  other 
branches  of  natural  philosophy.  Finding,  after  some  time^ 
that  the  learned  were  again  patronized  at  Paris,  he  returned 
there  in  1690,  and  entered  into  the  academy  of  sciences 

H  2 

100  H  O  M  B  E  R  G. 

under  the  protection  of  M.  de  Bignon.  He  now  resumed 
thei  study  of  cbemistryy  but  found  his  finances  too  limited 
to  carry  on  bis  experiments  as  he  wished,  till  he  had  the 
good  fortune  to  be  appointed  chemist  to  the  duke  of  Orleans, 
afterwards  regent  In  this  situation  he  was  supplied  with 
the  most  perfect  apparatus,  and  all  materials  for  scientific' 
investigation.  Among  other  instruments,  the  large  burning 
mirror  of  Tschirnaus  was  given  to  his  care,  and  he  made 
with  it  the  most  interesting  experiments,  on  the  combusti- 
bility of  gold  and  other  substances.  In  examining,  the 
nature  of  borax  he  discovered  the  sedative  salt,  and  traced 
several  remarkable  properties  of  that  production.  Pleased 
with  the  researches  of  his  chemist,  the  duke  of  Orleans  in 
1704  appointed  him  his  first  physician.  About  the  same 
time  he  was  strongly  solicited  by  the  elector  palatine  to 
settle  in  his  dominions,  but  h^  was  too  much  attached  to 
his  present  patron  to  quit  Paris,  and  was  besides  not  without 
an  inclination  of  a  more  tender  kind  for  mademoiselle 
Dodart,  daughter  to  the  celebrated  physician  of  that  name. 
He  married  her  in  1708,  though  hitherto  much  averse  to 
matrimony ;  but  enjoyed  the  benefit  of  his  change  of  sen- 
timents only  seven  years,  being  attacked  in  1715  with  a 
dysentery,  of  which  he  died  in  September  of  that  year. 

Homberg  was  indefatigable  in  application,  and  his  man- 
ners were  mild  and  social.  Though  bis  constitution  was 
not  robust,  he  was  rather  addicted  to  pleasure,  and  was  glad 
to  forget  his  fatigues  in  the  charms  of  good  company* 
He  did  not  publish  any  complete  work,  the  productions 
he  has  left  being  only  memoirs  in  the  volumes  of  the 

HOME  (David),  was  a  protestant  minister  of  a  distin- 
guished family  in  Scotland,  but  educated  in  France,  where 
be  passed  the  chief  part  of  his  life.  James  I.  employed 
him  to  reconcile  the  differences  between  Tilenus  and  da 
iVlouIin^  on  the  subject  of  justification ;  and,  if  possible,  to 
reconcile  the  protestants  throughout  Europe  to  one  single 
form  of  doctrine';  but  this  was  found  impracticable.  The 
chief  work  of  Home  is,  his,  1.  '^  Apologia  Basilica;  sea 
Machiavelli  ingenium  examinatum,''  1626,  4to.   There  are 

,  attributed  to  him  also,  2.  *^  Le  contr'  Assassin,  ou  reponse 
a  TApologie   des  Jiesuites,**   Geneve,    1612,  in  8vo.     3. 

'  ^*  L'Assassinait  du  Roi,  ou  maximes  du  Viel  de  la  Mon- 

1  Nioerop,  fol.  XlV.-^Cliaaiepie. 

HOME.  101 

tsig^^i  pratiqu^es  en  la  personne  de  defuDt  Henri  le 
Grand/'  1617,  8vo.  He  is  also  the  author  of  several  com- 
positions in  .the  '*  Deiiciae  Poetarum  Scotorum.''  The 
times  of  his  binh  and  death  are  not  known.' 

HOME  (Henry),  usually  called  Lord  Kames,  an  emi- 
nent Scotch  lawyer,  philosopher,  and  critic,  the  son  of 
George  Home  of  Karnes,  in  the  county  of  Berwick,  was 
born  at  Karnes  in  1696.  He  was  descended  from  an  an-^ 
cient  and  honourable  family ;  being  on  bis  father's  side, 
the  great  grandson  of  sir  John  Home  of  Renton,  whose 
ancestor  was  a  cadet  of  th^  family  of  the  earls  of  Home, 
who  held  the  office  of  lord  justiccrclerk  in  the  reign  of 
king  Charles  H.  His  mother  was  a  daughter  of  Mr.  WaU 
kinshaw  of  Barrowfield,  and  grand-daughter  of  Mr.  Ro- 
bert Baillie,  principal  of  the  university  of  Glasgow,  of 
whom  an  account  is  given  in  our  third  volume.  His  father 
having  lived  beyond  his  income,  and  embarrassed  bis 
affairs,  Henry,  op  entering  the  world,  had  nothing  to  trust 
to  but  his  own  abilities  and  exertions,  a  circumstance  which 
although  apparently  unfavourable,  was  always  most  justly- 
regarded  by  him  as  the  primary  cause  of  his  success  in  life. 
The  only  education  he  had  was  from  private  instructions 
at  home  from  a  tutor  of  the  name  of  Wingate,  of  whom  he 
never  spoke  in  commendation. 

With  no  other  stock  of  learning  than  what  he  had  ac- 
quired from  this  Mr.  Wingate,  he  was,  about  1712,  bound 
by  indenture  to  attend  the  office  of  a  writer  of  the  signet 
in  Edinburgh,  as  preparatory  to  the  profession  of  a  writer 
.or  solicitor  before  the  supreme. court;  but  circumstances^ 
hispired  him  with  the  ambition  of  becoming  an  advocate ; 
and  now  being  sensible  of  bis  defective  education,  he  re- 
sumed the  study  of  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages,  to 
which  he  added  French  and  Italian,  and  likewise  applied 
himself  to  the  study  of  mathematics,  natural  philosophy, 
logic,  ethics,  and  metaphysics.  These  pursuits,  which  be 
followed  at  tlie  same  time  with  the  study  of  the  law,  af- 
forded, independently  of  their  own  value,  a  most  agree- 
able variety  of  employment  to  his  active  mind.  His  atten- 
tion appears  to  have  been  much  turned  to  metaphysical 
investigation,  for  which  he  all  his  life  entertained  a  strong 
predilection.  About  1723,  he  carried  .on  a  correspond- 
ence with  the  celebrated  Andrew  Baxter,  and  Dr.  Clarke^ 
vpon  subjects  of  that  kind. 

^  Maichanili  vol.  L— Diet.  Hist. 

102  HOME. 

In  January  1724,  he  was  called  to  the  bar,  at  a  time 
vrhen  both  the  bench  and  bar  were  filled  by  men  of  ui|- 

•  common  eminence.  As  he  did  not  possess  in  any  great 
degree  the  powers  of  an  orator,  he  engaged  for  some  time 
but  a  moderate  share  of  practice  as  a  barrister.     In  1728, 

'  he  published  a  folio  volume  of  ^^  Remarkable  Decisions  of 
the  Court  of  Session,"  executed  with  so  much  judgment, 
that  he  began  to  be  regarded  as  a  young  man  of  talents, 
who  had  his  profession  at  heart,  and  would  spare  no  pains 
to  acquit  himself,  with  honour,  in  the  most  intricate  causes 
in  which  he  might  be  employed.  His  practice  was  qi\ickly 
increased  ;  and  after  ^732,  when  he  published  a  small  vo« 
lume,  entitled  *'  Essays  upon  several  subjects  in  Law,"  he 
was  justly  considered  as  a  profound  and  scientific  lawyer. 
These  essays  afford  an  excellent  example  of  the  mode  of 
reasoning  which  iie  afterwards  pursued  in  most  of  his  juris-  . 
prudential  writings,  and,  in  the  opinion  of  his  biographer, 
furnish  an  useful  model  for  that  species  of  investigation.  - 
Mr.  Home,  in  every  period  of  his  life,  was  fond  of  so- 
cial intercourse,  and  with  all  his  ardour  of  sti^dy,  and  va- 
riety of  literary  and  professional  occupations,  a  consi- 
derable portion  of  his  time  was  devoted  to  the  enjoyments 
of  society  in  a  numerous  circle  of  acquaintance.  Among 
his  early  friends  or  associates  we  find  the  names  of  colonel 
Forrester,  Hamilton  of  Bangour,  the  earl  of  Findlater,  Mr. 
Oswald,  David  Hume,  and  Dr.  (afterwards  bishop)  But- 
ler, with  whom  he  had  a  correspondence.  In  M 74 1  be 
married  miss  Agatha  Drummond,  a  younger  daughter  of 

•James  Drummond,  esq.  of  Blair,  in  the  county  of  Perth. 

•  His  fortune  being  then  comparatively  small,  oeconomy 
Ibecame  a  necessary  virtue,  but  unfortunately,  this  lady, 
who  had  a  taste  for  every  thing  that  is  elegant,  was  parti- 
cularly fond  of  old  china;  and  soon  after  her  marriage  had 
made  such  frequent  purchases  in  that  way  as  to  impress 
her  husband  with  some  little  apprehension  of  her  extra- 
vagance. After  some  consideration,  he  devised  an  inge- 
nious expedient  to  cure  her  of  this  propensity.  He  framed 
a  will,  bequeathing  to  his  spouse  the  whole  of  the  china 
that  should  be  found  in  his  possession  at  his  death ;  and 
this  deed  be  immediately  put  into  her  own  hands.  The 
success  of  the  plot  was  complete ;  the  lady  was  cured  froin 
that  moment  of  her  passion  for  old  china.  This  stratagenA 
his  biographer  justly  considers  as  a  proof  of  the  autbqr's 
intimate  knowledge  of  the  human  miad;,  and  discernment 

HOME.  lOl 

«f  thie  power  of  the  passions  to  balance  and  restrain  each 
other.  It  is,  indeed,  in  its  contriiranoe  and  result,  equally 
honourable  to  the  husband  and  wife. 

The  mode  in  which  Mr.  Home  occupied  bis  time,  both 
in  town  and  country,  appears  to  have  been  most  judicious. 
In  town  he  was  an  active  and  industrious  barrister;  in  the 
country  he  was  a  scientific  farmer  on  his  paternal  estate^ 
which  came  to  him  in  a  very  waste  and  unproductive  con- 
dition. He  had  the  honour  to  be  among  the  first  who  in^ 
troduced  the  English  improvements  in  agriculture  into 
Scotland.  Amidst  all  this  he  found  leisure,  durilig  the 
vacaticms  of  the  court,  to  compose  those  various  works 
which  he  has  left  to  posterity.  In  1741  he  published,  ia 
2  vol«L  fol.  the  *'  Decisions  of  the  Court  of  Session,  from 
its  institution 'to  the  present  time,  abridged  and  digested 
under  proper  heads,  in  the  form  of  a  Dictionary,"  a  cool- 
position  of  great  labour,  the  fruit  of  many  years,  and  a 
work  of  the  highest  utility  to  the  profession  of  the  law  in 
Scotland.  In  1747  he  published  a  small  treatise  entitled 
*'  Essays  upon  several  subjects  concerning  British  Anti- 
quities.^' The  subjects  are,  the  feudal  law ;  the  constitu- 
tion of  parliament;  honour  and  dignity;  succession  pr 
descent ;  and  the  hereditary  and  indefeasible  rights  of 
kings.  These  were  delicate  subject^at  that  time  in  Scot- 
land, and  the  general  doctrines  p^?baps  more  seasonable 
than  now. 

In  17S1  Mr.  Home,  though  now  at  the  head  of  the  bar, 
published  a  work  entitled  ^^  Essays  on  the  principles  of 
Morality  and  Natural  Religion,"  the  object  of  which  is  to 
prove  that  the  great  laws  of  morality  which  ijifluence  the 
conduct  of  man  as  a  60cial  being,  have  their  foundation  in 
the  human  constitution  ;  and  areas  certain  and  immutable 
as  those  physical  laws  which  regulate  the  whole  system  of 
nature.  His  biographer  attributes  this  publication  to  the 
desire  of  its  author  to  counteract  some  sceptical  doctrines 
of  his  friend  David  Hume,  which  he  had  invain  endeavoured 
to  suppress;  That  the  work,  however,  had  not  this  effect^ 
we  know,  in  point  of  fact ;  and  we  have  no  hesitation  in 
asserting  that  it  was  not  calculated  to  produce  the  effect^ 
as  it  leads  to  consequences  as  fatal  as  any  which  have  fol- 
lowed David  Hume's  works.  It  accordingly  attracted  the- 
notice  of  the  church  of  Scotland,  although  be  appears  to> 
have  had  friends  enough  in  the  general  assembly  to  prevent^ 
its  being  censured.    In  some  respect  he  saw  his  error^  and 

iQ4  it  O  M  E. 

endeavoured  to  amend  it  rn  a  second  edition  ;  but  in  the 
third  it  seems  doubtful  -whether  he  has  not  retained  the 
most  offensive  of  his  opinions. 

In  Feb.  1752  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  judges  of  the 
court  of  session,  and  took  his  seat  on  the  bench  by  the  title 
of  lord  Kames.  This  promotion  was  attended  with  the 
general  satisfaction  of  bis  country^  as  he  stood  high  in 
the  public  esteem,  both  on  the  score  of  bis  abilities,  and 
knowledge  of  the  laws,  and  his  integrity  and  moral  virtues^ 
As  a  judge,  his  opinions  and  decrees  were  dictated  by  an 
mciite  understanding,  an  ardent  feeling  of  justice,  and  a 
perfect  acquaintance  with  the  jurisprudence  of  his  bountry, 
which^  notwithstanding  the  variety  of  pursuits  in  which  hi# 
comprehensive  mind  had  already  found  exercise^  had  al- 
ways been  his  principal  ^tudy,  and  the  favoifrite  object  of 
his  researches.  The  situation  which  he  now  filled,  while 
it  eKtended  his  opportunities  of  promoting  every  species 
of  improvement,  gave  the  greater  weight  and  efficacy  tO' 
his  patronage ;  and  his  example  and  encouragement  were 
more  particularly  beneficial  in  exciting  a  literary  spirit, 
which  iiow  began  to  prevail  among  bis  countrymen,  and 
which  was  destined  to  shine  forth  in  his  own  times  with  no 
common  lustre.  It  was  but  a  just  tribute  to  bis  merits 
when,  many  years  afterwards.  Dr.  Adam  Smith,  then  in 
the  height  of  his  literary  reputation',  said,  in  reference  to 
^  remark  on  the  great  number  of  eminent  writers  which 
Scotland  bad  of  late  years  produced,  ^^  We  must  every 
one  of  us  acknowledge  Kaoies  for  our  master.'* 

It  was  not,  however,  to  the  cultivation  and  patronage 
of  literature,  and  to  the  duties  of  a  judge  in  the  court  of 
session,  that  the  time  and  talents  of  lord  Kames  were 
wholly  confined.  He  was  appointed  in  1755  a  member  of 
the  board  of  trustees  for  the  encouragement  of  the  fisheries, 
artisi,  and  manufactures  of  Scotland,  and  soon  after  .one  of 
the  commissioners  for  the  management  of  the  forfeited 
estates ;  and  in  the  discharge  of  these  important  trusts  he 
WAS  a  zealous  and  faithful  servant  of  the  public.  Amidst 
such  multifarious  employment,  he  found  leisure  to  com* 
pose,  and  in  1757,  to  publish,  in  one  volume  8vo,  <<  The 
Statute  Law  of  Scotland  abridged,  with  historical  notes,V 
a  work  which  still  retains  its.  rank  among  those  which  are  in 
daily  use  with  barristers  and  practitioners.  About  tbiis 
period  he  conceived  the  hope  of  improving  the  liaw  of  Scot* 
land  by  fissimilating  it  a«  much  as  possible  with  the  kw  of 



England.  With  this  view,  after  corresponding  on  the  sub- 
ject with  the  lord  chancellor  Hardwicke,  he  published 
^  Historical  Law  Tracts/'  1759,  Svo.  In  this  be  advances 
some  singular  opinions  on  the  subject  of  the  criminal  law, 
which  are,  in  our  opinion,  but  feebly  defended  by  hit 
biographer.  The  work,  however,  has  undergone  several 
editions,  and  still  preserves  its  reputation ;  and  with  the 
samejriew  of  counteracting,  as  £ir  as  possible,  the  incon* 
venipncies  arising  from,  two  systems  of  law  regulating  the 
separate  dtvisipns  of  the  united  kingdom,  be  published  in 
1760  his  ^'  Principles  of  Equity,"*  fol.  Courts  of  equity 
and  common  law  are  separate  in.  England,  but  the  powers 
of  b^th  are  united  in  the  supreme  civil  court  of  Scotland, 
and  it  is  for  this  union  lord  Kames  contends-  in  the  pubUca* 
tion  just  mentioned. 

The  greater  part  of  lord  Kames^s  works  had  hitherto  been 
connected  with,  his  profession,  but  in  1761  be  published  a 
small  volume  on  the  elementary  principles  of  education^ 
entitled  an  '<  Introduction  to  the  art  of  Thinking.'*  This 
has  often  been  reprinted  as  an  useful  manual  for  young 
persons,  although,  some  parts  of  it  are  rather  above  their 
comprehension.  In  1762  he  published,  in  3  vols.  8vo,  his 
*^  Elements. of  Criticism,"  the  work,  which,  of  all  others, 
is  best  known  in  England.  We  cannot,  however,  agree 
with  his  biographer,  that  it  entitles  him  to  be  considered 
as  the  inventor  of  philosophical  criticism,  although  be  has 
unquestionably  done  much  to  advance  it,  and  some  of  his 
principles  have  been  followed  by  subsequent  writers  on  the 
subject.     Blair  is  evjidently  much  indebted  to  him. 

In  1763  he  waa  appointed  one  of  the  lords  of  justiciary, 
the  supreme. criminal  tribunal  in  Scotland.  The  mere  fact 
of  his  suted  by  bis  biographer,  but  we  have 
seen  a  letter  from  him  ia  which  he  appKed  for  it  to  a  no- 
bleman  in  power.  This  important  duty  he  continued  to 
discbarge  "with  equal  diligence  and  ability,  and  with  the 
strictest  rectitude  of  moral  feeling.  In  1766  he  received 
a  very  large  addition  to  his  income  by  succession  to  an 
estate  called  Blair-Drummond,  which  devolved  on  his  wife 
by  the  death  of  her  brother,  and  which  furnished  him  with 
opportunities  of  displaying  bis  taste  and  skill  in  embellish** 
ing  hia  plfsasure^grounds  and  improving  his  lands.  His 
ideas  as  a  land*holder  do  him  much  honour  :  ^'  In  point  of 
morality,"  he  says  in  a  letter  to  the  late  duchess  of  Gordon, 
^U  consid^,  that  di0  people  upon  our  estates  are  trusted  by 

106  HOME. 

Providence  to  our  care,  and  that  we  are  accountable  for 
our  management  of  thetn  to  the  great  God,  their  Creator 
as  well  as  onrs,^'  Before  this  accession  to  bis  fortune  he 
bad  published,  in  1765,  a  small  pamphlet  on  the  progress 
of  flax^hiisbandry  in  Scotland,  with  the  patriotic  design  of 
stimulating  his  countrymen  to  continue  their  exertions  iif 
a  most  valuable  branch  of  national  industry.  He  was  also 
very  active  in  promoting  the  project  of  the  canal  between 
the  Forth  and  Clyde,  now  completed,  andwhicb  has  been 
beneficially  followed  by  other  undertakings  of  a  similar 
kind.  In  1766  be  published  ^^  Remarkable  decisions  of 
the  Court  of  Session,  from  17S0  to  1752,*'  fol.  a  period 
which  includes  that  of  his  own  practice  at  the  bar.  These 
reports  afford  the  strongest  evidence  of  the  great  ability 
and  legal  knowledge  of  their  compiler,  but  his  biographer 
allows  that  the  authorV  own  argument  is  generatly  stated 
with  greater  amplitude,  and  is  nyore  strenuously  enforced 
than  that  which  opposes  his  side  of  the  question. 

In  1774  he  published,  in  2  vols.  4to,  his  "  Sketches  of 
the  History  of  Man,''  which  of  all  his  works,  if  we  except 
the  ^^  Elements  of  Criticism,"  has  been  the  most  generally 
read.  It  is  greatly  to  his  honour  that  when  many  of  his 
opinions  were  controverted,  he  not  only  received  the  hints 
and  remarks  with  candour,  but  sought  out  and  behaved  with 
great  iliberality  to  the  authors.  In  pursuance  of  bis  pa- 
triotic wish  to  improve  the  agriculture  of  his  country,  he 
published^  in  1776,  when  he  had  attained  the  age  of  eighty, 
the  **  Gentleman  Farmer,  being  an  attempt  to  improve 
agriculture  by  subjecting  it  to  the  test  of  rational  prin- 
ciples." Noiie  of  bis  works  is  more  characteristic  of  his 
genius  and  disposition  in  all  their  principal  features  than 
this,  which  was  one  of  the  most  useful  books  that  had  ap- 
peared at  the  time  of  its  publication. 

At  the  advanced  period  we  have  just  mentioned,  lord 
Kames's  constitution  had  suffered  nothing  from  the  attacks 
of  old  age.  There  was«  no  sensible  decay  of  his  mental 
powers,  or,  what  is  yet  more  extraordinary,  of  the  flow  of 
his  animal  spirits,  which  had  all  the  gaiety  and  vivacity  of 
his  early  years.  Indefatigable  in  the  pursuit  of  knowledge  ; 
ever  looking  forward  to  so^e  new  object  of  attainment ; 
one  literary  task  was  no  sooner  accomplished  than  another 
was  entered  upon  with  eq[ual  ardour  and  unabated  perse- 
verance. In  1777  he  publislied  *^  Elucidations  respecting 
ibe  Common  and  Statute  Law  of  Scotland/'  8vO|  in  which 

HO  ME.  107 

it  is  his  object  to  vindicate  the  municipal  law  of  his  country 
from  the  reproach  it  has  incurred  from  the  writings  of  the 
old  Scotch  jurists.  In  1780  he  published  a  supplement  to 
bis  ^^  Remarkable  Decisions/*  under  the  title  of  *^  Select 
Decisions  of  the  Court  of  Session/'  recording  the  cases 
most  worthy  of  notice  from  1752  to  1769. 

The  subject  of  education  had  always  been  regarded  by 
lord  Kames  in  a  most  important  point  of  view^  and  fur- 
nished the  matter  of  that  work  with  which  he  closed  his 
literary  labours.   In  1781  he  published,  when  in  his  eighty- 
fifth  year,   an  octavo  volume  entitled  **  Loose  hints  on 
Education,  cfaiefTy  concerning  the  Culture  of  the  Heart.'^ 
A  work  composed  at  such  an  advanced  age  ought  not  to 
be  subjected  to  rigorous  criticism,  yet  there  are  many 
shrewd  and  useful  remarks  in  the  book,  althbugh  mixed 
with  others  in  which  the  decay  of  mental  powers  is  visible^ 
•In  the  following  year  his  constitution  began  to  give  way, 
principally  from  old  age,  for  he  bad  very  little  that  could 
be  called  disesMse.     In  November  he  left  his  seat  kt  Blair- 
Drummond  for  Edinburgh,  and  the  court  of  session  meet- 
ing soon  after,  for  the  winter,  he  went  thither  on  the  first 
day  of  the  term,  and  took  his  seat  with  the  rest  of  the 
judges.     He  continued  for  some  little  time  to  attend  the 
meetings  of  the  court,  and  to  take  his  share  in  its  usual 
business,  but  soon  became  sensible  that  his  strength  was 
not  equal  to  the  effort.     On  the  last  day  of  his  attendance 
he  took  a  separate  and  affectionate  farewell  of  each  of  his 
brethren.     He  survived  that  period  only  about  eight  days: 
He  died  December  27,  1782,  in  the  eighty-seventh  year 
of  his  -age. 

His  excellent  biographer,  the  late  lord  Woodhouselee^ 
has  drawn  up  his  character  with  impartiality  and  just  dis- 
crimination, without  dwelling  extravagantly  on  his  virtues, 
or  offensively  and  impertinently  on  his  foibles.  The  latter 
appear  to  have  been  of  a  kind  perhaps  inseparable  from 
humanity  in  some  shape  or  other,  such  as  a  degree  of  fond- 
ness for  flattery,  and  somewhat,  although  certainly  in  a 
small  proportion^  of  literary  jealousy.  A  suspicion  of  lord 
Karnes's  religious  principles  has  long  prevailed  in  his  own 
country,  and  his  biographer  has  taken  such  pains  on  this 
subject  as  to  leave  the  reader  with  an  impression  that  lord 
Kames  was  more  a  friend  to  revealed  religion  than  he  ap- 
pears to  be  in  some  of  his  writings ;  but  while  those  writ- 
ings remain,  we  question  whether  the  suspicion  to  which 

108  H  O  M  £. 

we  allude  can  be  e£Fectuaily  removed.  Too  nracb,  how- 
eyer^  cannot  be  said  in  favour  of  his  genius,  and  industry 
in  many  branches  of  literature ;  his  private  virtues  ana 

,  public  spirit ;  his  assiduity  through  a  long  and  laborious 
life  in  the  many  honourable  offices  with  which  he  was  en* 
trusted,  and  his  zeal  to  encourage  and  promote  every  thin|^ 
that  tended  to  the  improvement  of  his  country,  in  laws^ 
literature,  commerce,  manufactures,  and  agriculture.  The 
preceding  sketch  has  been  taken,  often  literally,  from  lord 
Woodhouselee's  valuable  work,  which  appeared  in  1807^ 
entitled  *^  Memoirs  of  the  Life  and  Writings  of  the  hon. 
Henry  Home  of  Kames,  &c."  2  vols.  4to,  which  contains 

'  what  we  have  been  in  other  instances  indebted  to,  ^^  Sketches 
of  the  progress  of  Literature  and  general  improvement 
in  Scotland  during  the  greater  part  of  the  eighteenth 
century."  * 

HOME  (John),  a  clergyman  pf  the  church  of  Scotland^ 
but  known  only  as  a  dramatic  writer,  was  born  in  the  yi* 
cinity  of  Ancrum  in  Roxburghshire*  Scotland,  in  1724, 
and  was  educated  at  the  parish  school,  whence  he  went  to 
the  university  of  Edinbuigh,  and  went  through  the  usual 
academical  course,  as  preparatory  tor  his  entering  the  church* 
Here  his  studies  were  for  some. time  suspended  by  the  re^ 
beilion  in  1745.  On  the  approach  of  the  rebels,  the  citi<» 
zens  of  Edinburgh  assembled,  and  .formed  themselves  into 
an  association  fur  the  support  of  their  sovereign,  and  the 
defence  of  their  city.  Mr.  Home,  having  once  taken  up 
arms  in  this  cause,  was  not  to  be  deterred  by  danger,  and 
xnarcned  with  a  detachment  of  the  royal  army  to  Falkirk^ 
,  where  he  was  taken  prisoner  in  the  battle  fought  in  tluit 
neighbourhood,  and  confined  for  some  time  in  the  castle  of 
Donne.  He  contrived,  however,  to  make  his  escape  aboolt 
the  time  that  tranquillity  was  restored  to  the  country  by 
the  battle  of  CuUoden ;  and  having  resumed  his  studies^ 
was  licensed  to  preach  the  gospel  in  1747. 

Not  long  after,  while  on  a  visit  in  England,  be  was  in- 
troduced to  Collins,  the  poet,  at  Winchester,  and  Collins 
addressed  to  him  his  ^*  Ode  on  the  Superstition  of  the 
Highlanders.*'  In  1750  Home  was  settled  as  minister  of 
the  parish  of  Athelstaneford  in  East  Lothian,  on  the  .de«- 
mise  of  the  rev.  Robert  Blair,  author  of  the  ^<. Grave  }'*  but 

}  Life  as  above.— See  also  British  Criiic,  toU  XXX.  iB  which  are  many  ra^ 
luable  remarks  on  the  Life  6(  lord  Kames. 

HOME.  109 


i^ch  a  situation  could  not  be  Tery  agreeable  to  one  M^ho 
bad  tasted  the  sweets  of  literary  society,  and  who,  in  par- 
ticular, bad  a  paramount  ambition  to  shine  as  a  dramatic 
writer.  His  first  tragedy  was  **Agis,'*  with  which  it  is 
said  he  went  to  London,  where  the  managers  refused  it^ 
and  immediately  returning  home  be  wrote  his  **  Douglas,^* 
which  Garrick  peremptorily  refused.  By  such  discourage- 
ment, however,  the  ardour  of  the  author  was  not  to  be 
suppressed.  Being  acquainted  with  the  leading  characters 
in  Scotland,  a  ready  reception  of  bis  play  was  secured ; 
and  accordingly  ^^  Douglas"  was  performed  at  the  theatre 
in  the  Canongate,  Edinburgh,  in  December  1756,  Mr. 
Home  and  several  of  his  clerical  brethren  being  present. 
Such  a  departure  from  the  decorum  enjoined  by  the  church 
of  Scotland  could  not  be  overlooked,  and  the  author  was 
so  threatened  with  ecclesiastical  censures,  and  in  reality  be- 
came so  obnoxious  in  the  eyes  of  the  people,  that  in  the 
following  year  he  resigned  his  living,  and  with  it  all  con- 
nexion with  the  church,  wearing  ever  afterwards  a  lay  ha- 
bit In  the  mean  time  the  presbytery  of  Edinburgh  pub- 
lished an  admonition  and  exhortation  against  stage-plays, 
which  was  ordered  to  be  read  in  all  the  pulpits  within  their 
bounds  on  sr  Sunday  appointed,  immediately  after  divine 
service.  In  it  there  is  no  mention  of  Home  or  his  play, 
althotigh  the  latter  was  probably  the  cause.  It  merely  con- 
tains a.  recapitulation  of  what  had  formerly  been  done  by 
the  church  and  the  laws  to  discourage  the  theatres. 

This  opposition,  which  has  been  too  hastily  branded  with 
the  epithets  of  "  bigotry  and  malicie,"  turned  out  much  to 
Mr.  Home's  advantage,  whose  friends  contrived  now  to  add 
to  his  other  merits  that  of  being  a  persecuted  man ;  and 
David  Hume,  whose  taste  for  the  drama  was  the  least  of 
his  qualifications,  addressed  his  *^  Four  Dissertations"  to 
the  author,  and  complimented  him  with  possessing  ^^  the 
true  theatric  genius  of  Shakspeare  and  Otway,  refined  from 
the  unhappy  barbarism  of  the  one,  and  licentiousness  of 
the  other.'*  With  such  recommendation,  "  Douglas"  was 
presented  at  Covent-garden  in  March  14,  1757,  but  re- 
ceived at  first  with  moderate  applause.  Its  worth,  how- 
ever, was  grsuiually  acknowledged,  and  it  is  now  fully  esta- 
blished as  a  stock-piece.  It  would  iiave  been  happy  for 
the  author  had  he  stopt  here ;  but  the  success  of  '^  Dou- 
glas" had  intoxicated  him,  and  be  went  on  froni  this  time 
to  1778,  producing  "Agis,''  "The  Siege  of  Aquileia,V 

110  HOME. 

«  The  Fatal  Discovery,"  "  Alonzo,"  and  «  Alfred,"  none 
of  which  had  even  a  temporary  success.  In  the  mean  time- 
lord  Bute  took  him  uilder  bis  patronage,  and  procured  bt<B, 
a  pension.  In  March  1763  he  was  also  appointed  a  com^ 
missioner  for  sick  and  wounded  seamen,  and  for  the  ex- 
change of  prisoners  ;  and  in  April  of  the  same  year  waa^ 
appointed  conservator  of  the  Scotch  privileges  at  Cample 
vere  in  Zealand.  With  his  "  Alfred,"  which  lived  only 
three  nights,  he  took  his  leave  of  the  stage,  and  retired  to 
Scotland,  where  he  resided  the  greater  part  of  his  life.  la 
1778,  when  the  late  duke  of  Buccleugh  raised  a  regiment 
of  militia,  under  the  name  of  fencibles,  Mr.  Home  received 
a  captain^s  commission,  which  be  held  until  the  peace.  A 
few  years  ago,  he  published  "  The  History  of  the  Rebel- 
lion in  Scotland  in  1745-6,"  4tQ,  a  work  of  which  great 
expectations  were  formed,  but  whether  he  delayed  it  un*. 
til  too  late,  for  he  was  now  seventy-eight  years  old,  or 
whether  he  did  not  feel  himself  at  liberty  to  make  u&e  of 
all  his  materials,  the  public  was  not  satisfied.  For  a  con- 
siderable time  prior  to  his  death,  his  mental  faculties  were 
impaired,  aod  in  this  distressful  state  he  died  at  Merchis- . 
ton-house,  Sept.  4,  1808,  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-. 
five.  * 

HOMER,  the  most  ancient  of  the  Greek  poets  extant, 
has  been  called  the  Father  of  poetry;  but,  however  cele-r 
brated  by  others,  he  has  been  so  very  modest  about  him-^ 
(self,  that  we  do  not  find  the  least-mention  of  him  through-, 
out  his  poems :  Where  he  was  born,  who  were  his  parents^ 
at  what  exact  period  he  lived,  and  ulmost  every  <;ircum-. 
stance  of  his  life,  remain  at  this  day  in  a  great  measure,  if 
not  altogether  unknown.     The  Arundel  marbles  say  that  he^ 
flourished  in  the  tenth  century  before  Christ,  and  other 
authorities  say  the  eighth.     The  most  copious  account  we . 
have  of  the  life  of  Homer  is  th^t  which  goes  under  the- 
name  of  Herodotus,  and  is  usually  printed  with  his  history : 
and  though  it  is  generally  supposed  to  be  spurious,  yet  as  it 
is  ancient, .  was  made  use  of  by  Strabo,  and  exhibits  that 
idea  which  the  later  Greeks,  and  the  Romans  in  the  age  of. 
Augustus^  entertained  of  Homer,  an  abstract  of  it  cannot, 
be  unnecessary. 

A  man  of  Magnesia,  whose  name  was  Menalippus,  went 
tQ  aettU  at  Cumas,  where  he  married  the  daughter  of  a  citi- 

*  Biog,  Dntin. — Atfaensum,  vol.  V. — Davies'g  Life  of  Qarrick,  Tol.  L  p.  ^219^  ' 
f»L  II.  p.  980.<*-Qciit.  Ma9»  LXXVllI.    * 

HOMER.  Ill 

«cn  called  Homyres,  and  had  by.  her  a  d^^ugbfer  called 
Critbeis.     The  father  and  mother  dying/  Critheis  Vvas  left 
under  the  tuition  of  Ci^eonax  her  father's  friend;  and,  suf- 
fering herself  to  be  deluded,   became  pregnant.     The 
guardian^/ though  his  care  had  npt  prevented  the  misfor* 
tune,  was  however  willing  to  conceal  it ;  and  therefore 
sent  tiritheis  to  Smyrna.     Critheis  being  near  her  time, 
went  one  day  to  a.festivat,  which  the  town  of  Smyrna  was  , 
celebrating  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Meles ;  where  she 
was  delivered  of  Homer,  whom  she  called  Melesigenes, 
because  he  was  born  on  the  banks  of  that  river.     Having 
nothing  to  maintain  her,  sh^  was  forced  to  spin  :  and  a 
man  of  Smyrna  called  Pbemius,  who  taught  literature  and 
music,  having  often  seen  Critheis,  who  lodged  nea,r  him, 
atid  being  pleased  with  her  housewifery,  took  her  into  his 
house  to  spin  the  wool  he  received  from  his  scholars  for> 
their  schooling.     Here  she  behaved  herself  so  modestly 
and  discreetly,  that  Phemius  married  her,  and  adopted  her 
son,  in  whom  he  discovered  a  wonderful  genius,  and. an. 
excellent  natural  disposition.     After  the  death  of  Phemius 
and  Critheis,  Homer  succeeded  to  his  fatber-in -law's  for- 
tune and  school ;  and  was  admired  not  only  by  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Smyrna,  but  by  strangers,  who  resorted  from  all 
parts  to  that  place  of  trade.     A  ship-master  called  Mentes, 
who  was  a  man  of  wit,  very  learned,  and  a  lover  of  poetry, 
was  so  pleased  with  Homer,  that  he  persuaded 'him  to  leave 
his  school,  and  to  travel  with  him.     Homer,  whose  mind 
was  then  employed  upon  his  "  Iliad,"  and  who  thought  it 
of  great  consequence  to  see  the  places  of  which  he  should 
have  occasion  to  ,treat,    embraced  the  opportunity,  and 
during  their  several  voyages,  never  failed  carefully  to  note 
dowti  what  he  thought  worth  observing.    He  travelled  into 
Egypt,  whence  he  brought  into  Greece  the  names  of  their 
gods,  and  the  chief  ceremonies  of  their  worship.     He 
visited  Africa  and  Spain,  in  his  return  from  which  places 
he  touched  at  Ithaca,  and  was  there  much  troubled  with  a 
rheum  falling  upon  his  eyes.     Mentes  being  in  haste  t;o 
visit  Leucadia  his  native  country,  left  Homer  well  recom- 
mended  to  Mentor,  one  of  the  chief  men  of  the  island  of 
Ithaca,  and  there  be  was  informed  of  many  things  relating 
to  Ulysses,  which  he  afterwards  made  use  of  in  composing 
his  **  Odyssey.^     Mentes  returning  to  Ithaca,  found  Homier 
cured.     They  embarked  together;  and  after  much  time: 
•pent  in  visiting    the    coasts   of  .Peloponnesus -and  th»^ 

112  HOME  R. 

Islands,  they  arrived  at  Colophon,  where  Homer  was  again 
troubled  with  the  defluxion  upon  his  eyes,  which  proved 
so  violent,  that  he  is  said  to  have  lost  his  sight  ^.  -  This 
misfortune  made  him  resolve  to  return  to  Smyrna,  where 
be  finished  his  **  Iliad."  Some  time  after,  the  bad  state  of 
his  afiairs  obliged  him  to  go  to  Cumse^  where  he  hoped  to 
have  found  some  relief.  Stopping  by  the  way  at  a  place 
called  the  New  Wall,  which  was  the  residence  of  a  colony 
from  Cumse,  he  lodged  in  the  boose  of  an  armourer  called 
Tichius,  and  recited  some  hymns  he  had  made  in  honour 
of  the  Gods,  and  bis  poem  of  Amphiaraus's  expedition 
against  Thebes.  •  Mter  staying  here  some  time  and  being 
greatly  admired,  he  went  to  CumsB ;  and  passing  through 
Larissa,  he  wrote  the  epitaph  of  Midas,  king  of  Phrygian 
then  newly  dead.  At  Cumse  he  was  received  with  extra* 
ordinary  joy,  and  his  poems  highly  applauded  ;  but  when 
he  proposed  to  immortalize  their  town,  if  they  would  allovr 
him  a  salary,  hQ  was  ttnswered,  that  **  there  would  be  ho 
end  of  maintaining  all  the  *Ofmpot  or  Blind  Men,"  and  hence 
got  the  name  of  Homer.  From  Cumce  he  went  to  Phocseay 
where  he  recited  his  verses  in  public  assemblies.  Here 
one  Thestorides,  a  schoolmaster,  offered  to  maintain  him,  if 
he  would*  suffer  him  to  transcribe  his  verses :  which  Homer 
complying  with  through  mere  necessity,  the  schoolmaster 
privily  withdrew  to  Chios,  and  there  grew  rich  with  Ho- 
mer's poems,  while  Homer  at  Phoceea  hardly  earned  his 
bread  by  repeating  them. 

Obtaining,  however,  at  last  some  intimation  of  the  school- 
master, he  resolved  to  find  him  out  y  and  landing  near 
Chios,  he  was  received  by  one  Glaacus,  a  iihepherd,  by 
whom  he  was  carried  to  his  maAer  at  Bolissus,  who,  ad-* 
miring  his  knowledge,  intrusted  him  with  the  education  of 
his  children.  Here  his  praise  began  to  get  abroad,  and  the 
schoolmaster  hearing  of  him,  fied  before  him.  At  Chios,' 
Homer  set  up  a  school  of  poetry,  gained  a  competent  for- 
tune, married  a  wife,  and  had  two  daughters ;  one  of  which 
died  young,  and  the  other  was  married  to  hts  patfo'n  at 
Bolissus.  Here  he  composed  bis  ^^  Odyssey,"  and  inserted 
the  names  of  those  to  whom  be  had  been  most  obliged,  as 
Mentes,  Pbemius,  Mentor;  and  resolving  to  visit  Athens, 

*  The  bUodoeN  of  Honier  has  been     title  of  **  Curatio  cttckHomeri.'? '  If  he 
contested  by  several  authors,  and  par-     was  blind  at  aU,  it  was  probably  oalj 
ticaiarly  by  a  acholar  name  An^i^as     in  extreme  old  age, 
waking  in  a  book  beanos  the  quaint  . 

HOMER.  113 


he  made  bonoufable  mention  of  that  city»  to  dispose  the 
Athenians  fur  a  kind  reception  of  him.  But  as  he  went^ 
the  ship  put  in  at  Samos,  where  he  continued  the  whole 
winter,  singing  at  the  houses  of  great  men,  with  a  train  of 
boys  after  him.  In  the  spring  he  went  on  board  again,  ia 
order  to  prosecute  his  journey  to  Athens  ;  but,  landing  by 
the  way  at  Chios,  he  fell  sick,  died,  and  was  buried  on  the 

.  This  is  the  most  regular  life  we  hare  of  Homer;  and 
though  probably  but  little  of  it  is  exactly  true,  yet  it  has 
this  advantage  over  all  other  accounts  which  remain  of  him^ 
that  it  is  more  within  the  compass  of  probability.    The 
only  incontestable  works    which  Homer  has  left  behind 
bim,  are  the  *•  Iliad,"  and  the  "  Odyssey."     The  "  Batra- 
cbomybmachia,"  or  '^  Battle  of  the  Frogs  and  Mice,"  has 
been  disputed,  but  yet  is  allowed  to  be  his  by  many  au- 
thors.    The  Hymns  have  been  doubted  also,  and  attributed, 
by  the  scholiasts  to  CynsBthus  the  rhapsodist :  but  Thucy<* 
dides,  Lucian,  and  Pausanias,  have  cited  them  as  genuine. 
We  have  the  authority   of  ^he  two  former  for   that  to 
Apollo ;  and  of  the  last  for  a  ^^  Hymn  to  Ceres,"  of  which 
he  has  given  us  a  fragment.    The  whole  hymn  has  beea 
lately  found  by  Matthaei  at  Moscow,  and  was  published  by 
Ruhnkenius  in  1782,  at  Leyden.     A  good  translation  has 
since  been  given  by  Mr.  Hole.     The  Hymn  to  Mars  is 
objected  against ;  and  likewise  the  first  to  Minerva.     The 
"  Hymn  to  Venus"  has  many  of  its  lines  copied  by  Virgil, 
in  the  interview  between  £neas  and  that  goddess  in  the 
first  **  ^neid."     But  whether  these  hymns  are  Homer's  or 
not,  they  were  always  judged  to  be  nearly  as  ancient,  if 
not  of  the  same  age  with  him.     Many  other  pieces  were 
ascribed  to  him  :  "  Epigrams,"  the  "  Margites,"  the  "  Ce- 
cropes^"  the  ^^  Destruction  of  Oechalia,"  and  several  more- 
Time  may  here  have  prevailed  over  Homer,  by  leaving 
only  the  names  of  these  .works,  as  memorials  that  such 
were  once  in  being ;  but,  while  the  "IliadV  and  "Odyssey'* 
rc;main,  he  seems  like  a  leader,  who,  though  he  may  have 
failed  in  a  skirmish  of  two,  has  carried  a  victory,  for  which 
he  will  pass  in  triumph  through  all  future  ages. 

Homer  had  the  most  sublime  and  universal  genius  that 
the  world  has  ever  seen ;  ^nd  though  it  is  an  extravagance 
of  enthusiasm  to  say,  as  some  of  the  Greeks,  did,  that  all 
knowledge  may  be  found  iu  his  writings,  no  man  pene- 
trated deeper  into  the  feelings  and  passions  of  human 

vouxvni.  I 

lU  HOME  R. 

nature.  He  represents  great  things  with  such  sublimity,  and 
inferior  objects  with  such  propriety,  that  he  always  makes? 
the  one  adniirable,  and  the  other  pleasing.  Strabo,  whose 
authority  in  geography  is  indisputable,  assures  us,  that 
Homer  has  described  the  plaees  and  countries,  of  which  he 
gives  an  account,  with  such  accuracy,  that  no  man  can 
imagine  who  has  not  seen  them,  and  no  man  can  observe 
without  admiration  and  astonishment.  Nothing,  however^ 
can  be  more  absurd,  than  the  attempts  of  some  critics, 
who  have  possessed  more  learning  and  science  than  taste, 
to  rest  the  merit  of  Homer  upon  the  extent  of  his  know- 
ledge. An  ancient  encomiast  upon  Homer  proves  him  to 
have  possessed  a  perfect  knowledge  of  nature,  and  to  have 
been  the  author  of  the  doctrine  of  Thales  and  Xenopbanes, 
that  water  is  the  first  principle  of  all  things,  from  his  hay- 
ing called  Oceanus  the  parent  of  nature;  and  infers,  that 
be  was  acquainted  with  Empedocles'  doctrine  of  friendshfp 
and  discord,  from  the  visit  which  Juno  pays  to  Oceanus 
and  Thetis  to  settle  their  dispute :  because  Homer  repre- 
sents  Neptune  as  shaking  the  earth,  he  concludes  him  to 
have  been  well  acquainted  with  the  causes  of  earthquakes } 
and  because.he  speaks  of  the  great  bear  as  never  touching 
the  horizon,  he  makes  him  an  eminent  astronomer.  The 
truth  is,  the  knowledge  of  natare,  which  poetry  describes, 
is  very  different  from  that  which  belongs  to  the  philosopher. 
It  would  be  easy  to  prove,  from  the  beautiful  similes  of 
Homer,  that  he  was  an  accurate  observer  of  natural  ap- 
pearances; and  to  show  from  his  delineation  of  characters, 
that  he  was  intimately  acquainted  with  human  nature.  Bufe 
he  is. not,  on  this  account,  to  be  ranked  with  natural  phi^ 
losophers  or  moralists.  Much  pains  have  been  taken  to 
prove,  that  Homer  expresses  just  and  sublime  conceptions 
of  the  divine  nature.  And  it  will  be  acknowledged,  that, 
in  some  passages,  he  speaks  of  Jupiter  in  language  which 
may  not  improperly  be  applied  to  the  Supreme  Deity.  But, 
if  the  whole  fable  of  Jupiter,  as  it  is  represented  in  Homer, 
be  fiiirly  examined,  it  will  be  very  evident,  either  that  he 
had  not  just  conceptions  of  the  divine  nature,  or  that  be 
did  not  mean  to  express  them  in  the  portrait  which  be  has 
drawn  of  the  son  of  Saturn,  the  husband  of  Juno,  and  the 
president  of  the  council  of  Olympus/  It  would  surely  have 
been  too  great  a  monopoly  of  perfection,  if  the  first  poet  in 
the  world  had  also  been  the  first  philosopher. 

HOMER.  115 

"  Homer  has  bad  His  enemies;  and  it  is  certain,  that  Plata 
banished  bis  writings  from  his  commonwealth  ;  but  lest  this 
should  be  thought  a  blemish  upon  the  memory  of  the  poet^ 
ive  are  told  that  the  true  reason  was,  because  he  did  not 
esteem  the  common  people  to  be  capable  readers  of  them. 
They  would  be  apt  to  pervert  his  meaning,  and  have  wrong 
notions  of  God  and  religion,  by  taking  his  bold  and  beau* 
tiful  allegories  in  a  literal  sense.  Plato  frequently  declares, 
that  he  loves  and  admires  him  as  the  best,  the  most  plea* 
sant,  and  divine  of  all  poets,  and  studiously  imitates  his 
figurative  and  mystical  way  of  writing  :  and  though  he 
forbad  his  works  to  be  read  in  public,  yet  he  would  nev^r 
be  without  them  in  his  closet.  But  the  most  memorable 
enemy  to  the  merits  of  Homer  was  Zoilus,  a  snarling  cri- 
tic, who  frequented  the  court  of  Ptolemy  Philadelphus, 
king  of  Egypt,  and- wrote  ill-natured  notes  upon  his  poems, 
but  received  no  encouragement  from  that  prince;' on  the 
contrary,  he  became  universally  despised  for  his  pains,  and 
was  at  length  put,  as  some  say,  to  a  most  miserable  death. 

It  is  said  that  though  llomer's  poems  were  at  first  pub* 
lished  all  in  one  piece,  and  not  divided  ipto  books,  yet 
every  one  not  being  able  to  purchase  them  entire,  they 
were  circulated  in  separate  pieces ;  and  each  of  those 
pieces  took  its  name  from. the  contents,  as,  *'  The  Battle 
of  the  Ships ;"  «  The  Death  of  Dolon ;"  «  The  Valour  of 
Agamemnon  ;*'  " The  Grot  of  Calypso ;"  " The  Slaughter" 
of  the  Wooers,''  &c. ;  nor  were  these  entitled  books,  but 
rhapsodies,  as  they  were  afterwards  called,  when  they  were 
divided  into  books.  Homer's  poems  were  not  known  en- 
tire in  Greece  before  the  time  of  Lycurgus ;  whither  that 
law-giver  bising  in  Ionia  carried  them,  after  he  had  taken 
the  pains  to  transcribe  them  from  perfect  copies  with  his 
,own  hands.  This  may  be  called  the  first  edition  of  Homer 
th£t  appeared  in  Greece,  and  the  time  of  its  appearing 
there  wa^  about  120  years  before  Rome  was  built,  that  is, 
about  260  years  after  the  time  of  Homer.  It  has  been  said, 
that  the  "Iliad"  and  "Odyssey"  were  not  composed  by 
'Hoiner  in  their  present  form,  but  only  in  separate  littJb 
poems,  which  being  put  together  and  connected  afterwards 
hy  sofme  other  person,  make  the  entire  works  they  now  ap- 
pear ;  but  this  is  so  extravagant  a  conbcfit  that  ic  scarcely 
deserves  to  be  ment.oned. 

The  editions  of  Homer  are  numerous  beyond  those  of 
any  other  classic,  and  there  are  many  excellent  ones ;  per- 

i  % 

116  H  O  M  E  It 

baps  the  best  are^  that  by  Dr.  Barnes  with  the  Greek  scho- 
Fia,  in  two  vols.  4to  ;  that  by  Dr.  Clarke  published  in  1729^ 
4to ;  and  that  by  the  learned  Heyne,  1 802,  8  vols.  8vo. 
The  most  elaborate  commentary  is  that  by  Eustathius,  bi- 
shop of  Thessalonica,  and  the  best  English  translation  is 
that  by  Pope  :  though  Cowper^s,  in  blank  verse,  is  thougbt 
to  come  nearer  to  the  original.  The  French,  and  almost 
every  nation,  has  its  translation  of  Homer. ' 

HOMER  (Henry),  an  excellent  classical  scholar,  the 
son  of  the  rev.  Henry  Homer,  rector  of  Birdingbury,  in 
Warwickshire,  who  died  a  few  months  after  this  son,  in 
1791,  was  born  in  1752,  and  at  the  age  of  seven  was  sent 
to  Rugby  school,  where  he  remained  seven  years,  and  be- 
came the  head-boy  of  about  sixty.     He  afterwards  went  to 
Birmingham-school,  where  he  remained  three  years  more. 
In  November  1768,  he  was  admitted  of  Emanuel-college, 
Cambridge,  under  Dr.  Farmer,  where  he  became  acquainted 
with  Dr.  Samuel  Parr,  and  was  in  some  measure  directed 
in  his  studies  by  this  eminent  scholar.     He  proceeded  re-* 
gularly  to  his  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1773,  of  M.  A.  in  1776, 
and  that  of  B.  D.  in  1783.     He  was  elected  fellow  of  his 
college  in  1778,  but  had  lived  in  Warwickshire  about  three 
years  before  he  became  fellow,  and  returned  to  the  uni- 
versity soon  after  his  election.     He  then  resided  much  at 
Cambridge,  frequently  visiting  the  public  library,  and  mak- 
ing himself  acquainted  with  the  history  6t  contents  of  many 
curious  books  which  are  noticed  only  by  scholars,  and  par* 
ticularly  turned  his  attention  to  several  philological  works 
of  gvesiX  utility  and  high  reputation.     He  was  well  versed 
in  the  notes  subjoined  to  some  of  the  best  editions  of  vari- 
ous authors ;  and  of  his  general  erudition  the  reader  will 
form  no  unfavourable  opinion  from  the  following  account 
of  the  works  in  which  he  was  engaged.     He  joined  with 
Dr.  Parr  in  the  republication  of  BeUenden's  Tracts  in  1787^ 
and  about  the  same  year  published  three  books  of  ^  Livy,'* 
viz.  the  Ist,  25th,  and  31st  from  Drachenborch^s  edition^ 
with  dissertations,  &c.     This  was  followed  by,  1.  <*  Trac- 
tatus  varii  Latini  aCrevier,  Brotier,^'  &c.  1788.     2.  OvidV 
*^  Epistles**  ex  editione  Burman.  1789.     3.  ''Sallust.  ex 
editione  Cortii,**  1789.     4.  <<  Pliny,  ex  editione  Cortii  et 
Longolii,*'  1790;  5.  <<  CsBsar,  ex  edit.  Oudendorp,"  179Q. 

1  Life  by  Herodotus..— Vo08ii  Poet.  Gnec.— Dibdin's  CUssics.— Saxii  Ou^ 
■■Itioon.— Bracker# 

HOMER  117 

6;  *^  Perstus  ex  edit  HenlniL"  7.  *^  Tacitus^  ex  edit. 
Brotier/'  complete  all  but  the  Index*  8.  **  Livy*'  and 
^'  Quintilian,"  io  the  press  at  the  time  of  bis  death*  He 
also  intended  to  have  published  <*  Quintus  Curtius/^  but 
no  steps  were  taken  towards  it.  To  these^  however,  may 
be  added  bis  **  Tacitus  de  Moribus  Germanorum  et  de 
Vita  Agricolas/'  1788,  and  Tacitus  "  De  Oratoribus,** 
1789.  Dr.  Parr  having  considered  him  as  a  very  proper 
pierson  to  undertake  a  variorum  edition  of  Horace,  he  had 
made  some  progress  in  that  work,  which  was  finally  pub* 
lished  by  Dr.  Combe,  and  occasioned  a  paper-war  between 
Dr.  Combe  and  Dr.  Parr,  which  we  had  rather  refer  to 
than  detail*  Mr.  Homer,  in  consequence  of  some  religious 
scruples,  refused  to  take  priest^s  orders,  when  by  the 
founder's  statutes  be  was  required  to  take  them,  in  order 
to  preserve  the  rank  be  had  attained  in  the  college;  in  con- 
sequence,  of  which  his  fellowship  was  declared  vacant  in 
June  1788.  HediedMay  4,  1791,  of  a  decline,  hastened, 
if  not  occasioned,  by  too  close  an  attention  to  his  literaiy 
pursuits.  The  works  he  left  unfinished  were  completed  by 
his  brothers,  but,  we  are  sorry  to  hear,  have  not  met  with 
that  encouragement  from  the  public,  which  they  amply 
merit.  ^ 

HOMMEL  (CHAatES  Frederick),  a  lawyer,  philobger, 
and  historian  of  Leipsic,  was  born  in  1722.  He  published 
bis  first  work  in  1743,  which  was  a  tract  in  4to.  1.  ^*  De 
Legum  civilium  et  naturalium  Natura.'*  2.  <^  Oblecta- 
menta  Juris  Feudalis,  sive  Grammatical  Observationes  jus 
rei  elieintelaris,  et  antiquitates  Germanicas,  varie  ijlustran- 
tes,"  1755.  This  was  also  in  quarto,  and  tends,  as  well 
as  bis  other  works,  to  prove  the  pleasing  qualities  and  the 
acuteness  of  bis  mind.  3.^*  LiteraturaJuris,*'  1761,  8vo. 
4.  ^^  Jurisprudentia  numismatibus  illustrata,  necnon  sigiU 
lis,  gemmis,  aliisque  picturis  vetustls  varie  exornata,*'  1763, 
8vo.  5.  '*  Corpus  juris  civilis,  cum  notis  variorum,'^  1768, 
8vo.  6.  *^  Palingenesia  librorum  -  juris  veterum,"  &c. 
1768,  3  vols.  8vo.  He  published  some  smaller  tracts,  but 
these  are  the  most  important.     Hommel  died  in  1781.* 

HONAIN,  an  Arabian,  and  celebrated  translator  of  the 
ninlh  century,  was  a  Christian  and  a  native  of  Hira.  Hav- 
iag  quitted  Bagdad,  where  he  had  been  improperly  treated, 

I  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LXXVI.  and  LXXX.-.Brit.  Crit.  vol.  HI.— Dr.  Fan's 
''Hemarks  on  the  Sutement  of  Dr.  Charles  Combe/'  1795,  8fo, 
'  DicuHisU^-Sazu  OnooMSticoo. 


lis  H  O  N  A  I  n; 

he  went  to  Greece,  and  remained  there  two  yearsi  study* 
ing  the  language,  and  collecting  a  library  of  the  best  wri«» ' 
ters.     He  then  returned  to  Bagdad,  and  some  time  after  * 
went  to  Persia,  where  he  learned  the  Arabic,  and  then 
finally  settled  at  Bagdad,  and  executed  ve.ry  valuable  trana-  . 
lations  of  the  Elements  of  Euclid,  the  Almagestus  of  Ptole- 
my, and  the  writings  of  Hippocrates  and  other  Greek  au- 
.  th9rs.     At  the  desire  of  Almamon  or  Abdallah  III.  he  trans- 
lated into  Arabic  all  the  works  of  Aristotle ;  and  for  every 
book  of  that  philosopher  is  said  to  have  received  from  Al- 
mamon its  weight  in  gold.     An  anecdote  very  honourable 
to  him  is  told  by  Abulfaragius.     One  day,  after  some  me* . 
dical  conversation,  the  Caliph  said  to  him,  ^^  Teach  me  a 
prescription  by  which  I  may  take  oiBF  any  enemy  I  please» 
without  being  discovered.*'     Honain  declining  to  give  aa 
answer,  and  pleading  ignorance,  ^was  imprisoned.     Being 
brought  again,  after  a  year's  interval,  into  the  Galiph^a 
presence,  and  still  persisting  in  ignorance^  though  threat- 
ened with  death,  the  Caliph  smiled  upon  him,  and  said, 
**  Be  of  good  cbeer^  we  were  only  trying  thee,  that  we 
might  have  the  greater  c6nfidence  in  thee."     As  Honain 
upon  this  bowed  down  and  kissed  the  earth,  ^^  What  hiiw 
^ered  thee,"  says. the  Caliph,  **  from  granting  our  request, 
when  thou  sawest  us  appear  so  ready  to  perform  what  we 
had  threatened  f"  "  Two  things ;"  replied  Honain,  "  my 
Keligion,  and  my  Profession.     My  religion,  which  com- 
mands me  to  do  good  to  my  enemies ;  and  my  profession, 
which  was  purely  instituted  for  the  bene6t  of  mankind.** 
'<  Two  noble  laws,"  said  the  Caliph ;  and  immediately  pre- 
sented him,  according  to  the  Eastern  usage,  with  rich  gar- 
ments, and  a  sum  of  money.    This  Caliph  was  not  only  an 
illustrious  patron  of  the  learned,  but  was  himself  no  mean 
adept  in  several  branches  of  science.     He  was  well  ac- 
quainted with  astronomy,  mathematics,  and   philosophy ; 
and  was  frequently  present  at  the  conferences  of  learned 
men,  entering  with  great  spirit  into  the  'subjects  of  their 
debates.     In  the  midst  of  the  praise  which  is  due  to  thia 
Caliph,  it  must,  however,  be  mentioned  with  regret,  that, 
through  an  ill-judged  partiality  for  his  vernacular  tongue, 
be  gave  orders  that,  after  the  Arabic  versions  were  finished, 
the  original  Greek  manuscripts  should  be  burned.     A  simi- 
lar folly  seized  the  Caliphs  of  Africa :  and  to  this  cause  we 
are,  dou&fless,  to  ascribe  the  entire  loss  of  many  ancient, 
writings.    The  diligence,  however,  .with  which  this  Caliph 

H  O  N  A  I  N.  119 

cultivated  and  encouraged  learning,  cancels;  iti  some  mea- 
sure this  disgrace,  and  leaves  him  entitled  to  an  honour- 
able station  among  philosophers. ' 

HONDEKOTTeA  (Melchior),  the  son  and  grandson 
of  two  Dutch  painters  of  considerable  repQtation,  was  born 
at  Utrecht  in  1636,  and  carefully  trained  up  to  the  profes- 
sion by  his  father.     He  chose  the  same  subjects;  but,  in 
bis  manner,  be  surpassed  not  only  his  master,  but  even 
the  best  of  his  contemporaries,  in  a  very  iiigb  degree.    Till 
be  was  seventeen  years  of  age  be  practised  under  bis  father^s 
direction,  and  accustomed  himself  to  paint  several  sorts  of 
birds ;  but  he  was  particularly  pleased  to  represent  cocks, 
hens,  ducks,  chickens,  aud  peacocks,  which  be  described 
in  an  elegant  variety  of  actions  and  attitudes.     After  the 
death  of  his  father,  in  1653,  he  received  some  instructions 
fjrom  his  uncie  John  Baptist  Weeninx ;  but  his  principal 
and  best  instructor  was  nature,  which  he  studied  with  in- 
tense application,  and  that  enabled  him  to  give  to  every 
animal  he  painted  such  truth,  such  a  degree  of  force,  ex- 
pression, and  life,  as  seemed  to  eqyal  nature  itself;  nor 
did  any  artist  take  more  pains  to  study  every  point  that 
might  conduce  to  the  perfection  gf  his  art.     His  pencil 
was  wonderfully  neat  and  delicate ;  his  touch  light,  his  co- 
louring exceedingly  natural,  lively,  and  remarkably  trans- 
parent; and  the  feathers  of  his  fowls  were  expressed  with 
such  a  swelling  softness,  as  might  readily  and  agreeably 
deceive  the  eye  of  any  spectator.     It  is  reported,  that  he 
had  trained  up  acock  to" stand  in  any  attitude  he  wanted  to 
describe,  and  that  it  was  bis  custom  to  place  that  creature 
near  his  easel ;  so  that,  at  the  motion  of  hifi  hand,  the  bird 
^ould  fix  itself  in  the  proper  posture,  and  would  continue 
in  that  particular  position,  without  the  smallest  perceptible 
alteration,  for  several  hoars  at  a  time. 

The  landscapes  which  he  introduces  as  the  back  grounds 
of  his  pictures,  are  adapted  with  peculiar  judgment  aiul 
skill,  and  admirably  finished ;  they  harmonize  with  .  his 
subject,  and  always  increase  the  force  and  the  beauty  M 
bis  principal  objects.  His  touch  was  very  singular  in  imi- 
tating the  natural  plumage  of  the  fowls  he  painted  ;  which 
not  only  produced  a  charming  effect,  but  also  may  prove 
serviceable  to  an  intelligent  observer,  to  assist  bini  in  de- 
termining which  are  tbe  genuine  pictures  pf  this  mastar, 

J  Moreri.— Chaufepie.-^Bruclcier.— See  Almanon^  vpL  lit  of  this  Dlctioiuiry. 

120  H  O  N  D  E  K  O  T  T  E  R. 

and  which  are  impositions.  The  works  of  Hondekotter  are 
justly  in  very  great  request  and  estimation,  and  they  gene- 
rally afford  a  large  price,  almost  in  proportion  to  their  va- 
lue.    He  died  1695,  aged  59.' 

HONDIUS  (Abraham),  another  artist,  well  known  in 
this  kingdom,  was  born  at  Rotterdam  in  1638,  according 
to  the  most  authentic  writers,  though  Descamps  fixes  his 
birth  in  1650.  He  appears  to  have  been  an  universal  mas- 
ter, painting,  with  e^ual  readiness,  landscapes,  animals  of 
all  kinds,  particularly  dogs,  huntings  of  wild  animals,  boars, 
defer,  wolves,  and  foxes,  as  also  conversations  and  fowls ; 
but  his  favourite  subjects  were  huntings.  His  manner 
seems  peculiar  to  himself;  it  was  bold  and  free;  and,  ex- 
cept Rubens  and  Snyders,  few  masters  have  painted  ani- 
mals in  a  greater  style,  or  with  more  spirit.  There  is  cer- 
tainly a  great  deal  of  fire  in  his  compositions ;  bat  his  co- 
louring is  often  extravagant,  and  his  drawing  extremely 
incorrect  In  general  his  pencilling  was  harsh,  and  he  de- 
lighted in  a  fiery  tint ;  yet  some  of  his  small  pictures  are 
very  neatly  finished.  There  is  a  great  inequality  as  to  the 
merit  of  the  works  of  Hondius,  some  of  them  being  in 
every  respect  abundantly  superior  to  others ;  but  there  is 
scarce  any  master  whose  compositions  are  so  easily  distin- 
guishable as^  those  of  Hondius,  by  certain  particularities  in 
bis  touch,  his  taste  of  design,  and  his  colouring. 

Several  of  his  pictures  of  dogs  are  much  esteemed ;  and 
one  especially  is  mentioned,  in  which  he  represented  thirty 
difierent  species  of  those  animals,  all  beingwell  designed, 
and  every  distinct  animal  being  characterised  with  some 
peculiar  air,  action,  expression,  or  attitude.  As  he  was 
exceedingly  harassed  and  tormented  with  the  gout,  the 
works  of  his  latter  time  are  more  negligently  executed  than 
those  which  he  finished  in  his  prime ;  and,  therefore,  they 
very  much  contribute  to  lessen  the  reputation  he  had  ac- 
quired by  some  of  his  more  studied  and  better  finished  per- 
formances. His  most  capital  picture  is  the  burning  of 
Troy,  in  which  there  are  a  variety  of  figures,  many  of  them 
veil  designed,  and  disposed  with  judgment.  Houbraken 
also  mentions  a  candle-light  of  this  master's  hand,  in  wbtefa 
appeared  a  fine  opposition  of  light  and  shadow,  and  the 
figures  were  extremely  well  designed  and  well  coloured*. 
When  he  came  to  England  is  not  known.    Vertue  says  he 

•— P*AffenTiUe,  vol.  III. 

H  O  N  D  I  U  S.  121 

wns  a  man  of  bdmour.  He  lired  on  Ludgate-hilly^  bat  died 
of  a  seirere  fit  of  the  gout  ia  i  695  at  the  Biackinoor's  head^ 
over  against  Water-lane,  Fleet-street. — loDOCUS  or  j£8SE 
Hondius  is  supposed  to  have  been  his  graodfiauther«  He 
was  born  at  Wackerne,  a  small  town  in  Flanders,  in  1563, 
and  died  in  1 6 1 1 .  He  was  a  self-taught  engraver  both  on 
copper  and  ivory,  and  a  letter-founder;  in  all  which 
branches  he  attained  great  excellence.  He  'Studied  geo-» 
graphy  also,  and  in  1607  published  a  work  entitled  ^'  De^ 
scriptio  Geographica  orbis  terraruni,'Vin  folio.^ 

HONE  (Georce  Paul),  a  lawyer  of  Nuremberg,  was 
born  there  in  1662.  He  became  counsellor  to  the  duke  of 
.Meinungeu,  and  bailli  of  Cobourg,  at  which  place  be  died 
in  1747.  His  works  are  chiefly  these:  1.  ^^  Iter  Juridioum, 
per  Belgium,  Angliam,  Qalliam,  Italiam.*'  2.  **  Lexicon 
Topographicum  Franconiae.*'  3.  **  History  of  the  Duchy 
of  Saxe^Cohourg,"  in  German.  4.  ^' Though ta  on  the 
Suppression  of  Mendicity,"  in  the  same  language.' 

H0N£  (Nathaniel),  was  born  in  Dublin  in  1767,  and 
came  to  England  in  the  early  part  of  life,  painting  in  se*> 
veral  parts  of  the  country,  particularly  at  York,  where  he 
married  a  lady  of  some  property.  A  short  time  after  bia 
marriage,  he  settled  in  London,  and  practised  with  repu^ 
tation,  both  as  a  painter  in  oil,  and  in  miniature,  particu- 
larly enamel;  and  after  the  death  of  Zincke,  ranked  among 
the  r principal  artists  of  bis.  day  in  that  branch.  He  was 
chosen  one  of  the  members  of  the  royal  academy  at  its 
first  institution ; .  but  took  offence  at  one  of  bis  pictures, 
intended  as  a  satire  on  sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  being  rejected 
from'  the  exhibition.  Another  was  also  objected  to,  as 
containing  a  very  profane  allusion,  which  he  altered  with 
a  substance  easily  washed  away,  and  the  picture  was  again 
exhibited/ in  its  original  state  at  an  exhibition  of  his  ownj 
in  1775.  As  a  painter  in  oil,  he  was  by  no  means  an  in-^ 
ferior  artist,  yet  the  colouring  of  bis  pictures  was  too  red 
for  the  carnations,  and  the  shadows  not  sufficiently  clean 
A  few  years  before  his  death,  he  removed  to  Rathbaee«^ 
place.  He  died  Aug.  14,  1784,  and  was  buried  at  Hendoui 
where  five  of  bis  children  lie.' 

HONESTIS,  Petrosde.     See  D  AMI  AN. 

HONORATUS,  bishop  of  Marseilles,  flourished  about 
.the  year  490.     He  was,    according  to  Gennadius,  who 

>  PilktBg^oD.--Orfonl's  Anecdotes. — Strutt's  DictiQqaiy.^-Rees's  Cyclopedia* 

>  Diet.  Hist.  3  Edwards's  Continuation  of  Walpole't  Anecdotei. 

122  H  O  N  O  R  A  T  U  S. 

celebrates  bim,  a  man  of  ready  and  abundant  eloquence. 
He  published  many  bomilies,  some  delivered  in  an  ex- 
temporary manner,  others  regularly  composed ;  in  which 
his  object  was  to  confute  the  dreams  of  heretics,  and  ex* 
hort  his  hearers  to  piety.  He  wrote  also  lives  of  many- 
eminent  leaders  of  the  churchy  of  which  no  one  is  e^ctant^ 
except  his  life  of  St.  Hilary  of  Aries.* 

HONORIUS  De  Sancta  Mauia,  whose  proper  name 
was  Blaize  Vauzelle,  was  born  July  4,. 1651,  at  Limoges. 
He  made  profession  among  the  Carmelites  at  Toulouse, 
in  1671 ;  taught  theology  with  reputation-in  his  order,  in' 
which  he  was  prior,  counsellor,  provincial,  and  visitor^' 
general  of  the  three  provinces  of  France.  He  died  i72§, 
at  Lisle,  aged  seventy-eight.  His  most  curious  work  is 
entitled  "  Reflexions  sur  les  regies,  et  *ur  Tusage  de  la 
Critique,"  3  vols.  4to ;  the  first  volume  is  most  esteemed.' 
He  atso  left,  **  La  Tradition  des  Peres,  et  des  Auteurs  Et*» 
clesiastiques,  sur  la  Contemplation;  avec  un  Trait^  sur 
les  motifs,  et  la  pratique,  de  PAmour  Divin,*'  3  vols. 
12mo;  **  Trait6  des  Indulgences  et  du  Jubii^,"  12mo; 
**  I>issertations  historiques  et  critiques  sur  les  (>rdre&  mili- 
taires,"  1718,  4to.  He  wrote  some  pieces  in  favour  of 
the  Formulary,  and  the  constitution  Unigenitus,  &c.' 

HON  TAN  (the  Baron  de),  was  a  native  of  Gascony, 
in  the  seventeenth  century,  and  is  principally  known  by 
his  travels  in  North  America,  which,  however,  are  writ* 
ten  in  an .  embarrassed  and  barbarous  style,  confounding 
truth  and  falsehood,  disfiguring  names,  and  disguisftig^ 
facts.  They  contain  some  episodes  of  pure  fiction,  par-» 
ticularly  the  narrative  of  the  voyage  up  the  long  river, 
which  is  supposed  to  be  of  equal  authority  with  the  Voyage 
to  Liliiput.  He  describes,  nevertheless,  with  some  suc^ 
cess,  the  general  face  of  the  country,  and  the  disposition, 
customs,  government,  and  other  particulars  of  the  inha- 
bitants. There  is  an  edition  of  his  travels  published  at 
Amsterdam  in  1705,  2  vols.  12mo.  He  began  his  career 
in  Canada  as  a  common  soldier,  was  raised  to  the  rank  of 
an  officer,  went  to  Newfoundland  in  the  quality  of  royal 
lieutenant,  there  quarrelled  with  the  governor,  was  broken, 
and  retired  first  to  Portugal,  and  finally  to  Denmark.' 

HONTHORST  (Gerard),  a  celebrated  artist,  called 
also  Gerardo  Dalle  Nottt,  from  his  principal  subjects, 

.    *  Gare,  vol.  I.— Moreri.  «  Moreri.— pict.  Hist.  3  oict.  Hist, 

H  O  N  T  H  O  R  S  T.  125 

WIS  bom  at  Utrecht  in  1592,  and  was  a  disciple  of  Abra* 
ham  Bloemart;  but  completed  his  studies  at  llome,  where} 
he  continued  several  years,  employed  there  by  persons  of 
the  first  rank,  and  particularly  by  prince  Justiniani.     He 
imitated  the  style  of  Caravaggio,  with  who^e  vivid  tone 
and  powerful  masses  of  light  and  ^hade,  h^  attempted  to^ 
combine  correctness  of  outlinei  refinement  of  forms,  grace- 
ful  attitudes,  and  that  dignity  which  ought  to  be  the  cha- 
racteristic of  sacred  subjects.     In  this  he  often  succeeded*. 
His  subjects  are  generally  night-pieces  as  large  as  life, 
and  illuminated  by  torch   or   candle-light.      Among  his 
numerous  pictures,  that  of  our  Saviour  before  the  Tribunal 
of  Pilate,  in  the  gallery  Justiniani^  for  energy,  dignity,, 
and  contrast,  is  the  most  celebrated.     Soon  after  his  re* 
turn  to  his  own  country  he  visited  London,  and  obtained, 
the  favour  of  king  Charles  I.  by  several  grand  performancesr 
and  portraits;   especially  hy  one  allegorical  picture,  in 
which  he  represented  the  portraits  of  the  king  and  queen^ 
intthe  characters  of  two  deities,  and  the  portrait  of  the, 
duke  of  Buckingham  in  the  character  of  Mercury,  intro- 
ducing the  liberal  arts  to  that  tfionarch  and  bis  consort.- 
For  that  composition,  which  jwas  well  drawn  and  extremely 
well  coloured,  the  king  presented  him  with  three  thousand 
florins,  a  service  of  plate  for  twelve  persons,  and  a  beauti- 
ful horse;  and  he.  had  afterwards  the  honour  to  instruct 
the  queen  of  Bohemia,  and  the  princesses  her  children,  ia 

His  pencil  is  free  and  firm,  and  his  colouring  has  a 
great  deal  of  force,,  although  it  often  is  not. pleasing,  by  a 
predominancy  of  the  yellow  and  brown  tints ;  yet  un- 
doubtedly Hpnthorst  would  have  been  an  excellent  painter^ 
if  he  had  known  how  to  give  more  grace  and  more  correct- 
ness to  his  figures.  At  his  return  from  London  to  Holland; 
he  adorned  the  pleasure  houses  of  the  prince  of  Orange 
with  many  poetical  subjects,  which  he  executed  in  fresco 
as  well  as  in  oil ;  but  he  principally  was  employed  lu 
painting  portraits,  which  are  described  as  having  good  ex-. 
pression,  and  extraordinary  life  and  force,  by  their  broad 
'  masses  of  light  being  contrasted  by  strong  shadows.  He 
died  in  1 660,  aged  sixty  eight.  His  brother,  William,  was 
born  at  Utrecht  in  1604,  and  learned  the  art  of  pa'uiting 
from  Abraham  Bloemart.  The  portraits  which  he  painted 
were  very  much  esteemed,  and  are  far  superior  to  his  histo- 
rical subjects,  which  are  in  no  degree  equal  to  those  of 

126  H  O  O  G  E  V  E  E  N. 

fessedijrto  a  certain  point,  bat  went  far  beyond  htm  in 
copiousness  and  sagacity.  A  very  useful  abridgment  of 
this  work,  the  only  faalt  of  which  is  too  great  prolixity, 
was  poblisbed  at  Dessau,  iu  1782,  by  Schtttz.  This  edi- 
tio»  will  be  found  more  useful  to  the  yoiing  student  than 
the  vast  work  on  which  it  is  founded,  as  more  easily  pur-  " 
chased,  and  more  easily  read.^ 

HOOGSTRATEN  (David  van),  a  professor  of  the 
belles  lettres,  was  born  at  Rotterdam  in  1658,  and  died  at 
Amsterdam  in  1724»  In  the  evenuig  of  Nov.  13,  there 
suddenly  arose  so  thick  a  mist,  that  he  lost  his  way,  and 
fell  into  a  canal.  He  was  soon  taken  out;  but  the  coldness 
of  the  water,  and  the  fright  from  the  fall,  brought  on  so 
strong  an  oppression  upon  the  breast,  that  he  died  in  eight 
*  days  after.  There. are  of  his,  1.  "  Latin  PoemS."  2.  "  Fle- 
mish Poems.'*  3.  **  A  Flemish  and  Latin  Dictionary.** 
4»  "  Note*  upon  C.  Nepos  and  Terence."  5.  "An  edition 
of  Pbcedrus,''  for  the  prince  of  Nassau,  4to,'Th  imitation 
of  the  Delphin  editibns.  6.  A  fine  edition  of  ^*  Janus 
Broukhusius^s  Poems."* 

HOOGUE  (RoMAiN  DE),  a  Dutch  designer  and  engraver, 
who  flourished  towards  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
bad  a  lively  imagination,  by  which  he  was  sometimes  led 
astray  ;  and  his  works  must  be  viewed  with  some  allowance 
for  incorrectness  of  design  and  injudicious  choice  of  sub- 
jects,  which  were  in  general  of  an  allegorical  cast,  or  dis- 
tinguished by  a  kind  of  low  caricature.  His  works  are 
chiefly  extant  in  certain  editions  of  books  for  which  he  was 
employed  ;  as,  1.  Plates  for  the  Old  and  New  Testament; 
in  folio,  published  by  Basnage  in  1704.  2.  Plates  to  '^the 
Academy  of  the  Art  of  Wrestling,"  in  Dutch,  1(574,  and 
in  French  in  1712.  3.  Plates  to  the  Bible,  with  Dutch 
explanations.  4.  Plates  for  the  Egyptian  Hieroglyphics^ 
Amsterdam,  1-735,  small  folio.  5.  Plates  to  Fontaine's 
Fables,  1685,  2  vols.  8vo.  6.  To  Boccace,  1695,  2  vols. 
8vo.  7.  To  the  Tales  of  the  Queen  of  Navarre.  8.  To 
the  "Cent  Nouvelles  nouvelles,''  1701,  2  vols.  Svo.  Sudh 
of  bis  plates,  as  are  to  be  met  with  separate  from  tbe  works 
to  which  they  belong,  bear  a  higher  price.* 

HOOKE  (Nathaniel),  celebrated  for  a  **  Roman  His- 
tOTYf*  died  July  19,  1763,  but  we  know  not  at  what  age; 

,  0 

.  ■  • 

>  Hades  de  Vitis  Pbilolognnim^  Tol.  IV.— SftxIS  Onmiiattioon,  vol.  VHk 
*  Moreri*— Saxii  Onoiaast.  *  Strait's  JDlcU  of  Sogmvers* 

H  O  O  K  E.  127 

as  indeed  few  particulars  of  him  are  recorded,  tboogh  ke 
is  said,  ^^  from  1723  till  bis  death,  to  have  enjoyed  the 
conddence  and  patronage  of  men  not  less  distinguished  by 
virtue  than  by  titles.^*  The  first  particular  that  occurs  of 
him  is  from  a  letter  to  lord  Oxford,  dated  Oct^l7,  1722, 
by  which  it  appears,  that,  having  been  ^^  seized  with  the 
l^te  epidemical  distemper  of  endeavouring  to  be  rich,^* 
meaning  the  South-sea  infatuation^  *'  lie  was  in  some  mea- 
sure happy  to  find  himself  at  that  instant  just  woriii 
Dothing.'*  ^ome  time  after,  however,  he  was  recommendefd 
to  Sarah  duchess  of  Marlborough,  who  presented  him  with 
5000/.  the  condition  of  which  donation  was  expressly,  that 
he  the  said  Hooke  should  aid  and  assist  her  the  said  duchess 
id  drawing  up  and  digesting  ^^  An  account  of  the  conduct 
of  the  dowager  duchess  of  Marlborough,  from,  her  &ru 
coming  to  court  to  the  year  1710.**  This  was  done,  and 
the  work  was  published  in  1742,  8vo ;  but  soon  after  she 
took  occasion,  as  was  usoa.1  with  her,  to  quarrel  with  him, 
**  because,"  finding  her  without  religion,  "  he  attempted," 
as  she  affirmed,  "  to  convert  her  to.  popery."  Hookewas 
a  mystic  and  quietist,  and  a  warm  disciple  of  Fenelon, 
whose  life  he  translated  from  the  French,  and  published  iR 
1723,  l2nio.  It  was  he  who  brought  a  catholic  priest  to 
take  Pope's  confession  upon  his  death-bed  :  the  priest  had 
scarcely  departed,  when  Boiingbroke  coming  in,  flew  into 
a  great^  passion  upon  the  occasion^  He  is  said  to  have 
been  a  remarkably  fine  reader.  Richardson  informs  us, 
that  be  once  read  some  speeches  of  his  Roman  History  to 
the  speaker  Onslow,  who  piqued  himself  too  upoa  reading, 
and  begged  him  to  give  his  opinion  of  the  work :  the 
Speaker  answered,  as  in  a  passion,  *^  he  could  not  tell  what 
to  think  of  it :  it  might  be  nonsense  for  aught  he  knew ; 
for  that  his  manner  of  reading  had  bewitched  him." 

The  "  Roman  History"  of  Hooke  was  4  vols* 
4to;  the  first  in  1733,  the  second  in  1745,  the  third  iii 
1764,  and  the  fourth  in  1771.  It  embraces  the  events 
from  the  building  of  Rome  to  the  ruin  of  the  common-* 
wealth.  In  176B  he  published  **  Observations -on  four 
pieces  upon  the  Ronnan  Senate,"  among  which  were  those 
of  Middieton  and  Chapman  ;  and  was  answered  in  an  auo« 
nymous  pamphlet,  entitled  "  A  short  Review  of  Mr.  Hookers 
Observations,  i&c.  concerning  the  Roman  Senate,  and  the 
character  of 'Dloaysius  of  Halicarnassus,"  1758,  8vo.  But 
the  author  of  this  was  Edward  Spelman,  esq.  who  was  then 


]2d  H  O  O  K  E. 

publishing  ftn  English  translation  of  Dionysius.  Hoc^ 
published  also  a  translation  of  Ramsay^s.^*  Travels  of  Cyrus,** 
1739,  4to.  Mr.  Hooke  left  two  sons;  one  a  clergyman  of 
the  English  church,  rector  of  Birkby  and  vicar  of  Leek  in 
Yorkshire,  who  died  in  1791 ;  the  other  a  doctor  of  the 
Sorbonne,  and  professor  of  astronomy  in  that  seminary.^ 

HOOKE  (Robert),  an  eminent  English  mathematician, 

and  one  of  the  most  inventive  geniuses  that  the  world  ha^ 

ever  seen,  was  son  of  Mr.  John  Hooke,  rector  of  Fresh* 

water  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  born  there  July  18,  1635. 

He  was  designed  for  the  church ;  but  being  of  a  weakly 

constitution,  and  very  subject  to  the  head-ache,  he  was  left 

to  follow  the  bent  of  his  genius,  which  led  him  to  iiie<« 

ehanicsi  and  first  appeared  in  bis  making  little  toys,  which 

he  did  with  wonderful  art  and  dexterity.     Seeing,  on  one 

occasion,  an  old  brass  clock  taken  to  pieces,  he  made  ar 

wooden  one  that. would  go  :  be  made  likewise  a  small  ship 

about  a  yard  long,  fitly  shaped,  masted,  and  rigged,  with 

a  contrivance  to  make  it  fire  small  guns,  as  it  was  sailing 

across  a  haven  of  some  breadth.    These  indications  led  hia 

friends  to  think  of  some  trade  for  him  in  which  such  talents 

might  be  useful ;  and  after  his  father's  death  in  1648,  as  he 

had  also  a  turn  for  drawing,  he  was  placed  with  sir  Peter 

Lely,  but  the  smell-  of  the  oiUcolours  increased  his  head<* 

aches,  and  he  quitted  painting  in  &  very  short  time^.  After«« 

wards  he  was  kindly  taken  by  Dr.  Busby  into  his  house, 

and  supported  there  while  he  attended  Westminster-schooL 

Here  be  not  only  acquired  Greek  and  Latin,  together  with 

some  knowledge  of  Hebrew  and  other  oriental  languages^ 

but  also  made  himself  master  of  a  good  part  of  Euclid's 

Elements ;  and  Wood  adds,  that  while  he  lived  with  Dr. 

Busby  he  ^^  learned  of  his  own  accord  to  play  twenty 

lessons  on  the  organ,  and  invented  thirty  several  ways  of 

flying ;  as  himself  and  Dr.  Wilkins  of  Wad  ham- college 

have  reported." 

*  Aubrey  says  he  bad  some  instruc-  been  paid  as  an  apprentice  fee  to  Lely| 

tions  in  drawing  from  the   celebrated  but  after  he  had  been  some  time  upon 

Sam.  Cooper,  but  does  not  knoir  wbe-  trial,  Hooke  left  htm,  as  thinking  b« 

ther  this  was  before  or  after  he  went  to  could  do  all  that  was  to  b«  done,  an4 

Lely.      He  gives  us  an  auecdote  of  keep  his  hundred  pounds.     When' ha 

Hooke,  however,  which  is  very  charac-  went  to  Busby's  be  "  lodged  his  1 00/^ 

teristic  of  that  sordid  regard  for  money  with  him.'' — Letters  by  Emioeoi  Pfr* 

which  predominated  all  his  life.     His  sons,  1813,  3  vols.  8 vo« 
father  left  him  100/.  which  was  to  have 

I  Nichols's  Bowyer.— Ruffhead's  Life  of  Pope,  4to  edit.  p.  3S1.  421.— <%€»; 
Urfitld's  Memoirs,  4to«  p*  116.— Bo8weU'»  Tour  to  ^  Hebridje^  . 


H  O  O  It  £.  128 

About  1653  he  went  to  Cbrist-churcb,  Oxford^  and  in 
1655  was  introduced  to  the  philosophical  society  tbere; 
where,  discovering  his  mechanic  genius,  he  was  first  em- 
ployed to  assist  Dr.  Willis  in  his  operations  of  chemistry, 
and  afterwards  recommended  to  Mr.  Boyle,  whom  he  served 
many  years  in  the  same  capacity.     He  was  also  instructed 
about  this  time  by  Dr.  Seth  Ward,  Savilian  professor  of 
astronomy,  in  that  science ;  and  fipom  henceforward  distin- 
gimhed  himself  by  a  greater  number  of  important  inven- 
tions and  improvements  of  the  mechanic  kind,  than  any 
one  man  had  ever  discovered.    Among  these  were  several 
astronomical  instruments  for  making  observations  both  at 
sea  and  land;  and  he  was  particularly  serviceable  to  Boyle, 
in  completing  the  air-pump.     Wood  tells  US|  that  he  also  ' 
explained  '^  Euclid's  Elements,''  and  ^^  Des  Cartes's  Philo- 
sophy," to  Boyle.     In  Nov.  1662,  sir  Robert  Moray,  then 
president,  having  proposed  him  for  curator  of  experiments 
to  the  Royal  Society,  he  was  unanimously  accepted,  and 
it  was  ordered  that  Boyle  should  have  the  thanks  of  the 
.society  for  dispensing  with  him  for  their  use ;  and  that  he 
should  come  and  sit  among  them,  and  both  exhibit  every 
day  three  or  four  of  bis  own  experiments,  and  take  care 
of  such  others  as  should  be  mentiomed  to  him  by  the  so<» 
ciety.     He  executed  this  oflSce  so  much  to  their  satisfac- 
tion, that  when  that  body  was  established  by  the  royal 
charter,  his  name  was  in  the  list  of  those  who  were  first 
nominated  by  the  council.  May  20,   1663 ;   and  he  was 
admitted  accordingly,  June  3,  with  a  peculiar  exemption 
from  all  payoients.     Sept  28  of  the  same  year,  he  was 
nominated  by  Clarendon,  chancellor  of  Oxford,  for  the 
degree  of  M.A.;  and  Oct.  19,  it  was  ordered  that  the 
repository  of  the  Royal  Society  should  be  committed  to  his 
care,  the  white  gallery  in  Cresham-college  being  appointed 
for  that  use.     In  May  1664,  he  began  to  read  the  astrono* 
mical  lecture  at  Gresham  for  the  professor.  Dr.  Pope,  then 
in  Italy  ;  and  the  same  year  was  made  professor  of  mecha- 
nics to  the  Royal  Society  by  Sir  John  Cutler,  with  a  salary 
of  50/.  per  annum,  which  that  gentleman,  the  founder, 
settled  upon  him  for  life.     On  Jan.  11,  1664-5,  he  was 
elected  by  that  society  curator  of  experiments  for  life,  with 
an  additional  salary  of  30/.  per  annum  to  sir  John  Cutler^s 
annuity,  settled  on  him  *'pro  tempore:"  and,  March  fol- 
lowipg,  was  elected  professor  of  geometry  in  Gresham  «^ 
college,    i. 

VouXVlll  K 

ISO  H  O  O  K  E* 

In  1665,  he  published  in  folio  bis  '' Micrographia,  or 
some  philosophical  descriptions  of  minute  bodies,  made  by 
magnifying  glasses,  with  observations  and  enquiries  there- 
upon f  *  and  the  same  year,  during  the  recess  of  the  Royal 
Society  on  account  of  the  plague,  attended  Dr.  Wilkins 
and  other  ingenious  gentlemen  into  Surrey,  where  they 
made  several  experiments.  In  Sept.  1666,  he  produced 
his  plan  for  rebuildiM  the  city  of  London,  then  destroyed 
by  the  great  fire ;  which  was  approved  by  the  lord- mayor 
and  court  of  aldermen*  According  to  it,  all  the  chief 
streets  were  to  have  been  built  in  regular  lines ;  all  the 
0thet  cross  streets  to  have  turned  out  of  them  at  right 
angles ;  and  all  the  churches,  public  buildings,  market- 
places, &c.  to  have  been  fixed  in  proper  and  convenient 
places ;  but  the  nature  of  the  property,  and  the  impossi- 
bility of  raising  funds  to  indemnify  the  landholders  who 
would  be  injured  by  this  scheme,  prevented  its  being  car- 
ried into  execution.  The  rebuilding  of  the  city,  however^ 
according  to  the  lact  of  parliament,  requiring  an  able  per- 
son to  set  out  the  ground  to  the  several  proprietors,  Hooke^ 
was  appointed  one  of  the  city  surveyors,  and  Ofiver,  a 
glass-pain tet,  the  ot^het*.  In  this  employment  he  acquired 
the  greatest  part  of  that  estate  of  which  be  died  possessed  ; 
as  appeared  sufficiently  evident  from  a  large  iron  chest  of 
money  found  after  his  death,  locked  down  with  a  key  in  it, 
and  a  date  of  the  time,  which  shewed  that  the  contents  had 
been  so  shut  up  for  above  thirty  years,  and  seldom  dis- 
turbed, for  he  almost  starved  himself  and  all  in  his  house. 

in  1668,  Hevelius,  the  famous  astronomer  at  Dantzick, 
pi^esented  a  copy  of  his  **  Cometographia"  to  Hooke,  in 
acknowledgment  for  an  handsome  compliment  which  Hooke 
}iad  paid  to  him  on  account  of  his  '*  Selenographia,^*  printed 
in  1647  ;  and  Hooke,  in  return,  sent  Hevelius  a  description 
of  the  dioptric  telescope,  with  an  account  of  his  manner 
9f  iising  it,  and  recommended  it  to  him  as  preferable  to 
those  with  plain  sights.  This  circumstance  gave  rise  to  a 
great  dispute  between  them,  noticed  in  our  account  of 
Hevelius,  in  which  many  learned  men  afterwards  en- 
ffag^d,  and  which  Hooke  so  managed,  as  to  be  uni- 
versally condemned,  though  it  haa  since  been  agreed 
that  he  had  the  be^t  side  of  the  question.  In  1671  he 
attacked  sir  Isaac  Newton's  "  New  Theory  of  Light  and 
Colours  ;'*  where,  though  he  was  forced  to  submit  in  re- 
tpect  to  the  argument,  he  U  said  to  have  come  off  with  ^ 
b^euer  reputation  than  in  the  former  instance.    The  Royal 

HOOKS.  I3i 

Society  having  begun  their  meetings  at  Gresham-coUege^ 
in  Nov.  1^74^  the  committee  in  December  allowed  him  40/. 
to  erect  a  turret  over  part  of  his  lodgings,  for  proving  his 
instruments,  and  making  astronomical  observations ;  and 
the  year  following  he  published  *<  A  Description  of  Tele- 
scopes, and  some  other  instruments,*'  made  by  him,  with 
a  postscript,  complaining  of  some  injustice  done  him  by 
Oldenburg,  the  publisher  of  the  "  Philosophical  Transac- 
tions,*' in  regard  to  his  invention  of  pendulum  watches. 
This  charge  drew  him  into  a  dispute  with  that  gentleman, 
which  ended  in  a  declaration  of  the  Koyai  Society  in  their 
secretary's  favoun  Oldenburg  dying  in  Aug.  1677,  Hooke 
was  appointed  to  supply  his  place,  and  began  to  take 
minutes  at  the  meeting  in  October,  and  published  seven 
numbers  of  the  ^*  Philosophical  Collections,*'  which  have 
been  always  considered  as  a  part  of  the  '*  Philosophical 
Transactions.".  Soon  after  this  be  grew  more  reserved  than 
formerly,  and  though  he  read  his  Cutlerian  lectures,  and 
often  made  experiments,  and  shewed  new  inventions  before 
the  Royal  Society,  yet  he  seldom  left  any  account  of  them 
to  be  entered  in  their  registers,  designing,  as  he  said,  to 
fit  them  for  himself,  and  make  them  ppblic,  which  however 
he  never  performed.  In  1686,  when  sir  Isaac  Newton's 
Prtncipia  were  published,  Hooke,  with  that  jealousy  which 
was  niittural '  to  him,  claimed  priority  respecting  the  idea 
of  gravitation.  Newton,  with  a  candour  equally  natural 
to  him,  admitted  his  claim,  but  shewed  at  the  same  time 
that  Hooke's  notion  of  gravitation  was  different  from  his 
own,  and  that  it  did  not  coincide  with  the  phenomena.  In 
reality,  the  notion  of  gravitation  is  as  ancient  at  least  as 
the  days  of  Lucretius,  and  is  particularly  noticed  by  Kepler. 
Newton's  merit  consisted,  not  in  ascribing  the  planetary 
motions  to  gravitation,  but  in  determining  the  law  which 
gravitation  follows,  and  in  shewing  that  it  exactly  accounts  < 
for  all  the  planetary  phenomena,  which  no  other  system 

In  1687,  his  brother's  daughter,  Mrs.  Grace  Hooke,  who 
had  lived  with  bim  several  years,  died  ;  and  he  was  so 
affected  at  her  death,  that  he  hardly  eVer  recovered  it,  but 
was  observed  from  that  time  to  .grow  less  active,  more 
melancholy,  and,  if  possible,  more  cynical  than  ever*  At 
the  same  time  a  chancery-suit,  in  which  he  was  concerned 
with  sir  John  Cutler,  on  account  of  his  salary  for  reading 
the  Cutlerian  lectures,    made  him  very  uneasy,  and  in- 

K  2 

J38  H  O  O  K  E. 

creased  bis  disorder.  In  1 69 1 ,  he  was  employed  in  forming^ 
the  plan  of  the  hospital  near  Hoxton,  founded  by  Aske, 
alderman  of  London,  who  appointed  archbishop  Tillptsoa 
one  of  his  executors;  and  in  December  the  same  year, 
Hooke  was  created  M.  D.  by  a  warrant  from  that  prelate. 
He  is  also  said  to  have  been  the  architect  of  Bediami  and 
the  College  of  Physicians.  In  July  1696,  hi^  chancery- 
suit  for  sir  John  Cutler's  salary  was  determined  in  his 
favour,  to  his  inexpressible  satisfaction.  His  joy  on 
that  occasion  was  found  in  liis  diary  thus  expressed : 
^<  DoMSHLGissA ;  that  is,  Deo  Optimo  Maximo  sit  honor^ 
laus,  gloria,  in  saecula  sseculorum.  Amen.  I  was  born  on 
this  day  of  July,  1635,  and  God  has  given  me  a  new  birth  : 
may  I  never  forget  his  mercies  to  me !  whilst  he  gives  me 
breath  may  I  praise  him  !''  The  same  year  an  order  was 
granted  to  him  for  repeating  most  of  his  experiments,  at 
the  expence  of  the  Boyal  Society,  upon  a  promise  of  his 
finishing  the  accounts,  observations,  and  deductions  from 
them,  and  of  perfecting  the  description  of  all  the  instru- 
ments contrii'ed  by  him,  which  his  increasing  illness  and 
general  decay  rendered  him  unable  to  perform.  For  the 
two  or  three  last  years  of  his  life  he  is  said  to  have  sat 
night  and  day  at  a  table,  engrossed  with  his  inventions  and 
stuidies,  and  never  to  have  gone  to  bed,  or  even  undressed  ; 
and  in  this  wasting  condition,  and  quite  emaciated,  be  died 
March  3,  1 702,  at  his  lodgings  in  Gresham-i^oHege,  and 
was  buried  in  St.  Helen's  church,  Bishopsgate- street,  bis 
corpse  being  attended  by  all  the  members  of  the  Royat 
Society  then  in  London. 

Waller,  the  writer  of  his  life,  has  given  the  following 
character  of  him,  which,  though  not  an  amiable  one,  seems 
to  be  drawn  with  candour  and  impartiality.  He  was  in 
person  but  a  despicable  figure;  short  of  stature,  very 
crooked,  pale,  lean,  and  of  a  meagre  aspect,  with  dark 
brown  hair,  very  long,  and  hanging  over  his  face,  uncut^^ 
and  lank.  Suitable  to  this  person,  his  temper  was  penu- 
.  rious,  melancholy,  mistrustful,  and  jealous ;  which  qualities 
increased  upon  him  with  his  years.  He  set  out  in  bis  youth 
with  a  collegiate  or  rather  a  monastic  recluseness,  and 
afterwards  led  the  life  of  a  cynical  hermit ;  scarcely  allow- 
ing himself  necessaries,  notwithstanding  the  great  increase 
of  bis  fortunes  after  the  fire  in  London  ^.     He  declared 

*  Sir  Godfrey  Cof>1ev,  in  a  leUer     ffavB,  **  Dr.  Kook«  is  very  craxy ;  much 
vritteB  about  the  time  of  Nooke'f  death,     concerned  for  ftar  be  ahou  Id  4)utUTe  his 

H  O  O  K  E.  133. 

sometimes,  that  he  had  a  great  project  in  his  head  as  to 
the  disposal  of  his  estate,  for  the  advapcement  of  natural 
knowledge,  and  to  promote  the  ends  and  desigpis  for  which 
the  Royal  Society  was  instituted;  to  huild  a  handsome 
fabric  for  the  society's  use,  with  a  library,  repository,  la« 
boratory,  and  other  conveniences  for  making  experiments ; 
and  to  found  and  endow  a  physico-mechanic  lecture  like 
that  of  sir  John  Cutler.     But  though  he  was  often  solicited 
by  his  friends  to  put  his  designs  down   in  writing,  and 
make  his  will  as  to  the  disposal  of  his  estate,  yet  he  could 
never  be  prevailed  on  to  do  it,  but  died  without  any  will 
that  could  be  found.     In  like  lAanner,  with  respect  to  his 
philosophical  treasures,  when  he  first  became  known  to  the 
learned  world,  he  was  very  communicative  of  his  inventions 
and  discoveries,  but  afterwards  grew  close  and  reserved  to 
a  fault ;  alledging  for  an  excuse,  that  some  persons  chal- 
lenged his  discoveries  for  their  own,  and  took  occasion  from 
his  hints  to  perfect  what  he  had  not  finished.     For  this 
reason  he  would  suggest  nothing,  till  he  had  time  to  perfect 
it  himself;  so  that  many  things  are  lost  which  he  affirmed 
he  knew,  though  be  was  not  supposed  to  know  every  thing 
which  he  affirmed.     For  instance,  not  many  weeks  before 
hi9  death,  he  told  Mr.  Waller  and  others,  that  he  knew  a 
certain  and  infallible  method  of  discovering  the  longitude 
at  sea;   yet  it  is  evident  that  his  friends  distrusted  his 
asseveration  of  this  discovery ;  and  how  little  credit  was 
then  g^ven  to  it  in  general,  appears  from  Waller^s  own 
accounts     '^  Hooke,*'  says  he,  '^  suffering  this  invention  to 
be  undiscovered  to  the  last,  gave  some  persons  cause  to 
question,  whether  he  was  ever  the  possessor  of  it ;  and  to 
doubt  whether   what  in  theory  seemed  very  promising, 
would  answer  when  put  in  practice.     Others  indeed  more 
severely  judged,  that  it  was  only  a  kind  of  boasting  in  him 
to  assert  that  which  had  not  been  performed  though  at* 
tempted  by  many."     In  the  religious  part  of  his  character 
he  was  so  hr  exemplary,  that  he  always  expressed  a  great 
veneration  for  the  Deity,  and  seldpm  received  any  remark- 

estate.  He  bath  ttanred  one  old  woman  the  days  of  his  life,  I  mean  mathema- 
already ;  and  I  beiteve  he  will  endanger  ti<;at  experiments,  than  to  hare  it  go  to 
hinself  t»  save  sixpence  for  any  thing  tl^ose  whom  he  never  saw  or  cared  for. 
he  wants."  In  another,  written  a  few  it  is  rare  that  virtuosos  die  rich,  and  it 
weeks  after  his  death.  Sir  Godfrey  says, 
•*  I  wonder  old  Or.  Hooke  did  not  choose 
rather  to  leave  bis  12,000/.  to  continue  Nicholses  possession, 
what  he  had  promoted  and  studied  all 

is  pity  they  should  if  they  were  like 
him."     Dr.  Docarel's    MSS.  in  Mr.  ' 

134  HO  O  K  E. 

able  benefit  in  life,  or  made  any  considerable  diicovisry  in 
nature,  or  invented  any  useful  contrivance,  or  foynd  out 
any  difficult  problem,  without  setting  down  his  acknow- 
ledgment to  God,  as  many  places  in  bis  diary  plainly  shew. 
He  frequently  studied  the  sacred  writings  in  the  originals ; 
for  he  was  acquainted  with  the  ancient  languages,  as  well 
as  with  all  the  parts  of -mathematics.  *^  To  conclude,'* 
says  Waller,  ^^  all  his  errors  and  blemishes  were  more  than 
made  amends  for  by  the  greatness  and  extent  of  his  natural 
and  acquired  parts,  and  more  than  common  if  not  wonder* 
ful  sagacity,  in  diving  into  the  most  hidden  secrets  of 
nature,  and  in  contriving  proper  methods  of  forcing  her  to 
confess  the  truth,  by  driving  and  pursuing  the  Proteus 
through  all  her  changes  to  her  last  and  utmost  recesses- 
There  needs  no  other  proof  of  this,  thaii  the  great  numl^er 
of  experiments  he  made,  with  the  contrivances  for  them^ 
amounting  to  some  hundreds ;  his  new  and  useful  instni«* 
ments  and  inventions,  which  were  numerous ;  his  admirable 
facility  and  clearness  in  explaining  the  phenomeiia  of  na* 
ture,  &nd  demonstrating  his  assertions ;  his  happy  talent 
in  adapting  theories  to  the  phenomena  observed,  and  con« 
triving  easy  and  plain,  not  pompous  and  amusing,  expe- 
riments to  back  and  prove  those  theories ;  proceeding  from 
observations  to  theories,  and  fronn  theories  to  farther  trials, 
which  he  asserted  to  be  the  most  proper  method  to  succeed 
in  the  interpretation  of  nature.  For  these  his  happy  qua- 
lifications he  was  much  respected  by  the  most  learned  phi* 
losophers  at  home  and  abroad.;  and  as  with  all  his  failures 
he  may  be  reckoned  among  the  great  men  of  the  last  age, 
80,  had  he  been  free  from  them,  possibly  he  might  have 
stood  in  the  front.'* 

His  papers  being  put  by  his  friends  into  the  hands  of 
Richard  Waller,  esq.  secretary  to  the  Royal  Society,  that 
gentleman  collected  such  as  he  thought  worthy  of  the  press, 
and  published  them  under  the  title  of  his  *^  Posthumous 
Works,"  in  1705,  to  which  he  prefixed  an  account  of  his 
life,  in  folio.  It  is  thought,  that  this  gentleman  would 
have  published  more  of  Hooke's  manuscripts,  had  he 
lived.  Mr.  Professor  Robison  of  Edinburgh,  who  ascribes 
the  invention  of  spring- watches  to  Hooke,  had  an  op[]/or- 
tunity  of  seeing  some  of  Hooke's  MSS.  that  had  been 
rescued  from  the  fire  at  the  burning  of  Gresham-college, 
and  says  that  they  are  full  of  systematic  views :  many  of 
them,   it   must  be  acknowledged,  hasty,  inaccurate,  and 

H  O  O  K  £.  lU 

^tntiltt  but  still  syst^maticaL     Hooke  called  them  algebras^ 
and  considered  them  as  having  a  sort  of  inventive  power^ 
or  rather  as  means  of  discovering  things  unknown  by  a 
process  somewhat  similar  to  that  art     He  valued  himself 
highly  on  account  of  this  view  of  science,  which  he  thought 
peculiar  to  himself;  and  he  frequently  speaks  of  others, 
even  the  most  eminent,  as  childishly  contenting  themselves 
with  partial  views  of  the  corners  of  things.     He-was  like- 
wise very  apt  to  consider  other  inventors  as  encroachers  on 
liis  systems,  which  he  held  as  a  kind  of  property,  being 
seriously  determitied  to  prosecute  them  all  m  their  turn, 
and  never  recollecting  that  any  new  object  iipmediately 
called  him  off,  and  engaged  him  for  a  while  in  the  most 
eager  pursuit.     His  algebras  had  given  him  many  signal 
helps,  and  he  had  no  doubt  of  carrying  them  through  in 
every  investigation.     Stimulated  by  this  overfond  expec- 
tation, when  a  discovery  was  mentioned  to  him  he  was  too 
apt  to  thinl:  and  to  say,  that  he  had  long  ago  invented  the 
s^ame  thing,  when  the  truth  probably  was,  that  the  course 
of  his  systematic  thoughts  on  the  subjects  with  which  it  was 
connected  had  really  suggested  it  to  him,  with  such  viva* 
city,  or  with  such  notions  of  its  importance,  as  to  make 
him  ^et  it  down  in  his  register  iu  its  own  systematic  place, 
which  was  his  constant  practice :  but  it  was  put  out  of  his 
mind  by  some  new  object  of  pursuit.     These  remarks  are 
part  of  a  series,  by  the  same  learned  professor,  on  the 
merits  and  inventions  of  Dr.  Hooke,  which  are  new,  and 
highly  necessary  to  enable  the  reader  to  form  a  just  esti- 
mate of  Hooke  as  a  benefactor  to  science.     They  are  to 
be  found  in  the  ^^  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,''  under  the 
article  Watch,  and  in  Dr.  Gleig's  supplement  to  that 
work,  under  HooK£.     No  English  biographer  appears  to 
have  done  so  much  justice  to  our  pliilosopher. ' 

HOOKER,  or  VOWELL,  (John,)  an  English  historian, 
was  born  at  Exeter,  about  the  year  1524.  His  father  Ro- 
bert Hooker,  a  wealthy  citizen,  was  in  1529  mayor  of  that 
city.  Dr.  Moreman,  vicar  of  Menhinit  in  Cornwall,  wa9 
bis  tutor  in  grammar,  after  which  he  studied  at  Oxford, 
but  in  what  college  Wood  was  not  able  to  discover.  Having 
left  the  University,  he  travelled  to  Germany,  and  resided 
some  time  at  Cologn,  where  be  studied  the  law  ^  and  thence 

1  Life  by  Waller.  —  Biog.  Brit. — Ward's  Gresbaia  Professors,— Atb.  Ox. 
Tol.  IL—^EBcyclopssdia  as  above. 

136  HOOKER. 

to  Strasburgh,   where  he  heard  the  divinity  lectures  of 
Peter  Martyr.     He  intended  also  to  have  visited  France, 
3painy  and  Italy,  but  a  war  breaking  out,  he  returned  to*  - 
England,    and,   residing  at   his  native  city,  Exeter,  was  ' 
elected  chamberlain  iti  1554,  being  the  first  person  who 
held  that  office;  and  in  1571  he  represented  Exeter  in 
parliament.     He  died  in  1601,  and  was  buried  in  the  cathe* 
dral  of  Exeter.     His  works  are,  1.  *^  Order  and  usage  of 
keeping  of  Parliaments  in  Ireland.*'     The  MS.  of  this  is 
in  Trinity-college-library,  Dublin.    He  hsid  been  sent  into 
Ireland  by  sir  Peter  Carew  to  negotiate  his  affairs  there, 
and  was  elected  burgess  for  Athenry  in  the  parliament  of 
1568.    This  tract  is  pjrinted  with  his  Irish  Chronicle  in 
Holinshed.     2.  *^  The  events  of  Comets,  or  blazing  stars,    . 
made  upon  the  sight  of  the  comet  Pagoniu,  which  appeared 
in  November  and   December  1577."    Lond.   1577,  8vo. 
3.  ^^  An  addition  to  the  Chronicles  of  Ireland  from  1546 
to  1568,'*  in  the  second  volume  of  Holinshed.     4.  "Ca- 
talogue of  the  bishops  of  Exeter,*'  and  **  a  Description 
of  Exeter,**  in'  the  third  volume  of  Holinshed.    5.  A  trans- 
lation of  the  history  of  the  conquest  of  Ireland  from  Giral- 
dus  Cambrensis,  in  the  second  volume  of  Holinshed,  and 
some  other  pieces  not  printed.     This  gentlemai^  was  uncle 
to  the  celebrated  Richard  Hooker.  * 

I^OOK^R  (Ric|IARD),  an  eminent  English  divine,  and 
.author  of  an  excellent  work,  entitled  "  The  JLaws  of  Ec- 
clesiastical Polity,  in  6ight  books,**  was  born  at  Heavy- 
tree  near  Exeter,  about  the  end  of  March  1554,  Mis 
parents,  not  being  rich,  intended  hiqfi  for  a  trade;  but  bis 
schoolmaster  at  Exeter  prevailed  with  them  to  continue 
him  at  school,  assuring  them,  that  his  na'tural  endowments 
and  learning  were  both  so  remar](able,  that  he  must  of 
necessity  be  taken  notice  of,  and  |hat  God  would  provide 
him  some  patron  who  would  free  them  from  any  future  care 
or  charge  about  him.  Accordingly  his  uncle  John  Hooker, 
the  subject  of  the  preceding  article^  who  was  ^en  cham- 
berlain of  the  town,  began  to  notice  him ;  and  being  known 
to  Jewell,  made  a  visit  to  that  prelate  at  Salisbury  soon 
after,  and  ^  besought  him  for  charity's  sake  to  1oo|l  favour- 
ably upon  a  poor  nephew  of  his,  whom  natqre  had  fitted 
for  a  scholar;  but  the  estate  of  his  parents  was  s$o  narrow, 
that  they  were  unable  to  give  him  the  adv^ntag^  of  l^arn- 

I  Prince's  Worthiei  of  Devon. — Atb»  Ox.  vol.  1.— Ware's  Ireland  by  Marri^. 

HO  O  K  E  R.  1$7 

ing ;  and  that  the  bishop  -therefore  would  become  his  pa* 
troQ,  and  prevent  him  from  being  a  tradesman,  for  be  was 
a  boy  of  remarkable  hopes/'     The  bishop  examining  into 
his  merits,  found  him  to  be  what  the  uncle  had  repre- 
sented him,  and  took  him  immediately  under  his  protec- 
tion.    He  got  him  admitted,  in  1567,  one  of  the  clerks  of 
Corpus-*Christi  college  in  Oxford,  and  settled  a  pension 
on  him ;  which,  with  the  contributions  of  his  uncle,  af- 
forded liim  a  verv   comfortable   subsistence.      In   1571, 
Hooker  had  the  misfortune  to  lose  his  patron,  together 
with  his  pension.      Providence,  however,  raised  him  up 
two  other  patrons,  in  Dr.  Cole,  then  president  of  the  col- 
lege, and  Dr.  Edwyn  Sandys,  bishop  of  London,  and  after* 
wards  archbishop  of  York.     To  the  latter  of  these  Jewell 
had  recommended  him  so  effectually  before  his  death,  that 
though  of  CambWdge  himself,  he  iimmediately  resolved  to 
send  his  son  Edwyn  to  Oxford,  to  b^  pupil  to  Hooker,  who 
yet  was  not  much  older ;  for,  said  he,  *^  I  will  have  a  tutor 
for  my  son,  that  shall  teach  him  learning  by  instruction, 
and  virtue  by  example.''     Hooker  had  also  another  con- 
siderable pupil,  namely,  George  Cranmer,  grand  nephew' 
to  Cranmer  the  archbishop  and  martyr;  with  whom,  at 
well  as  with  Sandys,    he  cultivated  a  strict  and    htsting 
friendship.     In  1573,  he  was  chosen  scholar  of  Corpus, 
and  in  157T,  having  taken  his  master's  degree,  was  elected 
fallow  of  his  college ;  and  about  two  years  after,  being 
well  skilled  in  the  Oriental  languages,  was  appointed   de- 
puty-professor of  Hebrew,  in  the  room  of  Kih^smill,  who 
was  disordered  in  his  senses.     In  1581,  he  entered  into 
orders ;  and  soon  after,  being  appointed  to  preach  at  St. 
Paul's-cross  in  London,  was  so  unhappy  as  to  be  drawn 
intp  a  most  unfortunate  marriage ;  of  which,  as  it  is  one 
of  the  most  memorable  circumstances  of  his  life,  we  shall 
give  the  particulars  as  they  are  related  by  Walton.  There 
was  then  belonging  to  the  church  of  St.  Paul's,  aliouse 
called  the  Shunamites  house,  set  apart  for  the  reception 
and  entertainment  of  the  preachers  at  St.  Paul's  cross,  two 
days  before,  and  one  day  after  the  sermon.     That  house 
was  then  kept  by  Mr.  John  Churchman,  formerly  a  sub- 
stantial draper  in  Watling-street,  but  now  reduced  to  po- 
verty.    Walton  says,  that  Churchman  was  a  person  of  vir- 
tue, but  that  he  cannot  say  quite  so  much  of  his  wife.    To 
this  house  Hooker  came  from  Oxford  so  wet  and  weary, 
that  he  was  afraid  he  should  aot  be  able  to  perform  his 

138  H  a  O  K  £  R. 

duty  the  Sunday  following:  Mrs.  ChurchmaD)  however, 
nursed  him  so  wellj  that  he  presently  recovered  .from  the 
ill  effects  of  his  journey.     For  this  he  was  very  ^thankful ; 
so  much  indeed  that^  as  Walton  expresses  it,  he  thought 
binriself  bound  in  conscience  to  believe  all  she  said ;  so 
the  good  man   c^me  to  be  persuaded  by  her,  '^that  he 
bad  a  very  *  tender  constitution;  and  that  it  was  best  for 
him  to  have  a  wife,  that  might  prove  a  nurse  to  him  ;  .such 
a  one  as  might  both  prolong  his  life,  and  make  pit  more 
comfortable ;  and  such  a  one  she  could  and  would  provide 
for  him,  if  be  thought  fit  to  marry."     Hooker,  not  conr 
sidering  '^  that  the  children  of  this  world  are  wiser  in  their 
generation  than  the  children  of  light,''    and  fearing  no 
guile,  because  he  meant  none,  gave  her  a  power  to  choose 
a  wife  for  him ;  promising,  upon  a  fair  summons,  to  return 
to  London,  and  accept  of  her  choice,  which  he  did  in  that 
or  the  year  following.     Now,  says  Walton,  the  wife  pro- 
vided for  him  was  her  daughter  Joan,  who  brought  him 
neither  beauty  nor  portion  ;  and  for  her  conditions,  they 
were  too  like  that  wife's  which  Solomon  compares  to  a 
dripping-house ;  that  is,  says  Wood,  she  was  *^  a  clownish 
billy  woman,  and  withal  a  mere  Xantippe." 

Hooker,  having  now  lost  his  fellowship  by  this  marriage, 
remained  without  preferment,   and  supported  himself  as 
well  as  he  could,  till  the  latter  end  of  1584,  when  he  was 
presented  by  John  Cheny,  esq.  to  the  rectory  of  Drayton- 
Beauchamp,  in  Buckinghamshire,  where  he  led  an  uncom- 
fortable  life  with  his  wife  Joan  for  about  a  year.     In  this: 
situation  he  received  a  visit  from  bis  friends  and  pupils 
Sandys  and  Cranmer,  who  found  him  with  a  Horace  in  his 
hand,  tending  a  small  allotment  of  sheep  in  a  common 
field  ;  which  he  told  them  he  was  forced  to  do,  because  his 
servant  was  gone  home  to  dine,  and  assist  his  wife  in  the 
household  business.     When  the  servant  returned  and  re- 
leased him,  his  pupils  attended  him  to  his  house,  where 
their  best  entertainment  was  his  quiet  company,  which  was 
presently  denied  them,  for  Richard  was  called  to  rock  the 
cradle,  and  the  rest  of  their  welcome  being  equally  re- 
pulsive, they  stayed  but  till  the  next  morning,  which  was 
long  enough  to  discover  and  pity  their  tutor's  condition. 
At  their  return  to  London,  Sandys  acquainted  his  father 
with  Hooker's  deplorable  state,  who  entered  so  heartily 
into  his  concerns,  that  he  procured  him  to  be  made  master 
of  the  Temple  in  1585.     This,  though  a  valuable  piece  of 

H  O  O  K  E  It 


prefennent,  wis  not  so  suitable  to  Hooker'«  temper,  as  the 
retirement  of  a  living  in  the  country,  where  he  might  be 
free  from  noise ;  nor  did  he  acc^t  it  without  reluctance. 
At  the  time  when  Hooker  was  chosen  master  of  the  Temple, 
one  Walter  Travers  was  afternoon-lecturer  there ;  a  man 
of  learning  and  good  manners,  it  is  sail),  but  ordained  by 
the  presbytery  of  Antwerp,  and  warmly  attached  to  the 
Geneva  church  discipline  and  doctrines.  Travers  had 
some  hopes  of  establishing  these  principles  in  the  Temple, 
and  for  that  purpose  endeavoured  to  be  master  of  it ;  but 
not  succeeding,  gave  Hooker  all  the  opposition  he  could 
in  his  sermons,  many  of  whfch  were  about  the  doctrine, 
discipline,  and  ceremonies  of  the  church ;  insomuch  that 
they  constantly  withstood  each  other  to  the  face ;  for,  as 
somebody  said  pleasantly,  *^  The  forenoon  sermon  spake 
Canterbury,  and  the  afternoon  Geneva.^'  The  opposition 
became  so  visible,  and  the  consequences  so  dangerous, 
especially  in  that  place,  that  archbishop  Whitgift  caused 
Travers  to  be  silence^  by  the  high  commission  courts- 
Upon  that,  Travers  presented  his  supplication  to  the  privy* 
council,  which  being  without  effect,  be  made  it  public. 
This  obliged  Hooker  to  publish  an  answer,  which  was  in<^ 
scribed  to  the  archbishop,  and  procured  him  as  much  re* 
verence  and  respect  from  some,  as  it  did  neglect  and 
hatred  from  others.  In  order  therefore  to  undeceive  and 
win  these,  he  entered  upon  bis  famous  work  "  Of  the 
Laws  of  Ecclesiastical  Polity  * ;"  and  laid  the  foundation 

*  The  followiog  Memoir  reUttye  to 
•ur  autbor'i  **  Ecclesiastical  Polity," 
was  drawn  op  by  sir  John  Hawkins, 
aod  inserted  in  a  work  into  which  the 
admirers  of  Hooker  were  not  very  likely 
to  look  for  information,  the  *<  Anti- 
quarian Repertory."  Neither  Walton, 
says  sir  John,  nor  bishop  Gauden,  nor 
any  other  that  give  an  account  of 
Hooker  and  his  writings,  make  men- 
tion of  the  particulaf  books  or  tracts 
which  gave  occasion  to  his  writing  the 
Ecolesiastical  Polity.  Whitgift  had 
written  an  answer  to  the  "  Admonition 
to  the  Pftrliameut,"  and  thereby  en- 
gaged in  a  controversy  with  Thomas 
Cartwrigbt,  the  supposed  author  of  it. 
Hooker,  in  bis  excellent  work,  under- 
took the  defence  of  our  ecclesiastical 
establishment,  against  which  Cart* 
Wright  appears  to  have  been  the  most 
powerful  of  all  its  opponents.    Ac* 

cordingly,  we  find  throughout  his  worik 
references  to  T.  C.  lib.  p.  ;  but 
giving  only  these  initials,  amd  citing 
no  book  by  its  proper  title,  we  are  at 
a  loss  now  to  know  with  whom  he  was 
contending.  It  is  necessary  therefore 
to  state  the  controversy,  the  order 
whereof  is  this  :  **  Admonition  to  thft 
Parliament,  viz.  the  first  and  second,'' 
in  a  small  duodecimo  volume,  without 
date  or  place ;  **  An  Answer  to  an  Ad* 
monition  to  Parliament,  by  John  Whit- 
gift, D.  of  Divinitie,"  4to.  Printed  by 
Bynneman,  1573.  1.  "  A  Replie  to 
the  Answer,  by  T.  €.*'  4to.  No  date  or 
place.  Of  this  there  are  two  editions, 
differing  in  the  order  of  numbering, 
the  pages.  *<  A  second  answer  of 
Whitgift,''  as  must  be  presumed  from 
the  title  of  the  next  article,  and  is  pro- 
bably no  other  than  a  book  mentioned 
in  Ames's  Typ.  Antiq.  32^,'  by  the 

140  HOOKER. 

and  plan  of  it,  while  be  viras  at  the  Temple.  Bot  he  foand 
the  Temple  no  fit  place  to  finish  what  he  had  there  de- 
signed ;  and  therefore  intreated  the  archbishop  to  remove 
him  to  some  quieter  situation  in  the  following  letter: 

"  My  lord;  When  I  lost  the  freedom  of  my  cell,  which 
was  my  college,  yet  I  found  some  degree  of  it  in  my  quiet 
country  parsonage.  But  I  am  weary  of  the^  noise  and  op- 
positions of  this  place ;  and  indeed  God  and  nature  did  not 
intend  me  for  contentions,  but  for  Mudy  and  quietness. 
And,  my  lord,  my  particular  contests  here  with  Mr.  Tro^ 
vers  have  proved  the  more  unpleasant  to  nie,  because  I 
believe  him  to  be  a  good  man  ;  and  that  belief  bath  occa- 
sioned me  to  examine  mine  own  conscience  concerning  his 
opinions.  And  to  satisfy  that,  I  have  consulted  the  Holy 
Scripture,  and  other  laws,  both  human  and  diviue,  whe* 
ther  the  conscience  of  him,  and  others  of  his  judgment, 
ought  to  be  so  far  complied  with  by  us  as  to  alter  our  frame 
of  church  government,  our  manner  of  God*s  worship,  our 
praising  and  praying  to  him,  and  our  established  ceremo- 
nies, as  often  as  their  tender  consciences  shall  require  us. 
And  in  this  examination  I  have  not  only  satisfied  myself, 
but  have  begun  a  treatise,  in  which  I  intend  the  satisfac-^ 

title  of  a  '*  Defence  of  the  Answer  to  i^uestion  it  of  the  auUiority  of  a  nan 

the  Admonition,"  1574,  fol.  Printed  bj  fltc."  Eccl.  Pol.  Edit.  1682,  p.  117,  ia 

Bjrnneman.    2.  "  A  second  replie  of  to  be  found  in  p.  S5  of  one  edition,  and 

Cartwright  a[rainst  Whitgifl's  second  in   p.  13  of  tbe  other.    In  Ames, 'p. 

Answer,"    1575,   4to.   No  pUc^^    3.  32^,  is  this  article,  which  seems  to  be 

*'  The  rest  of  the  second  Replie  of  a  collateral  branch  of  the  controversy, 
Cartwright  against  Whitgift's  secpnd  ^  "  A  Defence  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Re^ 

Answer,"  1577,  4to.  No  place.  giment  of  England  defaced  by  T.  C.  in 

Upon  a  reference  to  these  sevei^l  his  Replie  against  D.  Whitgift,  D.  D.'^ 

publicationsof  Cartwright,  and  a  cart-  1574,  12mo.    It  does  not  here  appear 

ful  exan^ination  of  sundry  passages  that  this  defence  is  of  Whitgift's  writings 

cited  from  him   by  Hooker,  it  most  yet  it  fias  the  name  of  his  printer,- 

evidently  appears/  that  by  **  T.  C.  Bsmneman,   Fuller,  in  bi«  Church  His- 

Lib.  I."  is  meant  No.  1,  as  above  de-  tory,  Book  IX,  102,  gives  an  account 

scribed ;  by  T.  C.  Lib.  2,"   is  meant  of  Cartwright,  and  of  his  dispute  with 

No.  2  i  aad  by  *<  T.  C.  Lib.  3,"  Ko^  3.  Wbhgift,  whiehis  very  erroneous;  for 

But  here  it  is  to  be  observed,  that  the  he  makes  it  to  ^nd  'at  Whitgift's  De* 

refejrejnces  to  Lib.  1 ,  agree  bot  with  one  fence  of  his  Answer';  'hay,  he  goes 

edition  of  it,  namely,  tha^  which  has  further,  and  assigns  reasons  for  Oirt- 

the  *'  Table  of  the  principal  Poynte^"  Wright's  silence.    The  truth  is,  he  was 

at  the  beginning  and  not  at  the  end,  not  silent  till  long  after,  but  continued 

as  the  other  .ha»*    13ie  difierence  be-  the  dispute  in  the  Tracts  No.  2  and  3» 

tween  them  is,  that  in  the  former  the  above  notisd.    The  relation  of  the  oon- 

ipnolbers  of  the  pages  commence  with  troversy  by  Neal,  in  his  **  History  oC 

the  "  Address  to  the  Choroh  of  Eng-  the  Puritans,"  vol.  I.  2S5,  et  seq.  ia 

land,"  in  the  latter  with  the  book  it-  very  fair  and  aocurate.    Antiquarian' 

self;  so  that  to  give  one  instance  of  Repertory,  vol.  111.  p.  13$. 
diffeience,  this  passage,  **  When  the 

H  O  O  K  £  fi.  141 

tion  of  others,  by  a  demonstration  of  the  reasonableness 
of  our  laws  of  ecclesiastical  polity.  But,  my  lord^  I  shall 
never  be  able  to  finish  what  I  have  begun,  unless  I  be  re- 
moved into  some  quiet  parsonage,  where  I  may  see  God^s 
blessings  spring  out  of  my  mother  earth,  and  eat  my  oi^n 
bread  in  peace  and  privacy ;  a  place  where  I  may  without 
disturbance  meditate  my  approaching  mortality,  and  that 
great  account  which  all  flesh  must  give  at  the  last  day  to 
the  God  pf  all  spirits/' 

Upon  this  application,  he  was  presented  in  1591  to  the 
rectory  of  Boscomb,  in  Wiltshire ;  and  July  the  same 
year,  to  the  prebeiid  of  Nether*- Haven,  in  the  church  of 
Sarum,  of  which  he  was  also  made  sub-dean.  At  Boscomb 
he  finished  four  books,  which  were  entered  into  the  re- 
gister-book at  Statioxiers'-hall,  in  March  1592,  bu.t  not 
printed  till  1594.  In  1595  he  quitted  Boscomb,  and  was 
presented  by  queen  Elizabeth  to  the  rectory  of  Bishop's- 
Bourne,  in  Kent,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his 
life.  In  this  place  he  composed  the  6fth  book  of  his  ^^  Ec- 
clesiastical Polity,*'  which  was  dedicated  to  the  archbishop, 
and  published  by  itsflf  in  1597.  He  finished  there  the 
6th,  7th,  and  8th  books  of  Chat  learned  work  ;  but  whe- 
ther we  have  them  genuine,  and  as  left  by  himself,  ha« 
been  a  matter  of  much  dispute.  Dr.  Zouch,  however, 
seems  to  have  advanced  almost  unanswerable  arguments 
against  their  being  directly  from  the  pen  of  Hooker.  Some 
time  after,  he  caught  cold  in  a  passage  by  water  between 
I^ondon  and  Gravesend,  which  drew  upon  him  an  illness 
that  put  an  end  to  his  life  when  be  was  only  in  his  forty- 
seventh  year.  He  died  Nov.  2,  1600.  His  illness  was 
severe  and  lingering ;  he  continued,  notwithstanding,  his 
studies,  to  the  last.  He  strove  particularly  to  finish  his 
'*  Ecclesiastical 'Polity,"  and  said  often  to  a  friend  who 
visited  him  daily,  that  ^'  he  did  not  beg  a  long  life  of  God 
for  any  other  reason,  but  to  live  to  finish  the  three  re- 
maining books  of  Polity  ;  and  then.  Lord,  let  thy  servant 
depart  in  peace,"  which  was  his  usual  expression.  A  few 
days  before  his  death,  his  house  was  robbed;  of  which 
having  notice,  he  asked,  <'  are  my  books  and  written  pa- 
pers safe  ?"  And  being  answered  that  they  were,  **  then," 
said  lie,  '^  it  matters  not,  for  no  other  loss  can  trouble 

But  whatever  value  Hooker  himself  fhight  put  upon  his 
books  of  **  Ecclesiastical  ^Polity,"  he  could    not  in  that 

142  fi  O  O  K  E  R. 

respect'exceed  the  estimate  which  has  been  fbrnied  by  the 
general  jadgment  of  mankind,  with  the  exception  only  of 
the  enemies  of  our  church  establishment.  This  work  has 
€Ter  bieen  admired  for  soundness  of  reasoning,  and  prodi- 
gious extent  of  learning ;  and  the  author  has  universally 
acquired  from  it  the  honourable  titles  of ''  the  judicious,*' 
and  **  the  learned.'*  When  James  I.  ascended  the  throng 
of  England,  he  is  said  to  have  asked  Whitgift  for  his  friend 
Mr.  Hooker,  from  whose  books  of  "  Ecclesiastical  Polity*' 
he  bad  so  much  profited;  and  being  informed  by  the  arch- 
bishop that  he  died  a  year  before  the  queen,  he  expressed 
the  greatest  disappointment,  and  the  deepest  concern. 
Charles  I.  it  is  well  known,  earnestly  recommended  the 
reading  of  Hooker*s  books  to  his  son  ;  and  they  have  ever 
•  since  been  held  in  the  highest  veneration  and  esteem  by 
all.  An  anecdote  is  preserved  by  the  writer  of  his  life^ 
which,  if  true,  shews  that  his  fame  was  by  no  means  con- 
fined to  his  own  country,  but  reached  even  the  ears  of  the 
pope  himself.  Cardinal  Alen  and  Dr.  Stapleton,  though 
both  in  Italy  when  his  books  were  published,  were  yet  so 
affected  with  the  fame  of  them,  that  they  contrived  to  have 
them  sent  for^  and  after  reading  them,  are  said  to  have 
told  the  p€>pe,  then  Clement  VIII.  that  "  though  his  ho- 
liness had  not  yet  met  with  an  English  book,  as  he  was 
pleased  to  say,  whose  writer  deserved  the  name  of  an  au- 
thor, yet  there  now  appeared  a  wonder  to  them,  and  so 
they  did  not  doubt  it  would  appear  to  his  holiness,  if  it 
was  in  Latin ;  which  was,  that  '  a  pure  obscure  English 
priest  had  written  four  such  books  of  law  and  church  po- 
lity, in  so  majestic  a  style,  and  with  such  clear  demon- 
strations of  reason/  that  in  all  their  readings  they  had  not 
jnet  with  any  thing  that  exceeded  him.'*  This  begetting 
in  the  pope  a  desire  to  know  the  contents,  Stapleton  read 
to  him  the  first  book  in  Latin  ;  upon  which  the  pope  said, 
**  there  is  no  learning  that  this  man  hath  not  searched  into ; 
nothing  too  hard  for  his  understanding.  This  man  indeed 
deserves  the  name  of  an  author.  Ilis  books  will  get  re- 
verence by  age ;  for  there  is  in  them  such  seeds  of  eter- 
nity, that  if  the  rest  be  like  this,  they  shall  continue  till 
the  last  fire  shall  devour  all  learning  ;'*  all  which,  whether 
the  pope  or  no,  we  take  to  be  strictly  true. 

•  Dr.  Gauden  published  Hooker's  "  Works,"  1662,  foL 
with  a  life,  in  which  there  are  some  inaccuracies. ' 
copd  edition,  with  Hooker's  Life  by  Walton,  appeared  in 

HOOKER.  149 

I6i6,  fol.  reprinted  in  1676,  1682,  and  1723,  which  last 
some  calt  '^  the  best  edition.''  A  more  commodioius  one 
for  use  was  printed  at  Oxford,  1793,  3  vols.  8vo.  It  is 
needless  to  add  how  much  Walton's  Life  of  Hooker  has 
been  improved  in  Zouch's  edition  of  those  valuable  me- 
morials. Hooker's  other  works,  published  separately, 
were,  1.  ^'  Answer  to  the  Supplication  that  Mr.  Travera 
made  to  the  Council,"  Oxon.  1612,  4to.  2.  <*  A  learned 
discourse  of  Justification,  Works,  and  how  the  foundation 
of  Faith  is  overthrown,  on  Habak.  i.  4."  ibid.  1612,  4to. 
3.  *'  A  learned  Sermon  on  the  nature  of  Pride,  on  Habak. 
ii.  4.^'  ibtd.  1612,  4to.  4.  <^A  Remedy  against  Sorrow 
and  Fear,  delivered  in  a  funeral  sermon  on  John  xiv.  27.** 
ibid.  1612,  4tb.  5.  *^  A  learned  and  comfortable  Sermon 
of  the  certainty  and  perpetuity  of  Faith  in  the  elect ;  es- 
pecially of  the  prophet  Habakkuk's  faith,"  ibid.  1612,  4to« 
.6.  "  Two  Sermons  upon  part  of  Jude's  Epistles,"  ibid. 
1613,  4to.  These  Sermons  were  originally  published  by 
Mr.  Henry  Jackson,  with  "  WicklifF's  Wicket,"  and  after- 
wards reprinted  without  that  tract,  and  met  with  a  very 
welcome  reception  from  the  public.  7.  ^*  A  Discovery  of 
the  causes  of  these  Contentions  touching  Church-govern- 
ment, oiit  of  the  fragments  of  Richard  Hooker,"  published 
in  1641,  along  with  a  work  entitled  '^  A  Summarie  View 
of  the  government  both  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament ; 
whereby  the  episcopal  government  of  Christ's  church  i» 
vindicated,"  out  of  the  rude  draughts  of  Launcelot  An- 
drews, late  bishop  bf  Winchester.  8.  **  Three  treatises 
inserted  in  a  work  edited  by  bishop  Sanderson,  and  en- 
titled *^  Clavi  Trabales,"  on  the  king's  power  in  matters  of 
religion,  in  the  advancement  of  bishops,  &c.  Dr.  Zouch 
mentions  as  a  publication  of  great  merit,  ^<  A  faithful 
abrids:ment  of  the  Works  of  nooker,  with  an  account  of 
his  life :  by  a  Divine  of  the  Church  of  England,"  London, 

HOOKER  (Thomas),  a  celebrated  divine  of  New  Eng-> 
land,  whose  works  frequently  occur  in  our  public  libraries, 
and  may  render  their  author  the  object  of  curiosity,  was 
born  at  Marfield,  in  Leicestershire,  in  1586,  and  was  edu- 
cated at  Emanuel-college,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  be- 
came fellow.     On  his  leaving  the  university,  he  preached 

1  Life  by  Walton.— ^Blog.  Srlt.— Prince's  Worthies  of  DcTOfL-i-Neal's  Pu- 


144  H  O  O  K  £  ft.' 


occasionally  for  some  time  in  London^  but  in  1626  was 
chosen  lecturer  and  assistant  to  a  clergyman  at  Chelms* 
ford,  where  he  officiated  with  great  reputation,  until  si<» 
lenced  for  non-conformity  by  Laud,  then  bishop  of  Loa- 
don.  On  this  occasion  forty-seven  of  the  neighbouring 
clergy  sent  a  petition  to  the  bishop,  attesting  his  ortho- 
doxy and  peaceable  disposition.  But  this  had  no  effect ; 
and  ev€Q  when  Mr.  Hooker  set  up  a  grammar'-school  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Chelmsford,  he  was  cited  to  appear 
before  the  high  commission  court,  which  determined  him 
to  go  to  Holland,  where  he  preached  for  two  or  three 
years,  and  in  1633  went  to  New-Epgland,  and  became 
pastor  of.  the  church  of  Hertford,  in  the  colony  of  Con- 
necticut, and  from  bis  pious  services  and  usefulness,  was 
called  the  father  of  that  colony.  He  died  July  7,  1647. 
Among  his  works  are,  K  ^^  An  exposition  of  the  Lord' 
Prayer,"  Lond.  1645,  4to.  '  2.  "  The  Saint's  Guide,' 
ibid.  1645,  12mo.  3.  "  A  Survey  of  the  Summe  of  Church 
Discipline,  wherein  the  way  of  the  churches  of  New  Eng- 
land is  warranted,"  ibid.  1648,  4to*  4.  "  The  "Covenant 
of  Grace  opened  in  several  Sermons,"  ibid.  1649,  4to. 
5.  "The  Saints'  Dignity  and  Duty,"  ibid.  J 651,  4to.' 

HOOLE  (Charles),  a  schoolmaster  of  very  consider- 
able note  in  his  day,  and  the  publisher  of  some  school- 
books  not  yet  out  of  use,-  was  born  at  Wakefield,  in  York- 
shire, in  1610,  and  educated  at  the  free-school  there.  At 
the  age  of  eighteen  years,  by  the  advice  of  his  kinsman 
Dr,  Robert  S^^nderson,  afterwards  bishop  of  Linpoln,  he 
was  sent  to  Lincoln-college,  Oxford,  where  he  became  a 
proficient  in  the  Greek  and  Hebrew  tongues,  and  in  phi- 
losophy. After  he  had  taken  one  degree  in  arts,  he  en- 
tered into  orders,  retired  to  Lincolnshire  for  a  time,  and 
was  appointed  master  of  the  free-school  at  Rotberam,  in 
Yorkshire.  In  the  beginning  of  the  civil  war  he  went  to 
London,  and  by  the  invitation  of  some  of  the  citizens,  he 
taught  a  private  school,  first  near  Red-cross  street,  and 
afterwards  in  Token-house  garden,  in  Lothbury.  About 
the  restoration,  he  was  invited  into  Monmouthshire ;  but 
the  promises  made  to  induce  him  to  go  there  not  being 
answered,  he  returned  to  London,  and  was  taken  under 
the  protection  of  his  relation  bishop  Sanderson,  who  gave 
him_  a  prebend  in  the  church  of  Lincoln.     About  that  time 

1  Ncal's  Hist  of  N«w  £Dg1an€l.^Bo41e!an  and  BriU  Museum  Catalogao. 

H  O  O  L  E.  14» 

lie  bectitie  rector  of  Stocky  near  Billericay,  in  Essez^ 
where  be  died  on  die  7  th  of  March,  1666.  He  pablishedy 
^  Piieriiet  confabulatinncule;''  '*  Aditas  facilis  ad  linguam 
Latinam  ;^'  <<  Corderius's  CoUoqaies  ;'*  ^  Rndimenti  cf  the 
Latin  Grammar;*'  '* Examination  of  the  Common  Aeci«* 
dence/'  and  in  all,  above  twenty  litde  books  of  this  kind, 
many  of  which  were  adopted  in  schools,  and  reprioted 
again  and  again  for  the  remainder  of  the  seventeenth  and 
part  of  the  eighteenth  century.^ 

HOOLE  (John),  a  dramatic  poet  and  translator,  Waa 
the-son  of  Samuel  Hool^  of  London,  watch-maker,  by 
Sarah  his  wife,  the  daughter  of  James  Drury^  a  clock* 
maker,  v<rhose  family  came  from  Warwickshire.  He  waa 
born  in  Moorfiteids,  in  December  1727,  and  received  part 
of  his  early  instruction  from  his  uncle,  a  taylor,  who  lived 
in  Grub-street*.  He  was  afterwards  sent  to  a  private 
boarding-school  in  Hertfordshire,  kept  by  Mr.  James  Ben* 
net,  die  publisher  of  Roger  Ascham's  works,  "where  he 
acquired  an  accurate  knowledge  of  the  Latin  and  French 
languages,  and  a  small  portioit  of  the  Greek.  His  father^ 
who  had  carried  on  the  business  of  watch-making  to  con-- 
siderable  advantage,  in  consequence  of  some  newly-in- 
vented  machifiery  of  his  own  construction,  wished  to  have 
Bis  son  brought  up  to  his  own  trade,  but  his  being  ex- 
tremely near*sighted  proved  an  instiperable  objection^  and 
therefore,  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  he  was  placed  as  a  clerk 
in  the  Eiast^ India-house,  in  the  aocountant*s  office.  At 
this  time,  as  he  otten  accompanied  his  father  to  the  Aeatre^ 
who  had  access  behind  the  scenes^  and  assisted  in  'c6n«» 
fltructing  some  of  the  pantomime  scenery,  he  contracted 
a  fondness  for  this  amusement  which  might  have  been 
fatal  to  him,  for  he  had  no  qualifications  for  the  stage,  had 
not  his  father  prevented  him.  He  employed  his  leisure 
hours,  therefore,  more  profitably,  in  improving  himself  in 
the  Latin,  and  especially  the  Italian  tongue,  which  last 
he  studied  with  a  view  to  be  able  to  read  in  the  original 
bb  favourite  Ariosto,  of  wtiom,  when  a  boy,  he  beoime 
enamoured  by  reading  the  <*  Orlando  Furioso^*  in  sir  John 
Harrington's  old  translation. 

'   From  admiring  he  proceeded  to  trltdslate  this  poet,  but 
laid  this  tadk  ^id^  for  some  time,  to  execute  a  translation 

'  Ath.  Ox.T0Kn. 

^  Wben  this  little  «ircamst 

*  Wden  this  little  circumstance  waf  mentioned  bj  Mr.  Hoole  taJDr.  J«bM9B, 
e  latter  said,  sobHingi  **  Sir»  you  have  been  reguUrlp  edttciitc4.** 

Vol.  XVIII.  L 

U6  Kd  O  IE. 

of  Tasso's  f^  Jerasalem  Delivered/'  which  be  begam  ii* 
I75^S,  and  printed  in  1761.  a  specimen  for  the  peru»at  o£ 
kis  friends,  who  probably  encouraged:  bioi  to  proceed,  a» 
in  1763  he  published  the  whole,  and  was  permitted  to  de-» 
dicate  and  present  it  at  court  to  the  qtieen.  Tbe.dedica* 
tion  was  written  by  Dr.  Johnson.  This  was  Mr.  Hoole^.» 
first  avowed  production,  but  he  had  before  printed  a  fewr 
poetical  essays  wkhout  his  name, .  and  a  Monody  on  the 
death  of  Mrs.  Woffington,  which  is  in  Pearcb's  coilectioo. 
In  1767  he  published  two  volumes  of  the  dramas  of  Metas- 
tasio,  consisting  of.  six  pieces^  a  copy  of  which  he  traas^^ 
Hiitled,  to  the  author,  who  wrote  a  very  elegant  letter  to 
him.  His. own  dramas  were,  *^  Cyrus,'*  1768.;  '^Timao*-* 
thes,*'  1770 ;  and  ^^  Cleof>ice,'*  1775 ;  none  of  which  had 
success  on  the  stage. 

:  :  In  1773,  the  first  voluniie  of  bis  "  Orlando  Furio^'!  ap- 
peared, and  .was  favourably  received,  but  the  farther  pro- 
secution of  the  work  was  interrupted  by  his  appointment 
to  the  office  of  auditor  of  Indian  accounts  to  the  East  India 
company,  which  occupied  much  of  his  time  aiKi  attention* 
Returning'  again,  however,  to  his  task,  be  coo^pleted  the 
<^  Orlando  Furioso*'  in  1783,  in  5  vol^.  8vo. .  In  17S5  he 
wrote  the  life  of  his  friend  Mr.  Scott,  the  poet  of  Amwell, 
with  whom  be  bad  become  acquainted  in  1757,  by  mar* 
rying  a  quaker  lady,  Susannah  Smith,  of  Bishop  Stortford. 
About  the  end  of  17  S3  he  resigned  his  employment  in  the 
ladia^ house,,  after  a  service  of  nearly  forty-two  years;  and 
in  April  17S6  retired  with  his  wile  and  son,  the  rev.  Sa-» 
mael  tHoole,  to  the  parsonage-rhouse  of  Abinger,  near 
Dorking.  Here,  adverting  to  the  objections  which  had 
been  niade  to  the  length  and  perplexity  of  Arioso's  poem, 
he  published  *'  The  Orlando,  reduced  to  twenty-four  books^ 
the  narrative  connected,  and  the  stcuries  disposed  in  a  re- 
gular series,'*  1791,  2  vols,  dvo;  but  thia  has  not  prevented 
the  republication  of  his  |E»rmer  edition,  whicb^  wiU^  all  its^ 
imperfections,  coaveya  tiie  truest  idea  of  the  tediops  and 
extravagant  jonginal*     In  1792   he  gave  to  the  JEIngUsh. 

Sublic  Tasso's  juvenile  poem  of  ^'  Rinaldo.'*  His,last  prq- 
uction  was  a  more  coniptete  collection  of  Metast^iofs 
5*.  Dramas  aud  other  Poems*'  i^  3  vqIs»  8vo.  In  tbis^  iiF  we 
mistake  not,  Mr.  Hoole  has  displayed  more  poetical  energy 
and  varie^  than  tn  his  translations  of  Tasso  and  Ariosto» 
in  which  his  chief  merit  is  snoooth  versification,  and  bi» 
^hief  defect  a  want  of  variety  in  his  harmony*    Mr»  Hoole 

H  O  O  L  E«  147 

died  at  Dorkiog,  Aug.  2,  1803,  leaving  the  reptltmtion  of 
an  amiable  and  estimable  man  in  his  private  character }  a 
man  of  taste,  and  a  good -scholar.  He  lived  much  in  ha« 
Irits  of  friendship  with  Dr.  Johnson,  and  attended  that 
eminent  man  in  his  last  illness,  of  which  be  left  an  iil« 
terestirig  diary. ' 

HOOPER  (Dr.  George),  an  eminent  English  divine^ 
son  of  George  Hooper,  gent,  was  borp  at  Grimley>  ia 
Worcestershire,  Nov.  18,  1640,  and  educated  in  grammar 
and  classical  learningfirst at  St  PauPs,  and  afterwards  at 
WestminsCer-school,  where  he  was  a  king's  scholar.  From 
thence  he  was  elected  to  Christ-church  in  Oxford,  in  1657, 
where  be  took  his  degrees  at  the  regular  times ;  and  dis- 
tinguished himself  above  his  contemporaries  by  his  supe« 
rior  knowledge  in  philosophy,  mathematics,  Greek  and 
Roman  antiquities,  and  the  oriental  languages,  in  whieh 
last  he  was  assisted  by  Dr.  Pocock.  In  1672  he  became 
.chaplain  to  Morley,  bisbc^  of  Winchester,  who  collated 
him  to  the  rectory  of  Havant,  in  Hampshire>  which,  the 
situation  being  unhealthy,  he  resigned  for  the  rectory  of 
East  Woodbay,  in  the  same  county.  In  July  1673  he 
took  the  degree  of  B.  D.  and  not  long  afterwards  became 
chaplain  to  archbishop  Sheldon,  who  begged  that  favour 
of  the  bishop  of  Winchester,  and  who  in  1675  gave  hioi 
the  rectory  of  Lambeth,  and  afterwards  the  precentor^ip 
of  Exeter.  In  1677  he  commenced  D.  D.  and  the  same 
year,  being  made  almoner  to  the  princess  of  Orange,  he 
went  over  to  Holland,  where,  at  the  request  of  her  royal 
highness,  he  regulated  her  chapel  according  to  the  usage 
of  the  church  of  England.  After  one  year's  attendancey 
he  repassed  the  sea^  in  order  to  complete  hb«  marriage  to 
Abigaili  daughter  of  Richard  Guildford,  gent,  the  treaty 
for  which  had  been  set  on  foot  before  his  departure.  He 
then  went  back  to  her  highness,  who  had  obtained  a  pro* 
mise  from  him  to  that  purpose  ^  but,  after  a  stay  of  about 
eight  months,  she  consented  to  let  h^m  jreturn  borne.  In 
1680  he  is  said  to  have  been  offered  the  divinity-profes- 
sorship at  Oxford,  but  the  succession  to  that  chair  had 
been  secured  to  Dr.  Jane.  About  the  same  time,  however. 
Dr., Hooper  was  made  king's  chaplain.  In  16S5,  by  the 
king's  command,  he  attended  the  duke  of  Monmouth,  and 

t  E«ropean  Mag.  fpr  1*793.— Biog,  Dram.-- Geut^  Mag,  voU  ZJQCZll«— Nl- 
cfaofs't  Bowyer.— Boswell's  Johnson. 

L  2 

141  B  O  O  P  E  R. 

bad  nueh  free  conversation  with  him  in  the  Tower,  iMOlfa 
the  evening  before,    and  the  day  of  his  execution,  on 
which,  tiiat  unhappy  nobleman  assured  him  ^*  be  bad  made 
bis  peace  with  God,''  the  nature  of  which  persuasion  Dr» 
Hooper  solemnly  entreated  him  to  consider  well,  and  theit 
waited  on  him  in  his  last  moments.    The  following  year 
be  took  a  share  in  the  popish  controversy,  and  wrote  a 
treatise,  which  will  be  mentioned  presently  with  bis  Works. 
In  1691,  he  succeeded  Dr.  Sharp  in  the  deanery  of  Can<i> 
terbury.     As  he  never  made  the  least  application  for  pre* 
ferment,  queen  Mary  surprised  him  with  this  oiler,  when 
the  king  her  husband  was  absent  in  Holland.     With  a  dis- 
interestedness not  very  common,  he  now  proposed  to  re-^ 
sign  either  of  his  livings,   but  the  queen  observed  that 
1*  though  the  king  and  she  never  gave  two  livings  to  one 
man,  yet  they  never  took  them  away,''  and  ordered  him 
to  keep  both.     However,  be  resigned  the  rectory  of  Wood* 
hay.'    He  was  made  chaplain  to  their  majesties  the  same 
year.     In  1698,  when  a  preceptor  was  chosen  for  the  duke 
of  Gloucester,  though  both  the  royal  parents  of  that  prince 
pressed  earnestly  to  have  Hooper,  and  no  objection  wat 
ever  made  against  him,  yet  the  king  named  bishop  Burnet 
for  that  service.     In  1701,  he  was  chosen  prolocutor  to 
the  lower  bouse  of  convocation ;  and  the  same  year  waa 
offered  the  primacy  of  Ireland  by  the  earl  of  Rochester^ 
then  lord-lieutenant,  which  he  declined,     in  May  1703^ 
he  was  nominated  to  the  bishopric  of  St.  Asaph.     This  h<^ 
accepted,  though  against  his  inclination  :  on  this  occasion 
he  resigned  Lambeth,  but  retained  his  other  preferme^its 
with  Uiis  bishopric,  in  which,  indeed,  he  continued  but 
a  few  months,  and  on  that  account  he  generously  refused 
the  usual  mortuaries  or  pensions,  then  so  great  a  burthen 
tb  the.  clergy  of  Wales,  saying  **  They  should  never  pay 
0O  dear  for  the  si^t  of  him."     In  March  following,  being 
translated  to  &e  bishopric  of  Bath  and  Wells,  be  ear* 
Bestly  requested  her  majesty  to  dispense  with  the  (»rder^ 
not  only  on  account  of  the  sudden  charge  of  such  a  trans* 
latioD,  as  well  as  a  reluctance  to  remove,  but  also  in  re-^ 
gard  to  his  friend  Dr.  Ken,  the  <)eprived  bishop  of  that 
]dace^  ibr  whom  he  begged  the  bishopric.    The  queen 
feadily  complied  with  Hooper'^  request ;   but  the  offer 
being  declined  by  Ken,  Hooper  at  his  importunity  yielded 
to  become  bis  successor.     He  now  relinquished  the  deanery 
•f  Canterbury,  but  wished  to  have  retained  the.  precentor- 

HOOPER.  149 

ship  of  Exeter  in  comnHndanif  sdely  for  tbe  use  df  'Dr. 
Ken.  Bot  this  was  not  agreeable  to  Dr.  Trektwney,  bl«  . 
shop  of  Exeter.  His  intention,  however,  was  supplied  hy 
the  bounty  of  tbe  queen,  who  conferred  .an  annual  pen- 
sion of  200/.  on  the  deprived  prelate.  In  1705,  bishop 
Ho<^r  distinguished  himself  in  the  debate  oii  the  dangefr 
of  the  church,  which,  with  many  other  persons,  he  ap- 
prehended to  be  qaore  than  imaginary.  His  observation 
was  candid ;  he  complained  with  justice  of  that  invidious 
distinction  which  the  terms  high  church  and  law  church  op^ 
casioned,  and  of  that  enmity  which  they  tended  to  pro- 
duce. In  the  debate  in  1706,  he  spoke  against  the  union 
between  England  and  Scotland,  but  grounded  his  argijH 
ments  on  fears  which  have  not  been-realized.  In  1709-10, 
when  the  articles  of  SacbeverelPs  impeachment  were 
debated,  he  endeavoured  to  excuse  that  divine,  and  en- 
tered bis  protest  against  the  vote,  which  he  could  not 

But,  whatever  were  his  political  opinions,  bis  prudent, 
courteous,  and  liberal  behaviour  in  his  diocese,  secured 
tbe  esteem  both  of  tbe  laity  and  clergy.  To  the  latter  ha 
was  a  faithful  friend.  For  while  he  con6ned  his  prefer^ 
ments  to  those  of  bis  own  diocese,  bis  disposal  of  them 
was  judicious  and  disinterested.  The  modest  were  often 
dignified  without  any  expectation,  and  the  diligent  were 
always  advanced  without  the  least  solicitation.  His  regu^ 
lation  also  in  official  proceedings  was  so  conspicuous,  that 
'*  no  tedious  formalities  protracted  business,  no  imperious 
officers  insulted  the  clergy.*'  The  regard  which  he  ex«- 
perienced,  inseparably  attached  him  to  this  diocese,^  and 
it  is  said  that  he  could  not  be  prevailed  on  to  accept  the 
see  of  Loudon  on  ^the  death  of  Dr.  Compton,  or  that  of 
York  op  the  death  of  Dr.  Sharp* 

Having  presided  over  the  see  of  Bath  and  Wells  twenty-* 
three  years  and  six  months,  and  having  nearly  attained  to 
tbe  great  age  of  eighty-seven,  he  died  at  Barkley,  in  So* 
mersetshire,  whither  he  sometimes  retired,  Sept.  6,  1727. 
His  remains  were  interred^  at  his  own  request,  in  the  ca- 
thedral of  Wells,  under  a  marble  monument  with  a  Latin 
ioscriptiop,  and  adjoining  to  it  is  a  monument  with  an  in« 
scripcion  to  the  oiemory  of  his  wife,  who  died  the  year  be- 
fore him.  By  this  lady  he  had  nine  children,  one  of  whooa 
oniy^  a  dau^ter,  survived  hiiii»  then  tbe  widow  of 

150  HOOPER. 

It  had  been  observed  of  this  prelate  by  the  celebrated 
Dr.  9usby,  **  that  he  was  the  best  scholar,  the  finest  gen* 
ttleman,  and  would  make  the  completest  bishop  that  ever 
was  educated  at  Westminster-school  ;*'  and  Dr.  Coney, 
who  knew  the  bishop  well,  has  proved  this  testimony  to 
have  been  just  in  every  respect.  Bishops  Burnet  and  At- 
terbury  are  the  only  writers  of  any  note  who  have  spoken/ 
evidently  from  prejudice,  against  him,  as  an  ambitious 
man,  a  charge  which  the  history  of  his  promotions  amply 

Besides  eight  sermons,  he  published  several  books  in 
his  life-time,  and  left  several  MSS.  behind  him,  some  of 
which  he  permitted  to  be  printed.  The  following  is  a  ca- 
talogue of  both:  1.  "The  Church  of  England  free  from 
the  imputation  of  Popery,'*  1682.  2.  "A  fair  and  me- 
thodical Discussion  of  the  first  and  great  Controversy  be- 
tween the  Church  of  England  and  the  Church  of  Rome, 
conceruing  the  Infallible  Guide:  in  three  Discourses.*' 
The  first  two  of  these  were  licensed  by  Dr.  Morrice,  in 
1687,  but  the  last  was  never  printed.  3.  "  The  Parson's  case 
under  the  present  Land-Tax,  recommended  in  a  Letter  to 
a  member  of  the  House  of  Commons,*'  1689.  4.  **  A 
Discourse  concerning  Lent,  in  two  Parts.  *  The  first,  an 
historical  account  of  its  observation  :  the  second,  an  essay 
coiicerning  its  original.  This  subdivided  into  two  repar- 
titions, whereof  the  first  is  preparatory,  and  shews  that 
most  of  our  Christian  ordinances  are  derived  from  the 
Jews ;  and  the  second  conjectures,  that  Lent  is  of  the  same 
original,"  1694.  5.  A  paper  in  the  **  Philosophical  Trans- 
actions^* for  Oct.  1699,  entitled  ^^  A  Calculation  of  the 
Credibility  of  Human  Testimony.'*"  6.  "  New  Danger  of 
Presbytery,"  1737.  7.  "  Marks  of  a  defenceless  Cause.'* 
8.  **  A  Narrative  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  lower  House 
pf  Convocation  from  Feb.  10,  1700,  to  June  25,  1701,  vin- 
dicated.** 9.  ^^  De  Valentinianorum  Haeresi  conjectural 
quibus  illius  origo  ex  ^gyptiaca  theologia  deducitur,*' 
1711..  10.  *^  An  Inquiry  into  the  state  of  the  ancient  Mea- 
sures, the  Attic,  the  Roman,  and  especially  the  Jewish. 
With  an  Appendix  concerning  our  old  English  money  and 
measures  of  content,**  1721.  11.  ^<De  Patriarchae  Jacobi 
Benedictione  Gen.  49,  conjecturae,*'  published  by  the  rev. 
l)r..  Hunt,  afterwards  the  Hebrew  professor,  with  a  pre- 
£tce  and  notes^  according  to  the  bishop's  directions  to  the  > 
editor,  a  little  before  his  death.    The  MSS.  before  men<« 

H  O  O  P  E  "R.  151 


fioned  are  Ibe  two  foiiowing:  1.  *^  A  Latin  Sermoii, 
preached  in  1672,  when  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  D. ;  and, 
5.  "  A  Latin  Tract  on  Divorce."  A  beautiful  edition  of 
his  whole  works  was  printed  at  Oxford,  1757,  foHo,  by  the 
above  Ihr.  Hunt.^ 

HOOPER,  or  HOPER  (John)^  an  eminent  prelate  and 
foaityr,  was  born  in  Somersetshire,  in  1495 ^  and  entered 
of  Merton  college,  Oxford,  in  1514,  under  the  toition  of 
his  uncle  John  Hooper,  i^  fellow  of  that  house.  In  l5iS 
he  was  admitted  B.  A. ;  the  only  degree  he  took  in  this 
university.  It  is  supposed  that  be  afterwards  became  one 
of  the  number  of  Cistercians,  or  white  monks,  and  conti- 
nued some  years,  until,  becoming  averse  to  a  monastic^  life, 
be  returned  to  Oxford,  where,  by  the  writings  of  some  of 
the  reformers  which  had  reached  that  place,  he  was  in'- 
duced  to  embrace  the  principles  of  prptestantisni.  In 
1539,  when  the  statute  of  the  six  articles  was  put  in  exe- 
cution, he  left  Oxford,  and  got  into  the  service  of  sir  Tho^ 
-mas  Arundel,  a  Devonshire,  gentleman,  to  whom  he  be^ 
•came  chaplain,  and  steward  of  bis  estate ;  but  this  gentle>- 
man  discovering  his  principles,  withdrew  his  protectiotf^ 
and  he  was  then  obliged  to  go  to  France,  where  he  conti- 
nued for  some  time  among  the  reformed,  until  his  dislikb 
of  some  of  their  proceedings  made  him.  return  to  En^ldndn 
but,  being  again  in  danger  here,  he  in  thor  disguise  of  a 
sailor -escaped  to  Ireland,  and  thence  to  Holland  and  Swis- 
«erland.  At  Zurich  he  met  with  BuUingef,  himself  a  re«. 
fttgeefrom  bis  country  for  the  sake  of  religion,  ami  v^boi, 
therefore,  gave  Hooper  a  friendly  reception.  During  bte 
residence  Im^o,  Hooper  married  a  Burgundian  lady. 

On  the  accession  of  king  Edward  in  1547,  Hooper  was 
enabled  to  return  to  England,  and  settled  in  London,  wb^r^ 
he  frequently  preached  the  doctrines  of  the  reformation; 
but  bad  imbibed  abroad  such  notions  on  the  ^subject  6( 
church  government,  and  the  habits,  as  rendered  bispriti- 
xiples  somewhat  suspected  by  archbishop  Cranmer,  and 
.Ridley,  a.nd  prevented  his  co-operating  with  them  so  ton- 
diaUy  as  .could  Imve  been  wished  in  that  critical  time.  Id 
4lQC^rin9ll  malters,  however,  he  was  an  able  asiiistant,  being 
Aman!of  leat^iog,  anda  good  philosopher  and  critic;  When 
Bonner  was  to  be  deprived  of  bis  bishopric,  he  wasiuie  of 

-  }  Tod<H».Li<reh  of  Fthe.Oeatii -of  Canterbacy^»«^«ii.  lMct.-^ciit;  Msf.  vol. 
XVII.  and  LXIL^Bamet's  Own  Timef.^-Nicluils'ii  AtMiH)W^P*Atli»  Oxr  toV. 
Ji«--Niebols'i  Bowyen 

4l«e  H  O  O  P  E  «. 

.bis  »ocuaen ;  iiAieh,  no  doobt,  would  mcooiiDeiid  hiflD  as 
.an  aqceptable  saqrifice  in  the  following  bloody  reign.  By 
the  interest  of  the  earl  of  Warwick,  be  was  noouaated  and 
dectecl  bishop  of  Gloucester ;  but,  when  he  came  to  be 
consecrated  or  invested  by  archbishop  Cranmer  and  bishop 
Ridley,  he  refused  to  wear  a  canonical  habit ;  aiid  it  was 
not;  until  these  ceremonies  were  dispensed  with  by  tbe 
king's  authority,  that  he  was  consecrated  bishop,  in  1550; 
and  about  two  years  after,  he  had  the  btshopcic  of  W6r- 
*  ^ce^ter  given  to  him,  tp  keep  in  commendam  with  the  fof- 
men  He  now  preached  often,  visited  his  dioceses,  kept 
^eat  hospitality  for  the  poor,  and  was  beloved  by  maoj. 
But  in  the  persecution  under  Mary,,  being  then  near  sixly 

J  ears  of  age,  and>refusing  to  recant  bis  opinions^  be  was 
ucned  in  the  city  of  Gloucester,  Feb.  9,  1554,  and  su^ 
iier^d  death  with  .admirable  constancy. 

He  published  many  writings,  some  of  which  are  to  be 
found  in  Fox's  book  of  the  **  Acts  and  Monuments  of  the 
Church."  The  others  are^  1.  '<  Answer  to  the  Lord  Win- 
chester's book,  entitled  A  detection  of  the  Devil's  Serbia* 
try,  &c."  Zurich,  1 547,  4to.  2.  <'  A  Declaration  of  Christ 
and  his  office,"  ibid.  1547,  8vo,  and  afterwards  12mo.  S* 
^<  Lesson  of  the  Incarnation  of  Christ,"  Lond.  1549,  Svo. 
.4.  *' Sermons  on  Jonas,"  ibid.  1550,  8vo.  5.  ^  A  godly 
confession  and  protestation  of  the  Christian  Faith,"  ibid, 
1550.  6.  ^<  Homily  to  be  read  in  the  time  of  pestilence,^' 
Worcester,  1553.  7.  ^  Certain  sentences  written  in  pri- 
son^" Lond.  1 5S9^  8vo.  8.  '^  An  Apology  -against  the  un^- 
true  and  slanderous  report,  that  he  should  be  a  maintainor 
and  encourager  of  such  that  cursed  the  queen's  highness," 
ibid.  1562.  9.  **  Comfortable  Expositions  on  the  23d, 
62d,  73d,  and  77th  Psalms,"  ibid.  1580,  4to.  10.  <«  Anv 
notations  on  the  13th  Chapter  to  the  Romans,"  ibid.  1683. 
11.  <<  Twelve  Lectures  on  the  Creed,"  ibid»  1581,  8vo. 
12.. '<  Confession  of  the  Christian  Faith,  containing  100 
articles,"  ibid.  1581,  8vo,  1584,  4to.  13.  ^*  Deelaration 
of  the  ten  holy  Commandments,"  ibid.  1550,  1588,  8vo. 
There  are  also  som^  pieces  of  Hooper^s  in  Burnet's  ^*  His« 
tory  of  the  Reformation,"  to  which,  as  well  aa  to  Fox,  the 
reader  may.  be  referred  for  many  particulars  o£  his  life  and 

*  B«tt«taii<F4ttoUiB|im.«-5tryjtt'tCraDiiier,ptti]m.«^Ailk<^        f.«» 

H  O  O  R  N  B  E  B  C  K.  15ft 

iiOOftNBEECK  (JofiN),  an  iHuatrioiis  prt>fes8or  of  dl^ 
Tinity  in  the  universities  of  Utrecht  and  Leyden,  was  bortk 
at  Haeriem  in  1617,  and  studied  there  till  he  was  sixteen, 
when  he  was  sent  to  Ley  den,  and  afterwards  in  i6S5y  went 
lo  study  at  Utrecht.  In  1632,  he  was  admitted  a  minister^ 
went  to  perform  the  functions  of  his  office  secretly  at  Co* 
logne,  and  was  never  discouraged  by  the  dangers  to  which 
he  was  exposed,  in  a  city  where  most  of  the  inhalMtants  were 
sealous  papists.  He  returned  to  Holland  in  1643,  and  that 
year  was  made  D.  D.  The  proofs  he  gave  of  his  great 
learning  were  such,  that  he  was  chosen  in  1644  to  fill  the 
chair  of  divinity  professor  at  Utrecht ;  and  the  next  year 
waa  OMide  minister  in  ordinary  of  the  ehurch  in  that  city. 
Ilowever  difficult  the  functions  of  these  two  eniiployments 
were,  yet  he  acquitted  himself  in  them  with  great  diligence 
almost  ten  years.  As  a  pastor,  be  often  visited  the  mem* 
bera  of  his  church :  he  encouraged  the  pious,  instructed 
the  ignorant,  reproved  the  wicked,  refuted  the  hereticti, 
comforted  the  afflicted,  refreshed  the  sick,  strengthened 
the  weak,  eheenod  the  drooping,  assisted  the  poor.  As  a 
professor,  he  took  as  much  care  of  the  students  in  divinity, 
as  if  they  had  been  his  own  children :  he  used  to  read  not 
only  public  lectures,  but  even  priv^e  ones,  for  them  ;  and 
to  hold  ordinary  and  extraordinary  disputations.  He  was 
chosen  to  exereise  the  same  employments  at  Leyden 
which  be  had  at  Utrecht,  and  accepted  them  in  1654.  He 
died  in  1666;  and  though  he  was  but  forty-nine  years  of 
i^e,  yet  considering  bis  labours,  it  is  rather  a  matter  of 
wonder  that  he  lived  so  long,  than  that  he  died  so  soon. 
He  published  a  great  number  of  works,  didactical,  pole* 
mical,  practical,  historical,  aiid  oratorical.  The  principal 
are^  *' A  Refutation  of  Socinianism,^  from  1650  to  1664^, 
3  vok.  4to ;  a  treatise  for  the  <*  Conviction  of  the  Jews,** 
165«,  8vo,  and/<  of  the  Gentiles,'*  1669,  4to;  <<  A  Systeoi 
of  Practical  Divinity/'  4to ;  <<  Theological  Institutions,'* 
&c. ;  aU  in  Latin.  He  understood  many  languages,  both 
ancient  and  modern ;  the  Latin,  Greek,  Hebrew,  Chaldaic, 
Syjriac,  Rabbinical,  Dutch,  German,  English,  French,  Ita« 
lian,  and  aome  little  of  Arabic  and  Spanish.  He  never 
depasled  one  inch  from  the  most  strict  orthodoxy ;  and 
was  not  leas  commendable  for  bis  integrity,  than  for  his 
parts  and  learning.  Bayle,  who  had  little  in  common  with 
io  s^und  a  divine/  e^hibiil;js  him  as  th^  complete  model  of 

U4  H  O  O  R  K  £. 

a' good  pastor  and    divinity-pcofessor.      He  married  at 
Utrecht  in  1650  ;  and  left  two  $on«.^ 

HOORNE  (John  Van),  a  distinguished  anatomist  and 
physician,  was  born  at  Anisterdatn  in  1621,  and  educated 
at  the  university  of  Utrecht,  where  he  went  through  bis 
medioal  studies  with  honour.  With  a  view  to  farther  im* 
provement  he  visited  Italy ;  biit  on  his  arrival  in  that  coun- 
try he  entered  the  Venetian  army,  in  which  he  served  for 
some  time.  Subsequently,  however,  his  taste  for  science 
returned;  and  having  studied  under  the  most  eminent 
prpfessors  of  Italy,  ^be  went  to  the  universities  of  Basil, 
Moutpellier,  and  Orleans,  in  thcf  first  of  which  he  received 
the  d^ree  of  M.  D.  On  his  return  he  was  appointed  pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Amsterdam  ;  and  in  1653 
he  wa9  made  professor  of  the  same  sciences  in  the  univer- 
sity of  Leyden,  where  he  died  January  1670. 

Van  Hoonie  was  a  man  of  considerable  literary  attain- 
jnents,  being  master  of  eight  languages.  His  reputation 
with  posterity,  however,  rests  principally  on  his  anatomical 
knowledge.  He  seems  to  have  first  described  the  thoracic 
diict  in  the  human  body,  which  Pecquet  bad  already  de- 
monstrated in  other  animals  ;  and  the  intimate  structure  of 
the  testes.  He  drew  a  great  number  of  anatomical  figures, 
with  great  elegance;  and  besides  editing  the  works  of 
Botallus,  in  1660,  and  the  book  of  Galen  ^^  De  Ossibus,** 
with  the  commentaries  of  Vesalius,  Sylvius,  ^g.  in  1665, 
be  wrote,  1.  ^  Ei^rcitationes  Anatomicse  I  &  II  ad  Obser- 
vationes  Fallopii  anatomtcas,^'  &c.  Liege,  1.649,  4to.  2. 
«  Novus  ductus  cbyliferus,  nunc  primilm  delineatus,  de- 
scriptus,  et  eruditorum  examini  propositus,"  ibid.  1652. 
3.  ^^  Microcosmus,  seu  brevis  manuductio  ad  historiam 
corporia  humani,  in  gratiam  discipuloium,"  ibid.  1660,' and 
several  subsequent  editions.  4.  '^Microtechne,  id  est,  bre- 
Tissima  Chirurgise  Methodus,"  ibid.  1663,  1668,  Lipsis^, 
1675.  5.  ^^  Prodromus  Observatioiium  suarum  circa  partes 
genitalesin  utroque  sexu,"  Leyden,  1668.  This  work  was 
afterwards  published  by  Swammerdam,  who  had  made  the 
greater  part  of  the  experiments  there  recorded,  of  which 
Van  Hoorne  only  paid  the  expences,  under  the  title  -^'Mi- 
raculum  Naturae,"  1612^  4to.  6.  ^*  Observationes  Anato- 
mico- Medics,"  &c.  Amst.  1674,  12mo.    7.  A  posthumous 

^Gen.  Diet. — ^Nioeron,   vol.  XXXIII.— BarmaD  Traject*  Erud.— «Freheri 

H  O  O  R  N  E.  135 


eollectiof^  under  the  titU  of  ^*  Opuscula  Anatomico-Cbi* 
rargica/*  was  published  by  professor  Pauli,  at  Leipsic,  iti 
1707,  8vo,  with  aiuiotaiions.^ 

HOPE  (John),  an  eminent  professor  of  botany  in  the 
university  of  Edinburgh,  was  the  son  of  Mr.  Robert  Hope, 
surgeon,  and  grandson  of  lord  Rankeilar,  one  of  the  sena- 
tors of  the  college  of  justice  in  Scotland.  He  was  bora 
May  10,  1725,  and  educated  at  the  university  of  Edin- 
burgh, where  his  attention  was  first  directed  to  the  niedi« 
cal  art.  He  afterwards  visited  other  medical  schools,  par- 
ticularly Paris,  where  he  studied  his  favourite  science, 
botany,  under  the  celeWated  Bernard  Jussieu.  On  his 
return  to  Scotland,  he  obtained  the  degree  of  M.  D.  from 
the  university  of  Glasgow  in  1750,  and  being  a  few  months 
after  admitted  a  member  of  the  royal  college  of  physicians, 
Edinburgh,  entered  upon  the  practice  of  medicine  in  that 
city.  On  the  death  of  Dr.  Alston,  in  1761,  he  was  ap- 
pointed king's  botanist  in  Scotland,  superintendant  of  the 
royal  garden,  and  professor  of  botany  and  materia  medica« 
The  latter,  the  professorship  of  materia  medica,  he  resigned 
in  1768,  and  by  a  new  commission  from  bis  majesty,  was 
nominated  regius  professor  of  medicine  and  botany  in  the 
university,  and  had  the  offices  of  king's  botanist  and  super* 
intendant  of  the  royal  gardens  conferred  upon  him  for  life, 
which  till  that  time  had  been  always  granted  during  plea- 
sure only.  While  he  thus  enjoyed  his  honours  at  home, 
be  received  the  most  flattering  marks  of  esteem  from  the 
learned  of  other  countries,  having  been  elected  a  member 
not  only  of  the  royal  society  of  London,  but  also  of  several 
celebrated  foreign  societies,  and  having  been  enrolled  in 
the  first  class  of  botanists  even  by  Linnaeus,  who  denomi- 
nated a  beauuful  shrub  by  the  name  of  Hopea  ;  and  at  a 
time  when  he  might  be  justly  considered  as  at  the  very 
head  of  his  profession  in  Edinburgh,  holding  the  distin- 
guished office  of  president  of  the  royal  college  of  )phy- 
sicians,  he  was  seized  with  an  alarming  illness,  which,  in 
the  space  of  a  few  days,  put  a  period  to  his  life,  Nov.  10, 
1786*  This  gentleman  richly  deserves  to  be  remembered 
as  one  of  the  earliest  lecturers  on  the  vegetable  physiology, 
as  well  as  an  experienced  practical  botanist.  Edinburgh 
is  indebted  to  his  spirit  and  perseverance,  in  establishing 
and  providing  suitable  funds  for  its  botanic  garden,  one  of 
the  first  in  the  kingdom. 

}  Moreri.-— Reet'i  Cyclop«dia» 

150  HOPE. 

Besides  some  useful  manuals  for  facilitating  the  ac<)a»l- 
tion  of  botany  by  his  students^  Dr.  Hope  was  long  engaged 
ID  the  composition  of  an  extensive  work^  on  which  be  be« 
stowed  much  study  and  reflection ;  the  object  of  which 
was^  to  iBcrease  the  advantages  which  result  from  the  highly 
ingenious  artificial  system  of  Linnseus^  by  conjoining  with 
it  a  sysleoni  of  vegetables  distributed  according  to  Ibeir 
great  natural  orders.  He  had  made  v.ery  considerable  pro- 
gress in  this  valuable  work ;  and  it  is  much  to  be  regretted 
by  every  lover  of  botany,  that  it  was  left  imperfect  at  his 
death.  Two  valuable  dissertations  were  published  by  him 
in  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  one  on  the  Rheum  pal" 
matump  and  the  other  on  the  Ferula  ^ssqfcsttda^  in  which 
he  demonstrates  the  practicability  of  cultivating  these  twa 
officinal  plants  in  our  own  country.  The  true  rhubarb  has 
been  since  extensively  and  successfully  cultivated ;  but  thai 
of  the  assafcetida  plant  has  not  been  equally  attended  to.* 

HOPE  (Sir  Thomas),  a  Scotch  lawyer,  was  the  son  of 
Henry  Hope,  a  merchant  of  Edinburgh,  who  had  many 
commercial  transactions  with  Holland,  where  he  afterwards 
resided,  and  where  he  married  Jacque  or  Jacqueline  de 
Tott.  His  son  Thomas  soon  distinguished  himself  at  Ihe 
bar  ;  and  was  made  king's  advocate  in  1627,  when  he  was 
also  created  a  baronet  by  Charles  I.  .He  however  attached 
himself  to  the  covenanters,  and  was  consulted  by  them  in 
all  difficult  points.  The  king  nevertheless,  perhaps  either 
to  render  him  suspected  to  that  party,  or  with  a  view  to 
win  him  over,  appointed  sir  Thomas  commissioner  to  the 
general  assembly  in  August  1643. 

Sir  Thomas  Hope,  died  in  1646,  leaving  large  states  to 
three  sons ;  the  youngest,  sir  'James,  being  ancestor  of 
the  Hopetoun  family,  which  arose  to  great  wealth  from 
bis  marriage  with  Anne,  heiress  of  John  Foulis  of  Leadw 
hills  in  Lanarkshire,  these  mines  being  an  unfailing  source 
of  opulence.  The  works  of  sir  Thomas  Hope  on  the  Scot^ 
tish  law  continue  to  be  valued:  they  are  his  ^' Minor 
Practics,''  and  his  ^^  Decisions.'*  He  also  wrote  some 
Latin  poems,  and  an  account  of  the  earls  of  Mar.  There 
are  several  of  bis  MSS.  in  the  Advocates'  library,  Edin* 

HOPKINS  {Ez^KiEL)y  a  learned  and  worthy  prelate, 
who  experienced  a  hxe  extremely  singular,  was  born  in 

1  Life  by  Dr.  Duncan,  Medical  CommenUrieSi  Dec.  ii.  vol.  III. 
<  Pinkerton's  Scottish  G»Uery4 

H  O  P  K  I  N  S.  151 

16^3,  at  dandfbrd  in  Devonshire,  where  his  father  Wat 
curate ;  became  chorister  of  Magdalen  college,  Oxford,  in 
1649;  at  the  age  of  about  sixteen,  he  was  usher  of  the 
school  adjoining,  being  already  B.A. ;  he  was  chaplain  of 
the  college  when  M.  A. ;  and  would  have  been  fellow,  had 
his  county  qualified  him.  AH  this  time  be  lived  aud  wiui 
educated  under  presbyterian  and  independent  discipline ; 
and  about  the  time  of  the  restoration  became  assistant  to 
I^.  Spurstow  of  Hackney.  He  was  afterwards  elected 
preacher  at  one  of  the  city  churches ;  the  bishop  of  Lon* 
don,  however,  refused  to  admit  him,  as  he  was  a  papular 
preacher  among  the  fanatics ;  but  after  some  time  be  wail 
settled  in  the  parish  church  of  St.  Mary  Wolnoth.  Having 
retired  to  Exeter  on  account  of  the  plague,  he  obtained 
the  living  of  St.  Mary's  church  at  Exeter,  was  counte* 
Banced  by  bishop  Ward,  and  much  admired  for  the  come^ 
liness  of  his  person  and  elegance  of  preaching.  The  lord 
Robartes  in  particular  (afterwards  earl  of  Truro)  was  so 
fyleased  with  htm,  that  he  gave  him  his  daughter  Araminta 
in  marriage,  took  him  as  his  chaplain  to  Ireland  in  16^69^ 
gave  him  the  deanery  of  Raphoe,  and  recommended  hitn 
so  effectually  to  his  successor  lord  Berkeley,  that  he  was 
oonsecrated  bishop  of  Raphoe,  Oct  27,  1671,  and  trans- 
lated to  Londonderry  in  I6i8l.  Driven  thence  by  the 
forces  Under  the  earl  of  Tyrconnel,  in  1688,  he  retired 
into  England,  and  was  elected  minister  of  Aldermanbxiry 
in  Sept.  1689,  where  he  died,  June  22,  1690.  He  pub- 
lished five  single  sermons,  afterwards  incorporated  in  two 
volumes ;  **  An  Exposition  of  the  Ten  Commandments,** 
1692,  4to,  with  bis  portrait ;  and  an  <*  Exposttioa  of  the 
Lord's  Prayer,**  1691,  alt  printed  in  one  volume,  1710, 
folio.  An  edition  of  his  works  has  very  recently  appeared 
in  4  vols.  8vo.  * 

HOPKINS  (Charles),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  bom 
at  Exeter,  ih  1 664  ;  but  his  father  being  taken  chaplain  to 
Ii^land,  he  received  the  early  part  of  his  education  at  Tri« 
nity  college,  Dublin;  and  afterwards  was  a  student  at 
Queen*s  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  the  degree  of 
B.  A.  in  1688.  The  rebellion  breaking  out  in  Ireland  in 
that  year,  he  returned  thither,  and  exerted  his  early  valour 
in  the  cause  of  his  country^  religion,  and  liberty.  Whea 
public  trtinquiUity  was  restored,  he  came  again  into  Eng-* 

»  Atii.  Ox.  Tol.  ll.^Prioct's  Wortlii^s  of  Devon.— Nicbal«?6  Poem*. 

158  HOPKINS- 

land,  and  formed  an  acquaintance  with  gentlemen  of  mtf 
whose  age  and  genius  were  most  agreeable  to  his  own.  In 
1694  he  published  some  ^^  Epistolary  Poems  and  Transla-* 
tions,"  which  may  be  seen  in  Nichols's  <^  Select  CoUec* 
lion ;"  and  in  1695  he  shewed  his  genius  as  a  dramatic 
writer,  by  "  Pyrrhus -king  of  Egypt,"  a  tragedy,  to  which 
Congreve  wrote  the  epilogue.  He  published  also  in  that 
year,  "The  History  of  Love,''  a  connection  of  select  fables 
from  "  Ovid's  Metamorphoses,"  1 695 ;  which,  by  the 
sweetness  of  his  numbers  and  easiness  of  his  thoughts,  pro- 
cured him  considerable  reputation.  With  Dryden  in  par- 
ticular he  became  a  great  favourite.  He  afterwards  pub- 
lished the  *^  Art  of  Love,"  which,  Jacob  says,  *^  added  to 
bis  fame,  and  happily  brought  him  acquainted  with  the 
earl  of  Dorset,  and  other  persons  of  distinction,  who  were 
fond  of  his  company,  through  the  agreeableness  of  his 
temper,  and  the  pleasantry  of  his  conversation.  It  was  in 
his  power  to  have  made  his  fortune  in  any  scene  of  life ; 
but  he  was  always  more  ready  to  serve  others  than  mindful 
of  his  own  affairs ;  and  by  the  excesses  of  hard  drinking, 
and  too  passionate  an  addiction  to  women,  he  died  a  martjrr 
to  the  cause  in  the  thirty-sixth  year  of  ^is  age."  Mr. 
Nichols  has  preserved  in  bis  collection  an  admirable  hymn, 
'^  written  about  an  hour  before  his  death,  wheti  in  great 
pain."  His  "  Court-Prospect,"  in  which  many  of  the  prin- 
cipal nobility  are  very  handsomely  complimented,  is  called 
by  JaQob  "  an  excellent  piece ;"  and  of  his  other  poemd  he 
adds,  **  that  they  are  all  remarkable  for  the  purity  of  their 
diction,  and  the  harmony  of  their  numbers."  Mr.  Hopkins 
was  also  the  author  of  two  other  tragedies;  'fBoadicea 
Queen  of  Britain,"  1697;  and  '*  Friendship  improved,  or 
the  Female  Warrior,"  with  a  humourous  prologue,  com* 
paring  a  poet  to  a  merchant,  a  comparison  which  will  bold 
in  most  particulars  except  that  of  accumulating  wealth. 
The  anthor,  who  was  at  Londonderry  when  this  tragedy 
came  out,  inscribed  it  to  Edward  Coke  of  Norfolk,  esq.  in 
a  dedication  remarkably  modest  and  pathetic.  It  is  dated 
Nov.  1,  1699,  and  concludes,  <^  I  now  begin  to  experience 
bow  much  the  mind  may  be  influenced  by  the  body.  My 
Muse  is  confined,  at  present,  to  a  weak  and  sickly  tene- 
ment ;  and  the  winter  season  will  go  near  to  overbear  ker» 
together  with  her  household.  There,  are  storms  and  tem- 
pests to  beat  her  down,  or  frosts  to  bind  her  up  and  kill 
ber ;  and  she  has  no  friend  on  her  side  but  youtb  to  bear 

HOPKINS.  159 

ber  throdgh;  If  that  can  sustain  the  attack,  and  bold  out 
^11  spring  comes  to  relieve  me,  one  use  I  shall  make  of 
farther  life  shall  be  to  shew  how  much  I  ^m,  sir,  your  most 
4eTOted  humble  servant,  C.  HopKiiii^.*' 

•  His  feelings  were  but  too  accurate ;  be  died  in  the  course 
of  that  winter,  1700.' 

.  HOPKINS  (John),  another  son  of  the  bishop  of  Lon- 
donderry, who  deviated  likewise  fron^  his  fathers  cbarac- 
ler^  was  born  January  1;  1675.  Like  bis  elder  brother, 
bis  poetry  turned  principally  on  subjects  of  love;  like  bim 
too,  bis  prospects  in  life  appear  to  have  terminated  unfor- 
tunately. He  published,  in  1698,  ''The  Triumphs  of 
Peace,  or  the  Glories  of  Nassau ;  a  Pindaric  poem  occa- 
sioned by  the  conclusion  of  the  peace  between  the  Con- 
federacy and  France ;  written  at  the  time  of  bis  grace  the 
duke  of  Ormondes  entrance  into  Dublin.^'  **  The  design 
itf  Ibis  poem^''  the  author  says  in  his  preface,  ^begini^ 
after  the  method  of  Pindar,  to  one  great  man,  and  rises  to 
another  ;  first  touches  the  duke,  then  celebrates  the  ac- 
tions of  the  king,  and  so  returns  to  the  praises  of  tb^  duke 
ligain.."  In  the  same  year  be  published  *^  The  Victory  of 
Peath ;  or  the  Fall  of  Beauty  ;  a  visionary  Pindaric  poem, 
occasioned  by  the  ever-to*l^«depiored  death  of  the  r^bt 
booourable  the  lady  Cults,''  8vo.  But  tbe  principal  per- 
formance of  J.  Hopkins  was  ^  Amasia,  (mt  the  woiiu  tji  tbe 
Muses^  a  collection  of  Pbems,''  170O,  in  S  reds.  Eacb  of 
these  little  volumes  is  divided  into  three  bocd»^  and  each 
book  is  inscribed  to  some  beautiful  patroness,  among 
inrbom.  tbe  duchess  $>f  Grafton  stands  foremost.  Tbe  last 
book  is  inscribed  ^^  To  the  memory  of  Amasia,"  whom  he 
addresses  throughout  these  volumes  in  tbe  character  of 
Sytvlu9.  There  is  a  vein  of  seriousness,  if  not  of  poetry^ 
runs  throogh  the  whole  performance.  Many  of  Ovid's  atd- 
riep  are  very  decently  imitated ;  '^  most  of  tbem,"  he  says, 
;«  have  been  very  well  pei'  brother,  and  pub- 
lished some  years  since ;  mine  were  written  in  another 
JkJiD^om  before  X  knew  of  bis."  la  one  of  bis  dedications 
be  tells  the  lady  Qlympia  Robartes,  *^Yoor  ladyship's 
lather,  the  late  earl  of  Radnor,  when  goverBor-<>f  Ireland, 
was  the  kind  patron  to  mine :  be  raised  him  to  the  first  which  be  afterwards  ascende4  to  tbe  dignities  he 
b^re; .  to  tbo^e^  which  rendered  bis  labours  more  coospica- 
op^  m^  s^t  in.  a  xooxe  advaiHageous  light  those  hfiag 

*  JmoVs  Uresv*-)tbf^J>r«m.-!-*Ntcliob'»  Poems;. 

160  HOPKINS; 

merits,  which  now  make  his  memory  beloved. .  These,  wci 
yet  greater  temporal  hooours,  your  family  heaped  on  bim^ 
fay  making  even  me  in  some  sort  related  and  allied  to  yott, 
by  his  inter- marriage  with  your  sister  the  lady  Araminta^ 
How  imprudent  a  yanity  is  it  in  me  to  boaat  a  father  so 
meritorious!  how  may  1  be  ashamed  to  prove  myself  his  soi^ 
by  po^ry,  the  only  qualification  be  so  much  excelled  in, 
but  yet  esteemed  no  excellence^  1  bring  but  a  bad  proof 
of  birth,  laying  my  claim  in.  that  only  thing  he  would  not 
own.  These  are^  however,  madam,  but  the  products  ef 
immature  years ;  and  riper  age,  may,  I  hope,  bring  foitb 
moreiolid  works.'*  We  have  never  seen  any  other  of  his 
writings:  nor  have  been  able  to  collect  any  farther  parti-« 
Cttlars  of  his  life :  but  there  is  a  portraut  of  him,  under  bia 
poetical  name  of  Sylvius.* 

HOPKINS,  John.     See  STERNHOLI>. 

HOPKINS  (WiLUAM),  a  learned  divine  of  the  churck 
of  England,  was  born  at  Evesham,  in  Worcestershire)  iff 
August  1^47,  and  was  the  son  of  the  rev.  George  Hopkinfl^ 
whom  Hickes  terms  a  pious  and  learned  divine,  aftd  who 
was  ejected  for  non-conformity.  At  school  his  son  was  so 
great  a  proficient,  that  at  twelve  years  of  age  he  translated 
an  EngHsh  poem  into  Latin  verse,  which  was  printed  sowm 
time  before  the  restoration.  At- thirteen  he  was  admitted 
commoner  of  Trinity-college,  Oxford,  under  the  learned 
Mr.  Stratford,  afterwards  bishop  of  Chester.  He  proceeded 
M.  A.  in  1669,  sometime  before  which  he  removed  froai 
Trinity-college  to  St.  Mary-hall;  He  waa  much  noticed 
by  Dr.  Fell,  dean  of  Christ-church,  who,  it  is  supposed^ 
recommended  him  to  the  Hon.  Henry  Coventry,  as  hia 
chaplain  and  companion  in  his  embassy  to  Sweden;  6» 
which  he  set  out  in  Sept  1671.  While  in  Sweden,  Mri. 
Hopkins  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  northern  anticjui* 
ties,  having  previously  studied  the  Saxon.  After  hb  io« 
turn  in  1675,  by  Mr.  Coventry's  reeommeodation,  he  waft 
preferred  to  a  prebend  in  Worcester  cathedral ;  and  from 
bis  installation,  began  ^o  collect  materials  for  a  history  of 
this  church,  some  of  which  fell  afterwards  into  the  bands  of 
Wharton  and  other  antiquaries.  In  June  1678  he  Was  madd 
curate  of  Mortlak^  in  Surrey,  and  about  1680  was  chosen 
Sunday  lecturer  of  the  church  of  St.  Lawrence  Jewry,  and 
kk  1686  was  preferred  to  the  vicarage  of  Lindridge  in 
Woroestersbire.    Ip  1691  he  wais  chosen  master  of  Sc  Ott** 

1  NitMft'i 

H  0  i^  K  r  N  »:  161 

wakJ^s  hospital  in  Worcester,  of  tlie  profit?  of  which  he 
made  a  fiind  for  the  use  of  the  hospital,  and  the  beneBt  of 
his  poor  brethren  there.  He  had  proceeded  D,  D.  at  Ox- 
ford in  1692.  He  died  of  a  violent  fever  May  18J  1700, 
and  was  interred  in  Worcester .  cathedral.  Hickes,  who 
{prefixed  his  Life  to  a  volume  of  his  Sermons,  published  in 
1708,  8vo,  gives  him  a  high  charajcter  for  piety,  learning,^ 
and  benevolence.  He  was  a  great  benefactor  to  the  library, 
of  Worcester  cathedral.  Although  a  man  of  extensive 
reading  and  study,  he  published  only,  I.  "  Bertram  or  Ra- 
tram,  concerning  the  Body  and  Blood  of  the  JLbrd,  &c. 
wherein  M.  Boileau's  version  and  notes  upon  Bertram  are, 
considered,  and  his  unfair  dealings  in  both  detected.'*'  Ot 
this  a  second  edition  appeared  in  1688.  2.  "  Animadver- 
sions on  Mr.  Johnson^s  answer  to  Jovian,  in  three  letters 
to  a  country  friend  ;"  and  a  Latin  translation,  with  notes,  of 
a*smal(  tract,  written  in  the  Saxon  tongue,  on  the  burial* 
pilaces  of  the  Saxon  saints,  which  Dr.  Hickes  published  in 
his  <<  Septentrional  Grammar,**  Oxford,  1705.  Dr.  Sopi-, 
kins  also  assisted  Gibson  in  correcting  his  Latin  version  of 
the'  Saxon  Chronicle ;  and  made  a  new  translation,  with 
no_tes  and  addition?,  of  the  article  "  Worcestershire'*  in 
Camden's  Britannia,  published  by  Gibson.' 

HOPKINS  (William),  an  Arian  writer,  although  bcr, 
longing  to  the  Church  of  England,  was  born  at  Monmouth 
in  1706.     He  received  the  elements  of  a  learned  educa- 
tion at  his  native  town,  whence  be  was  sent  to  AIUSouls^ 
Oxford,  in  1724.     He  was  admitted  to  deacon's  orders  in 
1728,  and  in  the  followmg  year  undertook  the  curacy  of 
Waldron,  in  Sussex.     In  1731   he  was  presented  to  the 
vicarage  of  Bolney,  in  the  same  county.    .In  1753  he  pub- 
fished   anonymously,  **  An  Appeal  to  the  common  sensei^ 
of  all  Christian  peoplej  more  particularly  the  members  of^ 
the*Church  of  England,  wijth  regard  to  an  important  point, 
o{  faith  and  practice,  iniposed  upon  their  consciences.*!^ 
This  excfted  a  controversy  which   was  carried  on  many 
years.     In. 1756  he  was  elected  master  jof  the  grammar, 
school  of  Cuckfield  ;  and  in  17G6,  undertook  the  curacy  of 
Slaugham,  and  continued   to  officiate  there  many;  years, 
and  in  his  own  parish  of  Bolney,  makincr  what  alterations 
be  pleased  in  the  service,  at  which  the  churchwamens  were 
pleased  to  connive.     He  supported  the  famous  p^titioif  to 


'  Life  by  Dr.  Hickes.^Aih  Ox.  vol.  II. 

Vol.  XVIII.  M 

162  HOPKINS. 

parliaipent  for  relief,  in  the  m.aUer  of  subscription  to  the 
liturgy  and  thirty-nine  articles  of  the  church ;  and  wrote 
some  pamphlets  on  the  subject,  but  all  anonymously.  His 
last  work,  in  1784,  was  "  Exodus,  a  corrected  translation, 
with  notes  critical  and  explanatory,"  in  which  notes  there 
is  little  that  can  gratify  the  taste  of  curious  and  critical 
readers,  but  so  many  severe  reflections  on  the  articles  and 
liturgy  of  the  Church  of  England,  that  the  Monthly  Re- 
viewef  took  for  granted  he  bad  quitted  it,  although  in  the 
title  he  called  himself  the  vicar  of  Bolney.  Immediately 
after  this  publication,  his  health  began  to  decline;  and  his 
mental  faculties  were  greatly  impaired  before  his  decease, 
which  happened  in  1786,  when  he  had  attained  to  his 
eightieth  year.' 

HOPTON  (Arthur),  an  English  mathematician,  was 
son  of  sir  Arthur  Hopton,  and  born  in  Somersetshire.  He 
was  educated  at  Lincoln  college,  Oxford,  and  after  taking 
bis  degree  of  B.  A.  removed  to  the  Temple,  where  he  lived 
in  habits  of  friendship  with  the  learned  Selden.  He  died 
in  1614,  a  very  young  man,  not  having  attained  to  more 
than  his  twenty-sixth  year.  He  wrote  a  treatise  on  t^e 
"  Geodotical  Staff ;**  "  The  Topographical  Glass,  contain- 
ing the  uses  of  that  instrument,  the  theodolite,  plane  table, 
and  circumferentor;'*  "A  Concordance  of  Yearis,  con- 
taining a  new  and  a  most  exact  computation  of  time,  ac« 
cording  to  the  English  accompt  ;'*  "  Prognostications  for 
the  years  1667  and  1614."» 

HORAPOLLO,  or  HORUS  APOLLO,  was  a  gram- 
marian,  according  to  Suidas,  of  Panoplus  in  Egypt,  who 
taught  first  at  Alexandria,  and  then  at  Constantinople, 
tinder  the  reign  of  Theodosius,  about  the  year  380.  There 
are  extant  under  his  name  two  books  *<  concerning  the 
Hieroglyphics  of  the  Egyptians,**  which  Aldus  first  pub- 
lished in  Greek  in  1505,  folio.  They  have  often  been  re* 
published  since,  with  a  Latin  version  and  notes ;  but  the 
best  edition  is  thit  by  Cornelius  de  Pauw  at  Utrecht,  in 
1727,  4to.  Meanwhile  there  are  many  Horapollos  of  an* 
riqutty ;  and  it  is  not  certain,  that  the  grammarian  of 
Alexandria  was  the  author  of  these  books.  Suidas  does 
not  ascribe  them  to  him ;  and  Fabricius  is  of  opinion,  that 
they  belong  rather  to  another  Hdrus  Apollo  of  more  ancient 

1  Life  prefixed  to  an  edition  of  bit  '*  Appeal,"  printed  in  llST.^-^Reeg'e  Cy-. 
«elop«dia.— MonUtly  ReTtew,  voU  LXXJI.  *  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  1. 

H  O  R  A  P  O  L  L  O.  163 

standing,  who  flourisbed  about  150O  B.  C.  md  wrote  upoa 
Hieroglyphics  in  the  Egyptian  language,  and  from  whose 
work  an  extract  rather  than  a  version  has  been  made  of 
these  two  books  in  Greek.  * 

HORATIUS  (QuiMTUS  Flaccus),  an  ancient  Roman 
poet,  and  the  most  popular  of  vM  the  classical  writers, 
flourisbed  in  the  age  ot*  Augustus,  and  was  born  at  Venn- 
Slum,  a  town  of  Apulia,  or  of  Lucania,  Dec.  8,  U.  C.  689, 
i»  €•  6S  B.  C.  His  father,  the  son  of  a  freedman,  and  a 
tax-gatherer,  being  a  man  of  good  sense,  knew  the  ncces* 
sity  of  instructing  Ins  son  by  setting  before  him  the  exam-^ 
pies  of  all  sorts  of  persons,  and  shewing  him  whWt  beha- 
viour be  should  imitate,  and  what  he  should  avoid  :  spur- 
4ng  bi'm  on  all  the  while  to  this  imitation,  by  pointing  out 
the  good  eflfects  of  virtue,  and  the  ill  effects  of  vice.  With, 
this  view  he  removed  hin)  to  Rome  when  about  ten  years 
of  age,  where  he  had  the  advantage  of  an  education  under 
the  best  masters ;  and  when  he  was  about  eighteen,  was. 
sent  to  Athens,  where  he  acquired  all  the  accomplishments, 
that  polite  learning  and  education  could  bestow. 

.  Brutus  about  this  time  going  to  Macedonia,  as  he  passed 
through  Athens,  took  several  young  gentlemen  to  the  army 
with  him;  and  Horace,  now  grown  up,  and  quaMiied  to  set  ' 
out  into  the  world,,  among  the  rest.  Brutus  made  htm  a 
tribune,  but  he  did  not  distinguish  himself  for  courage,  as  ' 
at  the  battle  of  Philippi  he  left  the  field  and  fled,  after  he 
bad  shamefully  flung  away  his  shield.  This  memorable 
circumstance  of  his  life  he  mentions  himself,  in  an  Ode  to 
his  friehd  Pompeius  Varus,  who  was  with  him  in  the  same 
battle  of  Philippi,  and  accompanied  him  in  his  flight:  but 
though  running  away  might  possibly  save  his  life,  it  could 
not  secure  bis  fortune,  which  he  forfeited  ;  and  being  thus. 
reduced  to  want,  he  applied  himself  to  poetry,  in  which  he 
succeeded  so  well,  time  he  soon  made  himself  known  to 
some  of  .the  greatest  men  in  .Rome.  Virgil,  as  he  has  tokl' 
usj  was  the  first  that  recommended  him  to  Maecenas ;  and 
this  celebrated  patron  of  learning  and  learned  men  grew  so 
food  of  him,  that  he  became  a  suitor  for  him  to  Augustus^ 
and  succeeded  in  getting  his  estate  restored.  Augustus, 
highly  pleased  with  his  merit  and  address,  admitted  him 
to  a  close  familiarity  with  him  in  his  private  hours,  and 
afterwards  made  him   ho  small  I  offers  of  prefenhent,  aU 

1  Fabric  Bibl.  (Srac— Saxli  Onomast. 

M   2 

1;64^  H  O  R  A  T  I  <!J  a    ^ 

wjxiph  the  poet  bad  the  greatness  of  mind  totefu^;  and-* 
tbe  prin«e  generosity  enough  not  to  be  ofFenfJed  at  bis. 
freedom.  It  is  a  sufficient  proof  of  his  indiffierei)ce»to^th^/ 
pride  of  a  court,  that  he  refused  a  place  sq  booourable  ai^d: 
advantageous  as  tliat  of  secretary  to  AugQs^u«.  Qut  he  \\^d 
a  strong  partiality  to  retirement  and  study^  free  frqm.tbQ. 
noise  of  hurry  and  ambition,  although  bis  life  does  not  apn 
pear  tohave  beeii' untainted  by  the. follies  of  his  youth  and 

When  Horace  was,  about  twrenty-sis  years^  of  age,  Ap« 
gustus  found  it  necessary  to  make  peace  wjih  Antony,  th^t. 
theyrmight  unite  against  Pompey,  their  common  enemy ;. 
and  for  this  end  persons  were  sent  to.Brundasium  asde-. 
puties,  to  conclude,  the  treaty  between  them.     Mflpceuas. 
going  on  Caesiar's  part,  Horace,  Virgil,  and  some  othery^ 
accompanied  him.  thither :  and  Horace  has  given  a  very 
entertaining  description  of  the  journey  in  the  fifth  Satire  of 
his  first  book.  This  happened  in  Puliio's  consulship,  who  wa^ 
about  that  time  writing  a  history  of  the  civil  wars  for  the 
last  twenty  years ;  which  occasioned  Horace  to  address  the 
first  Ode  of  the  second  book  to  him,  and  to  represeot  the 
many  inconveniences  to  which  such  a  work  must  necessa* 
rily  expose  him,  if  impartial  enoMgh  to  assign  tht;  true 
causes  of  the  civil  war  between  Caesar,  and  P^mpey^  and 
their  motives  for  beginning  it.     From  the  notes  of  Dacier 
and  Bentley,  wbo  have  successfully  fixed  the  time  of  bi^ 
writing  some  Odes  and  Epistles,  it  appears,  that  before  Ue 
was.  thirty  years  of  age,  he  had  introduced  himself,  tQ  the 
acquaintance  of  the  most  considerable  persons  in  Rooie ; 
o£  which  this  Ode  to  PoUio  may  furnish  a  proof;  fur  his. 
m/erit  must  have  been  well  known,  and  his  reputation  welU. 
established,  before  he  could  so  familiarl}'  address  one.  of. 
Ppllio's  high  character:  and  he  ivas  too  great  a, master  in 
the  science  of  men  and  manners,  to  have  taken  such  a  li* 
berty  if  it  had  been  inconsistent  with  propriety. 

His  love  for  retirement  seems  to  have  increased,  with.  hU 
age,  and  for  some  years  he  was  only  at  Rome  in  the  springs 
passing  the  sumcner  in  the  country,  and.  the  winter  at  Ta*<. 
rentum.     He  never  could  be  prevailed  on  to  undertake  any- 
great  work,  though  he  was  strongly  solicited  to  it ;  ye^  hia . 
gratitude  to  Augustus  called  upon  him  sometiooies  to  tmg 
bis  triumphs  over  Pompey  and  Aqtpny,  or  the  victorious. . 
exploits  oif  Tiberius  and  Drusu^.    His  **  Carmen  8a)culare^* 
be  composed  at  the  express  command  of  Augustus^  aod  tj) 

H  O  R  A  T  I  U  S.  165 

i^HKgie  Mri/>r6te  khb  the  fir^t  epistte  of  the  sTecofid  bddk. 
'That  priiice  b^l  ttndly  Reproached  bim  with  having 'said  ib 
'littk  of  hi^  in  his  writiirgs ;  and  a^ked  him  in  ^  lettcfr 
Writt&n  oh  thia  occasion,  **  whether  he  thought  it  would 
'diJrgrlic^e  hitii  -with  posterity,  if  he  should  seem  to  hav^ 
b^eh  intimate  with  him  ?^'  upon  which  he  addressed  th^ 
'^}st}e  just  mentioned  to  him, 

Horace,  ithhough  not  a  phitosof^herln  the  strictest  sensc^^ 
'^discovered  an  inclination  for  the  Epicurean  t>hilosopby  dur- 
$Rg  the  greatest  paVt  of  his  life ;  but  at  the  latter  end  of  it, 
iseems  to  have  ieiaiied  a  little  towards  the  Stofc.  He  Was  of 
a  cheerfikl  temper,  fond  of  ease  and  liberty,  and  went 
pretty  fat  into  the  gallantries  of  his  times],  until  he  ad* 
vahced  in  years.  Dacier  has  very  justly  siaid  that  he  Was  k 
poet  in  hh  philosophy,  and  a  philosopher  in  his  poetry. 
He  met  with  hfis  greatest  misfortune,  when '  his  beloved 
fViehd  and  patron  Miaecenas  died ;  and  this  event  is  sup* 
posed  td  have  touched  him  so  sensibly,  that  he  did  not 
survive  it  long  enough  to  lament  him  in  an  elegy.  He  died 
not  thahy  days  after,  iged  fifty-seven,  Nov.  1 7,  in  the  yeat 
bf  Rome  746j  slbout  eight  years  B.  C.  He  was  buried  tiear 
Milsbenas's  tohib,  and  declared  in  his  last  words  Augustus' 
his  heir;  the  violence  of  his  distemper  being  such,  that  b^ 
W21S  nbt  able  to  sign  his  will.  In  his  person  he  was  very 
short  and  bbrpulent,  as  we  learn  from  a  fragment  of  a  let* 
tei*  of  Au^dstds  to  him,  preserved  in  his  life  by  Suetonius ; 
vrhete  the  emperor  compares  him  to  the  book  he  sent  him, 
which  was  a  Httle  short  thick  volume.  He  was  grey-baired 
^bout  forty ;  subject  tb  sore  eyes,  which' made  him  use  but 
Hitle  exercise;  and  of  a  constitution  probably  not  the  best; 
lltf'ftd  being  unable  to  support  hhn  to  a  more  advanced  age, 
tfaotfgh  he  seems  to  have  managed  it  with  very  great  care. 
66nfiH0''t  of  )mmot*tal  fam^  from  his  works,  as  all  allow  he 
fe#y  justly  mr^t  be,  he  exprcfssed  his  irfdffference  to  any 
magtiifitr^tit  ft^beral  rites,  of  fruitless  sorrows  for  his  death. 

of  itf  aWhdr  so  well  kndwn,  Arid  whose  merits  have  been 
io  clHiH  iiid  so  mtnrtrtely  canvassed  by  classical  critics,  it 
would  ^e  unnecessary  to  say  much  in  this  place.  Yet  we 
klioi^  tlt»t  how  to  refrain  fioni  adding  the  sentiments  of  an 
Aninie?i)ft  living  scbofar,  which  cannot  easily  be  rivalled  for 
adoK^n^ss  and  elegante.  The  writings  of  Horace,  says  this 
W^efd  tritic,  are  famiKar  to  ni  from  dur  Earliest  boyhood. 
Th^  caFf^  with  them  attractions  which  are  felt  in  every 
^idtt  of  UfeV  aird'  ahn'ott  every  rank  of  society.    Tfaey 

i««  H  o  il  A  T  1 1;  s. 

cbann  alike  by  the  harmony  of  the  nooabers,  and  the  purity 
of  the  diction.  They  exhilarate  the  gay,  and  interest  the 
serious^  according  to  the  different  kinds  of  subjects  upon 
which  the  poet  is  employed.  Professing  neither  the  pre«» 
cision  of  analysis,  nor  the  copiousness  of  system,  they  have 
a(ivantages,  which,  among  the  ordinary  class  of  writers^ 
analysis  and  system  rarely  attain.  They  exhibit  bumao 
imperfections  as  they  really  are,,  and  human  excellency  as 
it  practically  ought. to  be.  They  develope  every  principle 
of  the  virtuous  in  morals,  and  describe  every  modification 
of  the  decorous  in  manners.  They  please  without  the  glare 
of  ornament,  and  they  instruct  without  the  formality  of 
precept*  They  are  the  produce  of  a  mind  enlightened  by 
study,  invigorated  by  observation  ;  comprehensive,  but  no^ 
visionary ;  delicate}  but  not  fastidious ;  too  sagacious  to  be 
carped  by  prejudice,  and  too  generous  to  be  cranoped  by 
suspicion.  They  are  distinguished  by  language  adapted  to 
the  sentiment^  and  by  effort  proportioned  to  the  occasion. 
They  cpntain  elegance  without  affectation,  grandeur  with- 
out bombast,  satire  without  buffoonery,  .and  philosophy 
without  jargon.  Hence  it  is  that  the  writings  of  Horaco 
are  more  extensively  read,  and  more  clearly  understood, 
than  those  of  almost  any  other  classical  author.  The  ex- ' 
planation  of  obscure  passages,  and  the  discussion  of  con- 
jectural readings,  form  a  part  of  the  education  which  is. 
given  in  our  public  schools.  The  merits  of  commentatorsif, 
SIS  well  as  of  the  poet  himself,  are  the  subjects  of  our  con* 
versation ;  and  Horace,  like  our  own  countrym^m  Shak* 
speare,  has  conferred  Celebrity  upon  ma|iy  a  scholar,  who, 
has  been  able  to  adjust  his  text,'  or  to  unfold  his  allusions. 
The  works  of  some  Roman  and  more  Greek  writers  are  in-« 
Yolved  in  such  obscurity,  that  no  literary  adventurer  should 
presume  to  publish  a  variorum  edition  of  themi  unless  he 
has  explored  the  deepest  recessed  of  criticism.  Qut*  in  rie- 
spect  to  Horace,  every  man  of,  letters  knows  where  infor- 
mation is  to  be  bad,  and  every  man  of  judgment  will  (iel 
little  difficulty  in  applying  it  to  useful  and  even  ornamen- 
tal purposes.  ^ 

The  editions  of  Horace  are  numerous  beyond  those  of 
any  other  poet.  jpr.  Douglas,  an  eminent  physician  in 
the  last  reign,  collected  four  Jiundred  and  fifty.  Among 
these  are  valuable  editions  by  Baxter,  Bentley,,  Bond,^ 
Cruquiusy  Dacier,  Desprez  (the  Delpfain)^  Gc|Soer,  Lam- 
binus,  Muretus,  Pulman,  Sat^don,  Zeunius,  jcc.  8kc.  t# 

H  O  R  B  E  R  Y.  167 

wfiich  may  be  aJded  the  more  recent  editions  of  Janus^ 
Combe,  WakcBeKI,  Hunter,  and  Mitscberlichius.^ 

HORBERY  (Matthew),  a  learned  English  divine,  wa$ 
bom  at  Haxay  in  Lincolnshire,  in  1707.     His  father  w^ 
vicar  of  Haxay,  but  both  he  and  his  wife  died  when  their 
son  was  very  young.     The  provision  made  for  him  wa4 
400/.  which  barely  defrayed  the  expence  of  his  education, 
first  at  Epworth,  and  then  at  Gainsborough.     He  was  then 
entered  of  Lincoln  college,  Oxford,  where  he  obtained  a 
small  exhibition,  but  afterwards  was  elected  to  a  feilow'^ 
ship  of  Magdalen,  which  extricated  him  from  many  diflSi* 
culties,  his  poor  inheritance  having  been  long  before  eX" 
pended.     He  took  his  master's  degree  at  Lincoln  previous 
to  this,  in  1733,  and  when  admitted  into  orders  pres^faed 
before   the  university  with    great  approbation ;  and   be- 
coming   known  as  a  young  man  of  much  learning  and 
personal  merit.  Dr.  Smallbroke,  bishop  of  Lichfield,  who 
had  appointed  him  his  chaplain,  collated  him  successively 
to  the  vicarage  of  Eccleshall,  and  the^curacy  of  GnosaU, 
to  which  were  afterwards  added  a  canon ry  of  Lichfield  and 
the  vicarage  of  Hanbury,  on  which  last  promotion  he  re* 
sTgned  Gnosall.    The  whole,  however,  of  these  prefer- 
ments,  even   with  the  ..addition  of  his   fellowship,   were 
scarcely  equal  to  his  expences,  for  he  had  very  little  no- 
tion of  accounts,  or  care  about  worldly  things.     He  was 
afterwards  promoted  by  his  college  to  the  rectory  of  Stan« 
lake,    and  then   quitted   Eccleshall,    preferring  Stanlaka 
from  its  retired  situation,'  where  he  might  indulge  his  fa- 
vourite propensity  to  reading  and   meditation,   and  hare 
^asy  access  to  his  beloved  Oxford.     He  took  his  degree  of  > 
B.  D.  in  1743,  and  that  of  D.  D.  in   1745,  and  died  at 
Stanlakie,  Jan. '22,   1773. 

In  early  life  he  was  a  coadjutor  of  Dr.  Waterland  in  his 
celebrated  controversy  on  the  Trinity  ;  arfd  wrote,  in  1785, 
'^Animadversions  upon  a  late  Pamphlet,  entitled  *  Chris- 
tian Liberty  asserted,'  &c."  The  author  of  this  pamphlet 
,was  John  Jackson,  whom  he  charges  with  having  misre** 
presented  bishops  Pearson  and  Bull,  and  particularly  Dr. 
Waterland,  with  whom  he  had  then  no  personal  acquaint* 
ance.      About  this  time  bishop  Hoadly  made  some  ad* 

f  ahces  to  him,  to  which  he  paid  no  attention,  as  he  greatly 

^   .t   .  ' 

I  Honitii  Open* — Cn»ius>ft  Liret  of  the  Poets.— Life  prefeed  to  Bof^awea^f 
4feMlaiten.««'Brit.  Criticy  toU  ni.-r«SA3ui  Oaomatt. 

168  H  Q  R  B  E  R  v. 

disapproved  Jus  notions.  By  desire  he  published  three 
occasional  sermons,  but  bis  principal  work  was  his  treatise 
on  the  "  Eternity  of  Hell  Torments,'*  which  appeared  ia 
1744,  and  was  Written  at  the  solicitation  of  bishop  SmalU 
broke.  After  his  death  a  volume  of  his  "  Sermons'*  was 
published  by  his  wife's,  nephew. 

Dr.  Horbery  bore  the  character  of  ^n  amiable  and  ex- 
cellent man,  as  well  as  of  an  able  and  sound  divine,  who 
ii^alked,  as  his  biographer  says,  steadily  through  those 
profound  depths  of  theology^  in  whicji  men  of  inferior 
powers  and  attainments  are  Tost:  but  such  was  his  uncom-^ 
inon  modesty  and  invincible  diffidence,  that  nothing  could 
draw  him  out  into  public  life.  On  the  death  of  Dr.  Jenner, 
president  of  Magdalen  college,  he  resisted  the  solicitation 
of  a^ajority  of  the  fellows  to  become  a  candidate,  and  Dr. 
|Iorne,  who  was  elected,  paid  him  the  compliment  to  say 
ih^t  he  would  never  have,  presented  himself  if  Dr.  Horbery 
would  have  come  forward.  His  library,  consisting  of  2000 
volume^,  in  the  best  preservation,  was  sold  for  the  small 
^um  of  120/.;  but  such  was  his  reputation  as  a  preacher, 
that  tsjfo  hundred  of  his  MS  sermons,  in  the  rough  state  in 
which  he  first,  composed  them,  were  disppsed  of  for  six 
hundred  guineas.*' 

'  HORNE,  John  Van.  See  HOORNE. 
'  tiORNE  (George),  the  late  amiable  and  exemplary 
bishop  of  Norwich,  was  born  Nov,  I,'  1730,  at  Otham,  near 
Maidstone,  in  Kent,  wher^  his  father,  the  rev.  Samuel 
ftorne,  was  rector.  Of  four  sons  and  three  daughters  he 
was  the  second  son  ;  and  his  education  was  commenced  at 
^ome  'under  the  instruction  of  his  father.  At  thirteen, 
'having  made  a  gopd  proficiency,  he  was  sent  to  school  at 
Maidstone,  under  the  rev.  Deodatus  Bye;,  a  mr.n  of  gocKl 
principles;  and  at  little  more  than  fifteen,  beipg  elected  to 
a  Maidstone  scht'arship  at  University  college,*  Oxford,  be 
Went  there  to  reiide«  He  Avas  ^  much  approved  at  his 
college,  that  about  the  time  when  he  took  his  bachelor's 
degree,  which  was  Oct.  27,  1 749,  in  consequence  of  a 
strong, recommendation  fropi  that  place,  he  was  elected  to 
a  kentish  feliowship  at  Magdalen.  Ou  June  1,  1752,  he 
took  his  master's  ^egre^e,  and  on  Trinity  Sunday,  in  the 
year  following,  he  was  ordained  by  the  bishop  of  Oxford, 
and  soon  after  preached  bis  iirst  sermon  for  bis  friend  andl 

»  Gent.  MaV.  vol.  IJilX.  anU  LXXVI. .  " 

9  O  R  N  E.  169 

:bi(igrapher«  Mr.  Jp^eSy  at  Finedon,  in  Nortbamptonsbire. 

A  $hort  time , alter  h^  preached  in  London  with  such  sue-* 
cess,  that  a  person,  eminent  himself  for  the  same  talent, 
pronounced  him,  without  exception,  the  be3t  preacher  in 

At  the  early  age  of  r^iueteeo,  Mr.  Home  bad  imbibed  a 
y^ery  favourable  opinion  of  the  sentiments  of  Mr.  Hutchin- 
son ^  which  he  aftervvards  adppted  and  disseminated  with- 
out disguise.  Supported  by  the  learning  $ind  zeal  of  his 
i'riendsj  Mr.  Watson  of  University,  college,  Dr.  Hodges, 
provost  of  Oriel,  and  Dr.  Patten,  of  Corpus,  he  ably  vin- 
dicated his  principles  against  th^  intemperate  invectives 
to  which  tl^eir  novelty  exposed  them.  That  part  inde^ 
pf  the  Hutcbinspnian  controversy  which  relateji  to  HebreM^ 
etyniology  was  discountenanced  by  Mr.  Horne  as,  in  a 
gr^at  me.asure,  fanciful  ^nd  arbitrary.  H^  con^dered  it 
of  ir^Qpitely  more  importance  to  be  employed  in  i^vesti- 

fating  fdcts  than  tp  be  disputing  about  verbal  criticisms, 
be  principle^  of  J^r.  Hutf^U'nison  beginning  to  extend 
jtbeir  influeoce  iji  t^e  university,  in  1756  a  boh)  attack  was 
ma^^  upon  them  in  an  $monymous  pamphlet,  entitled  '*  A 
Wpyd  to  tiie  Huti^binsi^i^i^ps.'?  Mr.  Home,  considering 
himself  more  particv^larly  called  upon  for  a  defence,  as 
being  personally  aimed  at  in  the  animadver^ions,  prodiiced 
an  Apology,  which  hais  been  universally  admired  for  its 
temper,  learning,  and  good  s^nse.  The  question  agitated 
seems  rather  to  involve  tbe  very  essense  of  religion,  than 
io  coucej^n  Mr.  Hutchinson  or  his.  principles.  The  pam-> 
jphle;t  was  attributed  by  the  public  in  general,  and  Mr.  Horne 
in  particular,  to  Mr.  Kennicott,  of  £xeter  college ;  a  man 
who  bad  distinguished  himself  by  an  accurate  aequaintande 
with  ll|e  Hebrew,  and  two  masterly  dissertations,  one  on 
Ihe  Tree  qf  Life,  t^e  other  on  the  Sacrifices  of  Cain  and 

Aft^  his  Apology,  Mr.  Horne  took  an  active  part  in  the 
contrpv^r^  with  Mr.  Kennicott  on  the  propriety  of  col- 
ja^ip4i;;j(h9  text  of  the  Hebrew  Bible  with  such  manuscripts 
^a  c^^^  ^hen  be  procured,  in  order  to  reform  tb^  te^i^t, 
and  prepare  it  for  a  ii^w  traQslatiqu.  into  the  English  Ian* 
gmig^.,  .  Mr,  llorfte  stropgly  plyjected  %o  tl^e  proposal,  from 
^  p,^ti|i^siGm,,^mQi;ig  other  serious  reasoiis,  that  the  wid^ 
&princip]|e  up9t^. which  it  vvas  to  be  con<juc;ted  vnigbt^en'^ 
^^nger  ^h^  intere^  of  genuir^e^Christianity.  He  oof^ 
seiy^th/^f,  tJby4,upsomKl  pri^cism  tq  which  M^  text  wqu14 

i^  H  O  B  If  & 

.tian  ;  and  i^i»  a  scholat^  a  tiiTifier,  and  a  pi^eachdr,  a  man  of 
jao  ordmary  quaiifibations.  The  cheerfulness  of  his  dispo-* 
^tion  is  often  marked,  by  tii«  vivacity  of  <his  writiO'gS)  and 
tbe  sioicerity  of  liis  heart  is  every  w^bere  idbnspicuous  in 
tl^em*  So  far  was  he  from  any  tincttire  of  oovetousnedsfi 
that  be  laid  up  jiotbing  from  bis  preferaient»iin  the  cb«ir^b. 
If  lie  was  no  loser  at  the  year's  ead  be  ^as:|il)erfe'Ctl5r  satis- 
fied. What  be  gave  away  w^%  bestowed  'ovitih  so  tDuch  se-> 
crecyt  that  it  was  supposed  by  soone  persons  to  be  iittl^  J 
but,  after  bis*deatfa,  when  tbe  pensioners,  towfaom  be  bad 
been  a  cotistaut  beodfactor,  rose  up  to  I^tftt  ab<^yt  tbein 
(qr  soQie  other  support,  it  began  to  be  knt)wn  who,  add 
bow  many  they  were. 

Tbe  works  of  bishop  Home  amount  to  a  good  tAM^ 
tuticles,  wbicfa  we  shall  notice  in  chronological  order:  I. 
"  Tbe  Theology  and  Philosophy  in  Cicero's  Somniutn 
Scipionis  explained ;  or  a  brief  attempt  to  demonstrate  that^ 
the  Newtonian  system  is  perfectly  agreeable  to  the  notions 
of  ibe  wisest  autients,  and  that  mathematical  principles  are 
the  only  sure  ones,"  Loud.  1751)  8vo.  2,*'  A  fair,  can- 
did, and  impartial  state  of  the  Case  between  sir  Isaac  New- 
U^a  and  Mr.  Hutchinson,"  &c.  Oxford,  1753^  8va.  3^ 
H  Spicilegium  Sbuckfordianum ;  or  a  nosegay  fdf  the  cri^ 
tic«V'  *tc.  Lond.  1754,  I2mo»  4.  '*  Christ  and  the  Holy 
Qbost  the  supporters  of  the  Spiritual  Life^"  Sec.  txvosef- 
mous preached  before  the  university  of  Oxford,  1755,  Svo, 

5,  '*  The  Almighty  jdstified  in  Judgment,"  a  serrnon,  1756. 

6.  "  An  Apology  for  certain  gentlemen  in  the  university  of 
0.2cfordt  aspersed  in  a  late  anonymous  Pampbl6t,"  1756, 
Svo.  7.  "  A  view  of  Mr.  Kennicott's  thethod  of  dorredtlhg 
tlie  Hebrew  Text,"  &c.  Oxford,  1760,  Svo.  «.  *^  Cbtisi- 
derations  on  the  Life  and  Death  of  St.  John  tbd' Baptist,** 
Oxford,  1772,  Svo.  This  '  pleasing  trac^t  contained  tb# 
fiubt^unce  of  several  senuons  preached  annually  at  Magdair 
fen^college^  in  Oxford,  tlie  course  of  which  bdd  commenced 
In  1755.  A  seeond,  edition  in  I2m05  v^ais  pubFislied  at 
Oxford  in  1777.  ^^  ^^  Considerations  ^n  the  projec<ted 
IS^eformaiaon  of  the  Church  of  England.  In  a  leltteir  ik>  thd 
right  boa  lord  North.  By  aclergymiin,"  Lottdtm^  1772, 
4tol  10.  <^  A  Commentary  on  ti^  Boob  of  PsIiiAvs,"  .&e. 
&e.  Oxford,,  1776^'  2  voki  4t6.  Reprinted  in  Svo,  in  1778, 
an4  three  tunes  sibee.  Witb  what  stMlsftietion  this  good 
man  composed  tbis  piooC'Worl,  may  best  b^  judged  fron^ 

Ahe  fcfttowtng  paamge  loiKs  prcfaeev    ^  CoVild  the  authofr. 

H  O  R  N  iX  17$ 

SfttU^c  hi/ns^if  that  any  one  would  bar«  batf  the  pleasure  in 
reading  the  following  exposition,  which  he  bath  had  in 
writing  it^  lie  would  not.fear  the  loss  of- his  labour.  Tho 
employniexit  detached  him  from  the  bustle  and  hurry  of 
life,  the  din  of  politics,  and  the  noise  of  folly;  Vanity 
and.  vexation  Sew  away  for  a'season,  care  and  disquietude 
Qame  not  near  his  dwelling.  He  arose  fre»h  as  the  nioi*ning 
tp  his  task;  the  silence  of  tlie  night  invited  him  to  pursue 
it.;  and  be  can  truly  say  that  food  and  rest  were  not  pre- 
ferred before  it.  Every  psalm  improved  infinitely  on  his' 
acquaintance  with  it,  and  no  one  g^fve  him  uneasiness  but 
tb^  iaat ;  for  then  be  grieved  that  his  work  was  done.  Hap- 
pier hours  than  thosewhich  have  been  spent  in  these  me- 
ditations on-  the  songs  of  Sion  he  never  expects  to  see  in. 
this  worl'J.  Very  pleasantly  did  they  pass,  and  move 
smoothly  and  swiftly  along ;  for  when  thus  engaged  he 
counted  no  timeu  They  are  gone^  but  have  left  a  relish 
and  a  fragrance  on  the  mind,  and  the  remembrance  of  them 
i^  sweet.'*  1 1.  **  A  Letter  to  Adam  Smith,  LL.  D.  on  the 
Life,  Death,  and  Philosophy  of  Dairid  Hume,  esq.  By 
one  of  the  people  called  Christians,'*  Oxford,  1777,  l!2mo, 
12.  ^^  Discourses  on  several  subjects  and  occasions,"  Ox«* 
ford,  1779,  2  vols.  8vo.  These  sermons  have  gone  through, 
five  editions.  13.  **  Letters  on  Infidelity,"  Oxford,  1784, 
12mo.  1 4  **  Tlie  Duty  of  contending  for  the  Faith,*"  Jude, 
ver.  3.  preached  at  the  primary  visitation  of  the  most  re- 
verend John  lord  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  July  i,  1786. 
To  which  is  subjoined,  a  *^  Discourse  on  the  Trinity  in 
Unity,  Mattb^  xxviii.  19."  1786,  4to.  These  sermons, 
with  fourteen  others  preached  on  particular  occasions,  and 
all  published  separately,  were  collected  into  one  volume, 
8vo,  at,  Oxford,  in  1795.  The  two  have  also  been  pub- 
lisjied  in  12mo,  by  the  society  for  promoting  Christian 
knowledge,  and  are  amoug  the  books  distributed  by  that 
SQciety.  15.  "  A  letter  to  the  rev.  Dr.  Priestley,  by  an 
Undergraduate,"  Oxford,  1787.  16.  *' Observations  on 
the  Case  of  the  Protestant  Dissenters,  with  reference  to 
the  Corporation  and  Test  Acts,"  Oxford,  1790,  8vo.  17. 
*'  Charge  intended  to  have  been  delivered  to  the  Clergy 
of  Norwich,  at  the  primary  visitation,"  1791,  4to.  18. 
^^  Discourses  on  several  subjects  and  occasions,"  Oxford, 
17114,  8vo,  vols.  3  and  4.;  a  posthumous  publication.  The 
four  volumes  have  since  been  reprinted  in  an  uniform  edi- 
tion ;  and  lately  an  uniform  edition  of  these  £fnd  his  other 
works,  with  his  life,  by  Mr.  Jones,  has  been  printed  in  6 

174  H  O  R  N  E: 


Tols.  8vo;  Besides  these,  might  be  enninerited  several 
occasional  papers  in  different  periodical  publications,  but 
particularly  the  papers  signed  Z.  in  the  ^^  Olla  Podriday** 
a  periodical  work,  conducted  by  Mr.  T.  Monro,  then  ba- 
chelor t)f  arts,  and  a  demy  of  Magdalen  college,  Oxford. ' 
HORNECK  (Dr.  Anthony),  an  English  divine,  was 
born  at  Baccbai*ack,  a  town  in  the  Lower  Palatinate,  in 
1641.  His  father  was  recorder  or  secretary  of  that  town, 
-a  strict  protestant ;  and  the  doctor  was  brought  up  in  the 
^ame  manner,  though  some,  we  find,  asserted  that  he  was 
originally  a  papist.  He  was  design<ed  for  the  sacred  mi-*' 
nistry  from  his  birth,  and  first  sent  to  Heidelberg,  where 
he  studied  divinity  under  Spanheiro,  afterwards  professor 
at  Leyden.  When  he  was  nineteen  he  came  over  ta 
England,  and  was  entered  of  Queen^s  college,  in  Oxford, 
Dec.  1663;  of  which,  by  the  interest  of  Barlow,  then  pro- 
vost of  that  college,  and  afterwards  bishop  of  Lincoln,  he 
was  made  chaplain  soon  after  his  admission.  He  was  in- 
corporated M.  A.  from  the  university  of  Wittemberg,  Dec. 
1663 ;  and  not  long  after  made  vicar  of  All  Saints,  in  Ox* 
ford,  a  living  in  the  gift  of  Lincoln- col  lege.  Here  he  con- 
tinued two  years,  and  was  then  taken  into  the  family  of 
the  duke  of  Albemarle,  in  quality  of  tutor  to  his  son  lord 
Torrington.  The  duke  presented  him  to  the  rectory  of 
Doulton,  in  Devonshire,  aud  procured  him  also  a  prebend 
in  the  church  of  Exeter.  In  1669,  before  he  married,  he 
went  over  into  Germany  to  see  his  friends,  where  he  was, 
much  admired  as  a  preacher,  and  was  entertained  with 
great  respect  at  the  court  of  the  elector  Palatine.  At  his 
return  in  1671,  he  was  chosen  preacher  in  the  Savoy^ 
where  he  continued  to  officiate  till  he  died  *.    This,  how-  . 

*  He  bad  been  recommeiMled  for  tbe  Garden  to  Dr.  Horneck  iire  not  easy  t« 

livingofCovent-garden;  but  the  parish  be  aisigoed  at  this  distance  of  tine. 

was  so  averse  to  him,  ibat  Tillotson  But  their  dislike  to  him  was  the  mor^ 

said,  if  tbe  earl  of  Bedford  had  liked  extraordinary,  considering  his  prodi*  • 

him,  be  could  not  have  have  thought  g ions  popularity,  on  account  of  liin 

It  fit  to  bestow  the  living  on  him,  reputation  for  piety,  and  his  pathetic 

"  knowing  how  necessary  it  is  to  the  sermons,  bis  church  at  the  Savoy  beio|; 

good  effect  of  a  man's  ministry,  that  crowded  by  auditors  from  the  most 

he  do  not  lie  under  any  great  prejudice  remote  parts,  which  oocasioned  deaa: 

with  the  people."    Dr.  Birch  remarks  ?reeman  to  say  that  Dr.  H.*s  parisk  " 

en  this,  that  the  grounds  of  the  great  was  much  the  lai:gest  in  (own,  since  it  * 

averseness   in  the  parish  of  Covent  reached  fromWbiteball  to  Whitechapel.  , 

1  Life  by  the  Rev.  W.  Jones. — See  some  valuable  remarks  on  his  cha« 
raeter  in  Dr.  Gieig's  Supplement  to  the  Ency clop.  Britannica.— Gent.  Ma£^»  ' 

LXII,  LXIII,   and    LXVI ^Boswell's    Life   of  Johnson.— Forbes's    Life    or' 

Beattie,  &c.  &c.    To  his  works  may  be  added^  «  Considerations  on  the  Life  and  «K 
Death  of  Abel,  Enoch  and  Noah,"  Mvao,  1819,  a  work  which  we  happieoed 
ioBte  io  time  to  intcft  ia  tlM  texK 

H  O  R  N  E  C  K.  175 

ever,  was  but  poor  maintenance,  the  salary  being  small  as 
well  as  precarious,  and  he   continued   in  mean   circuro* 
stances  for  some  years  after  the  revolution ;  till,  as  his 
biographer,  bishop  Kidder,  says,  it  pleased  God  to  raise  up 
a  friend  who  concerned   himself  on  his  behalf,  namely, 
the  lord  admiral  Russel,  afterwards  earl  of  Orford.    Before 
he  went  to  sea,  lord  Kussel  waited  on  the  queen  to  take 
leave ;  and  when  he  was  with  her,  begged  of  her  that  she 
**  would  be  pleased  to  bestow  some  preferment  on  Dr. 
Horneck.'*     The  queen  told  him,  that  she  "  could  not  at 
present  think  of  any  way  of  preferring  the  doctor ;"  and 
with  this  answer  the  admiral  was  disinissed.     Some  time 
after,  the  queen  related  what  had  passed  to  archbishop 
Tillotson ;  and  added,  that  she  ^*  was  anxious  lest  the  ad« 
miral  should  think  her  too  unconcerned  on  the  doctor's 
behalf.*'     Consulting  with  him  therefore  what  was  to  be. 
done,  Tillotson  advised  her  to  promise  him  the  next  pre* 
bend  of  Westminster  that  should  happen  to  become  void. 
This  the  queen  did,  and  lived  to  make  good  her  word  in  , 
1693.     In  1681  he  had  commenced  D.  D«  at  Cambridge* 
and  was  afterwards  made  chaplain  to  king  William  and 
queen  Mary.     His  prebend  at  Exeter  lying  at  a  great  dis- 
tance from  him,  he  resigned  it;  and  in  Sept   1694  was 
admitted  to  a  prebend  in  the  church  of  Weils,  to  which 
he  was  presented  by  his  friend  Dr.  Kidder,  bishop  of  Bath 
arid  Wells.     It   was   no  very  profitable  thing ;  and  if  it 
hiad  been,  he  would  have  enjoyed  but  little  of  it,  since  he 
died   so  soon  after  as  Jan.  1696,  in  his  fifty-sixth  year. 
His  body  being  opened,  it  appeared  that  both  bis  ureters 
were  stopped  ;  the  one  by  a  scone  that  entered  the  top  of 
the  ureter  with  a  sharp  end  ;  the  upper  part  of  which  was 
thick,  and  much  too  large  to  enter  any  farther ;  the  other 
by  stones  of  much  less  firmness  and  consistence.     He  was 
interred  hi  Westminster- abbey,  where  a  monument,  with 
an  handsome  inscription  upon  it,  was  erected  to  his  memory. 
•  He  was,  says  Kidder,  a  man  of  very  good  learning,  and 
liad  good  skill  in  the  languages.     He  had  applied  himself 
to  the  Arabic  from  his  youth,  and  retained  it  to  his  death* 
Jle  had  great  skill  in  the  Hebrew  likewise:  nor  was  his 
skill  limited  to  the  Biblical  Hebrew  only,  but  he  was  also 
a  great  master  in  the  Rabbinical.     He  was  a  most  diligent; 
and  indefatigable  reader  of  the  Scriptures  in  the  original 
languages :  **  Sacras  literas  tractavit  indefesso  studio,**  says 
Aits  tutor  Spanheim  of  him :  and  adds,  ^hat  he  was  then 

176'  BORNE  C  K. 


of  ait  elevated  wit^  of  which  he  gave  a  specrimen  in  1659, 
by  publicly  defending  "A  Dissertation  upon  the  Vow  of 
Jephthah  concerning,  the  sacriBce  of  bis  daughter."     He 
had  great  skill  in  ecclesiastical  history,  in  controversikl  and. 
casuistical  divinity ;  and  it  is  said,  that  few  men  were  so^ 
frequently  consulted  in  cases  of  conscience  as  Dr.  liorueck. 
As  to  his  pastoral  cai^e  in  ail  its  hranches,  he  is  set  forth 
as  on^  of  the  greatest  exaunples  that  ever  lived.     ^^  He  had 
the  zeal,  the  spirit,  the  courage,  of  John   the  Baptist,'* 
says  Kidder,  "  and  durst  reprove  a  great  man ;  and  pier- 
haps  that  man  lived  not,  that  was  more  conscientious  in' 
this  matter.      I  very  well  knew  a  great  man,''  say^  the 
bishop,  *^  and  peer  of  the  realm,  from  whom  he  had  just 
expectations  of  preferment ;  but  this  was*  so  far  from  stop- 
ping his  mouth,  that  he  reproved  him  to  his  face,  upon  a- 
very  critical  affair.     He  missed  of  Ills  preferment,  indeed, 
but  saved  his  own  soul.     This  freedom,"  continues   the 
bishop,  ^'  made  hi^  acquaintance  aud  friendship  very  de- 
sirable* by  every  good  man,  that  would  be  better.     He 
would  ip  him  be  very  sure  of  a  friend,  that  would  not  suf- 
fer sin  upon  him.     I  may  say  of  him  what  Pliny  says  of 
Corellius  Rufus,  whose  death  he  laments,  *  amisi  meise  vit® 
testem,'  &c*     *  I  have  lost  a  faithful  witness  of  my  life  ;V 
and  may  add  what  he  said  upon  that  occasion  to  his  friend 
Calvisius,  *  vereor  ne  negligentius  vivam,'  ^  I  am  afraid  lest 
for  the  time  to  come  I  should  live  more  carelessly.' "    His 
original  works  are,  1.  ^*  The  great  Law  of  Consideration : 
or,  a  discourse  wherein  the  nature,  usefulness,  and  abso- 
lute necessity  of  consideration,  in  order  to  a  truly  serious 
and   religious  life,  are  laid  open,"   London,   1676,  8vo, 
which  h^s  been  several  times  reprinted  with  additions  and  . 
corrections.   2.  ^*  A  letter  to  a  lady  revolted  to  the  Uomish 
church,"   London,  J 678,  12mo.     3.  "The  happy  Asce- 
tick:  or  the  best  Exercise,"  London,   1681,  8vo.    To  this 
is  subjoined,  "  A  letter  to  a  person  of  quality  concerning 
the  holy  Uvea  of  the  primitive  Christians."     4.  "  Delight 
and  Judgment :  or  a  prospect  of  the  great  day  of  Judg« 
ment,  and  its  power  to  damp  and  inibitter  sensual  delights,^ 
aports,  and  recreations,"  London,  1683,  12mo.    5.  "The 
Fire  of  the  Altar :  or  certain  directions  how  to  raise  the 
soul  into  holy  flames,  before,  at,   and  after  the  receiv- 
ing of  the  blessed  Sacrament  of  the  Lord*s  Supper :  with 
suitable  prayers  and  devotions,"  London,  1683,  12mo.  To  ^ 
this  is  prefixed,  "  A  Dialogue  between  a  Christian  and  hia 

•       H  O  R  N  E  C  K.  iti 

own  Conscience,  touching  the  true  nature  of  the  Cbristiaa 
Beligion."  6.  "  The  Exercise  of  Prayer ;  or  a  help  to  de-^ 
votion ;  being  a  supplement  to  the  Happy  Ascetick,  or 
best  exercise,  containing  prayers  and  devotions  suit-^- 
able  to  the  respective  exercises,  with  additional  prayers 
for  several  occasions,"  London,  1685,  8vo.  7.^' The  first 
fruits  of  Reason  :  or,  a  discouse  shewing  the  necessity  of 
applying  ourselves  betimes  to  the  serious  practice  of  Re-^ 
ligion,"  London,  1685,  Svo.  8.  **The  Crucified  Jesus: 
or  a  full  account  of  the  nature,  end,  design,  and  benefit  of 
the  Sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  with  necessary  di^^ 
rections,  prayers,  praises,  and  meditations,  to  he  used  by 
persons  who  come  to  the  holy  communion,"  London,  1686, 
8vo.  9*  ^'  Questions  and  Answers  concerning  the  ^ two 
Religions ;  viz.  that  of  the  Church  of  England  and  of  the 
Church  of  Rome."  10.  "  An  Answer  to  the  Soldier's  Ques- 
tion :  What  shall  we  do  ?"  11.  Several  single  Sermons* 
12.  ^<  Fifteen  Sermons  upon  the  fifth  chapter  of  St.  Mat^* 
thew,"  London,   1698,  8 vo.  ; 

Besides  these  he  translated  out  of  German  into  English^ 
**  A  wonderful  story  or  narrative  of  certain  Swedish  wri- 
ters," printed  in  GlanviPs  ^^  Sadduci&mus  Triumphatus ;" 
in  the  second  edition  of  which  l)ook  is  a  *^  Preface  to  the 
wonderful  story,''  with  an  addition  of  a  ^^  new  relation  from 
Sweden,"  translated  by  him  out  of  German.     He  trans* 
iated  likewise  from  French  into  English,  <^  An  Antidote 
against  a  careless  indi£Ferency  in  matters  of  Religion ;  in 
opposition  to  those  who  believe  that  all  religions  are  alike, 
and  that  it  imports  not  what  men  profess,"  London,  1693^ 
with  an  introduction  written  by  himself.    He  collected  and 
published  ^^  Some  discourses,    sermons,    and  remains  of 
Mr.  Joseph  Glanvil>"  /in  1681.  He  wrote  likewise,  in  con-* 
junction  with  Dr.  Gilbert  Burnet,  ^'  The  last  Confession^ 
Prayers,  and  Meditations,  of  Lieutenant  John  Stern,  de-« 
livered  by  him  on  the  cart,  immediately  before  his  execu** , 
tioD,  to  Dr.  Burnet:  together  with  the  last  Confession  of 
George  Borosky,  signed  by  him  in  the  prison,  and  sealed 
up  in  the  lieutenant's  pacquet.     With  which  an  aiccoutit  is 
giv^,n  of  their  deportment,  both  in  the  prison,  and  at  the 
place  of  their  execution,  which  was  in  the  PalUmall,  on 
the  lOth  pf  March,  in  the  same  place  in  which  they  had 
murdered  Thomas  Tbynne,  esq.  on  the  12th  of  February  be- 
fore, in  1 68 1."  This  was  published  at  London,  infolio,  1682.* 

•  AtB.  Ox.  Tol.  H.— Life  by  Bp.  Kidder,  Svo.  1693.— Birch's  Life  of  TilloUon, 

\0L.  XVIII.  N 

17S  H  O  R  N  I  U  & 

HORNIUS  (Georqe),  an  historian  in  the  t7tb  cen- 
tury, was  bora  Ui  the  Psaiatinate.  He  visited  most  of  the 
catuitries  in  £urp{ie ;  was  tutor  to  Tliomas  Morgan,  a  young 
English  gentleman  who  lived  at  the  Hague ;  and  appointed 
professor  of  history,  politics,  and  geography,  at  Harder- 
wick  ;  afterwards  professor  of  history  at  Leyden,  where, 
having  sustained  a  great  loss  by  coniiding  in  an  alchemical 
iiapostor,  he  became  deranged,  and  died  in  1670.  Hia 
principal  works  are,  ^*  An  Ecclesia3tical  History,"  with  an 
introduction  to  the  universal  political  history ;  a  curious 
and  instructive  work,  which  has  been  translated  into  French, 
^nd  continued  to  1704.  ^*The  History  of  England,  dur-« 
ing  the  year  1645,  and  1646,'^  Leyden,  1648, 8vo.  ^<  History 
of  the  Origin  of  the  Americans,**  Hague,  1652,  8vo.  <^  His* 
tory  of  Philosophy,'*  in  seven  books,  1655,  4to.  An  edi<^ 
tion  of  *^  Sulpitius  Severus,**  with  notes,  8vo.  ^^  Noah*s 
Ark,**  or,  A  History  of  Monarchies.  This  work  is  full  of 
curious  inquiries  into  the  origin  of  each  monarchy,  &c.  The 
above  are  all  in  Latin. ' 

HORREBOW  (Peter),  a  celebrated  Danish  astPono-r 
fner,  and  professor  of  that  science  at  Copenhagen,  was 
born  at  Laegsted,  in  Jutland,  in  1679.  He  studied  at  AaU 
burg  under  very  unfavourable  circumstances,  beingobliged, 
at  the  same  period,  to  submit  to  various  kinds  of  labour. 
In  1 7 1 4,  he  was  appointed  professor  of  mathematics  at  Co* 
peuh«^en,  and  in  17.25  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
Danish  academy  of  sciences.  He  died  in  1 764.  He  was 
author  of  many  works  connected  with  his  favourite  pur?- 
suits,  among  which  were  ^*  Copernicus  Triumphans,  sive 
de  Parallaxi  Orbis  Annui;*'  ii|  which  he  shews  himself  an  en-> 
thusiast  fdr  the  system  of  Copernicus ;  the  **  Elements  of  As^ 
tronomy;*'  and  ^<  the  Elements  of  Mathematics  ;**  but  he  is 
best  known  in  this  country  by  his  *^  Natural  History  of  Ice«- 
land,*'  fol.  1758.  His  mathematical  works  were  published 
in  four  vols,  4to,  Copenhagen,  1735,  &c.' 

HORROX  (Jeremiah),  an  English  astronomer,  and 
memorable  for  being  the  first  who  had  observed  the  pas- 
sage of  Venus  over  the  sun*s  di^k,  was  born  at  Toxteth  in 
Lancashire,  about  1619.  From  a  school  in  the  country^ 
where  he  acquired  grammanr-leai*ning,  he  was  sent  to 
£manael^ollege  in  Cambridge,  and  there  spent  some  time 

.  1  Morerh«-^Freher|  TliMtrttm.~Fop||en  BibU  Belf  .•■^Saxii  Oaomait 
•  Diet,  HiiU 

H  O  R  R  O  X.  17» 

io  academical  studies.  About  1633,  he  began  with  real 
earnestness  to  study  astronomy :  but  liring  at  chat  tima 
lirith  his  father  at  Toxtetb^  in  very  moderate  circumstance*, 
and  being  destitute  of  books  and  other  assistances  for  the^ 
prosecution  of  this  study,  he  could  not  make  any  coniider<i< 
able  progress.  He  spent  some  of  his  first  years  in  study-^ 
ing  the  writirrgs  of  LansbergiuSi  of  which  be  repented  and 
complained  afterwards ;  neglecting  in  the  mean  time  the 
more  vtduable  and  profitable  works  of  Tycbo  Brabe,  Kep* 
ler,  and  other  excellent  astronomers.  In  1636,  he  coti-» 
tracted  an  acquaintance  with  Mr.  William  Crabtree  of 
Broughton  near  Manchester,  and  was  engaged  in  the  satne^ 
studies ;  but  -liYing  at  a  considerable  distance  from  each 
other,  they  could  have  little  correspondence  except  by 
letteril  These,  however,  they  frequently  exchanged,  com* 
municating  their  obserrations  to  one  another^  and  they 
sometimes  consulted  Mr.  Samuel  Foster,  professor  of  as* 
trqnomy  at  Gresham-college  in  London.  Horrox  having 
now  obtained  a  companion  in  his  studies,  assumed  ne^ 
spirits.  Procuring  astronomical  instruments  and  books,  he 
applied  himself  to  make  observations ;  and  by  Crabtree*s 
advice,  laid  aside  Lansbergius,  whose^  tables  be  found  er- 
roneous, and  his  hypotheses  inconsistent  He  was  pursuing 
his  studies  with  great  vigour  and  success,  when  he  was  ctit 
o£Fby  a  sadden  death,  Jan.  3,  1640«). 

What  we  have  of  his  writings  b  sufficient  to  shew,  that 
his  death  was  a  loss  to  science.  A  little  before  that  time 
he  had  finished  his  ^^  Venus  in  Sole  visa.'*  He  made  his 
observations  upon  this  new  and  extraordinary  phenomenon 
1^  Hool  near  Liverpool ;  but  they  did  not  appear  till  166^, 
.when  Hevdius  published  tbem  at  Dantzick,  with  some 
works  of  his  own,  under  this  title,  ^*Mercurius  in  Sole 
^siis  Gedanianno  1661,  Maij  3,  cum  aliis  quibusdam  re« 
rum  ccelestium  observationibua  rarisque  phsenomenis.  Cox 
s^nexa  est  Venus  in  Sole  pariter  visa  anno  1639,  Nov.  24^ 
4ic/*  Besides  this  work  be  bad  begun  another,  in  which 
he  propoiied,  first,  to  refute  Lansbergius*  s  hypotheses,  and 
to  shew,  how  inconsistent  they  were  with  each  other  and 
the  heavens ;  and,  secondly,  to  diuw  up  a  new  system  of 
astronomy,  agreeably  to  the  heavens,  firbm  his  own  ob^ 
servations  and  those  of  others ;  retaining  for  the  most  part 
ibit  Kepleiian  hypotheses,  but  changing  the  numbers  aa 
observations  required*     Wallis,  from  whose   **  Epistola 

N  2 

180  H  O  R  R  O  X. 

NuQcUpatoria^'  we  have  extracted  these  memoirs  of  Hor" 
rox,  published  some  of  his  papers  in  1673,  under  the  title 
of  ^^  Opera  Posthuma :''  others  were  carried  into  Ireland 
by  his  brother  Jonas  Horrox,  who  had  pursued  the  same 
studies,  and  died  there,  by  which  means  they  were  lost  r 
and  others  came  into  the  bands  of  Mr.  Jeremiah  Shakerly, 
who,  by  the  assistance  of  them,  formed  his  **  British  Ta- 
bles," published  at  London  in  1643  :  which  last  papers, 
after  Shakerly's  voyage  to  the  East-Indies,  where  he  died, 
are  said  to  have  remained  in  the  possession  of  a  book- 
seller, till  they  were  destroyed  by  the  great  fire  at  London 
in  1666.^ 

HORSLEY  (John),  author  of  a  very  learned  and  excel- 
lent work,  entitled,  ^^  Britannia  Romana,"  by  which  only 
he  is  known,  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  native  of  North- 
umberland, where,  at  a  village  called  Long-Horsley,  near 
Morpeth,  the  family,  in  all  probability,  originated.  This 
parent  stock,  if  such  it  was,  is  now  lost  in  the  Withering- 
tons,  by  the  marriage  of  the  heiress  of  Long-Horsley,  about 
the  middle  of  this  century,  with  a  person  of  that  name.- 
We  know  only  of  two  other  branches  j  one  settled  in  York- 
shire, the  other  in  the  West,  from  which  latter,  we  under- 
stand the  late  learned  bishop  of  St.  Asaph  to  have  sprung ; 
but  the  branches  have,  been  so  long  separated,  that  they 
cannot  trace  their  relationship  to  each  other.  John  Hors- 
ley  was  educated  in  the  public  grammar-school  at  Newcas- 
tle, and  afterwards  in  Scotland,  where  he  took  a  degree  ; 
he  was  finally  settled  at  Morpeth,  and  is  said,  in  Hutchin- 
son^ s  View  of  Northumberland,  to  have  been  pastor  to  ai 
dissenting  congregation  in  that  place.  The  same  author 
adds,  from  Ra-ndali's  manuscripts,  that  he  died  in  1732, 
which  was  the  same  year  in  which  his  great  work  appeared ; 
but  the  truth  is,  as  we  learn  from  the  journals  of  the  time, 
that  he  died  Dec.  12,  1731,  a  short  time  before  the  pub- 
lication of  his  book.  He  was  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society. 
A  few  letters  from  him  to  Roger  Gale,  esq.  on  antiquarian 
subjects,  are  inserted  in  Hutchinson's  book ;  they  are  all 
dated  in  1729.  His  *^  Britannia  Romana^'  gives  a  full  and 
learned  account  of  the  remains  and  vestiges  of  the  Romans 
in  Britain.     It  iis  divided  into  three  books ;  the  first  con- 

1  Oen.  Dicti^Martin's  Biog.  PbiIo8.-^Httttoii'8  Diet.— Birctff  Hist  of  the 
Heyal  Society.  > 

B  O  R  S  L  E>  Y,  181 

laining  '^  the  History  of  all  the  Roman  Transactions  in 
Britain,  with  an  account  of  their  legionary  and  auxiliary 
forces  employed  here,  and  a  determination  of  the  stations 
per  lineam  valli ;  also  a  large  description  of  the  Roman 
walls,  with  maps  of  the  same,  laid  down  from  a  geometri- 
cal survey."  The  second  book  contains,  "  a  complete 
collection  of  the  Roman  inscriptions  and  sculptures,  which 
have  hitherto  been  discovered  in  Britain,  with  the  letters 
engraved  in  their  proper  shape,  and  proportionate  size, 
and  the  reading  placed  under  each  ;  as  also  an  historical 
account  of  them,  with  explanatory  and  critical  observa- 
tions." The  third  book  contains,  ^^  the  Roman  Geography 
of  Britain,  in  which  are  given  the  originals  of  Ptolemy, 
Antonini  Itinerarium,  the  Notitia,  the  anonymous  Raven- 
nas,  and  Peutinger's  Table,  so  far  as  they  relate  to  this 
island,  with  particular  essays  on  each  of  those  ancient  au- 
thors, and  the  several  places  in  Britain  mentioned  by 
them,"  with  tables,  indexes,  &c.  Such  is  the  author's 
own  account  in  his  title-page ;  and  the  learned  of  all  coun«- 
tries  have  testified  that  the  accuracy  of  the  execution  has 
equalled  the  excellence  of  the  plan.  The  plates  of  this 
work  were  purchased  of  one  of  his  descendants  for  twenty 
guineas  by  Dr.  Gifford,  for  the  British  Museum,  where  is 
a  copy  of  the  work,  with  considerable  additions  by  Dr. 

HORSLEY  (Samuel),  a  very  learned  and  highly  dis- 
tinguished prelate,  was  the  son  of  the  rev.  John  Horsley, 
M,  A.  who  was  many  years  clerk  in  orders  at  St.  Martin's  in 
the  Fields.  His  grandfather  is  said  to  have  been  at  first 
a  dissenter,  but  afterwards  conformed,  and  had  the  living 
of  St.  Martin's  in  the  Fields.  This  last  circumstance,  how- 
ever, must  be  erroneous,  as  no  such  name  occurs  in  the 
list  of  the  vicars  of  that  church.  His  father  was  in  1745 
presented  to  the  rectory  of  Thorley  in  Hertfordshire,  where 
he  resided  constantly,  and  was  a  considerable  benefactor 
to  the  parsionage.  He  also  held  the  rectory  of  Newington 
Butts,  in  Surrey,  a  peculiar  belonging  to  the  bishop  of 
Worcester.  By  his  first  wife,  Anpe,  daughter  of  Dr.  Ha- 
milton, principal  of  the  college  of  Edinburgh,  he  had  only 
one  son,  the  subject  of  the  present  article,  who  was  bora 
in  his  father's  residence  in  St.  Martin's  church-yard,  in 
Oct.  1733.    By  bis  second  wife,  Mary,  daughter  of  George 

}  NicboU'g  Bpwycr* 

nt  R  o  R  s  L  E  t: 

l/eilte,  esq.  of  Kimragie  in  Scotland,  he  had  three  sons  and 
four  daughters,  who  were  all  born  at  Thorley.  He  died 
in  1777,  aged  seventy-eight;  and  his  widow  io  1787,  at 
Masing  in  Essex. 

Samuel  was  educated  in  his  early  years  chiefly  by  his 
lather,  and  we  are  assured,  never  was  at  Westminster 
school,  as  has  been  asserted ;  but  of  this  and  the  other 
transactions  of  his  youth,  his  studies,  and  early  character, 
we  have  very  few  particulars  that  can  be  depended  on,  and 
have  failed  in  obtaining  information  on  these  subjects  from 
the  only  quarter  whence  it  could  have  been  expected.  It 
if  certain,  however,  that  be  was  entered  of  Trinity  "hall, 
Cambridge^  where  it  is  easy  to  conceive  that  be  was  .an 
industrious  student,  applying  himself  much  to  the  study  of 
matheoiatics,  and  storing  his  mind  wilh  the  writings  of  the 
anoient  and  modern  divines  and  logicians.  Why  "with 
aneh  qualifications  he  took  no  degree  in  arts,  cannot  now 
he  ascertained.  We  find  only  that  he  took  that  of  LL.  B* 
in  1758,  and  became  bis  father^s  curate  at  Newmgton,  to 
which  living  he  succeeded,  on  the  resignation  of  his  fether, 
in  the  following  year,  and  held  it  till  bis  translation  to  the 
see  of  Rochester  in  1793. 

In  April  1767,  be  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  royal  so«« 
ciety,  of  which  he  continued  for  .many  years  an  active 
member ;  and  in  the  same  year  he  published  a  pamphlet, 
entitled  ^*  The  power  of  God,  deduced  from  the  compu- 
table instantaneous  productions  of  it  in  the  Solar  Sj^tena,** 
8vo.  This  he  allows  to  be  a  *^  very  singular,  and  perhaps 
a  whimsical  speculation,''  and  says,  in  language  not  un« 
characteristic  of  his  future  style,  that  in  all  probability  Ibis 
production  would  ^*  roll  down  the  gutter  of  titn^,  for^ten 
and  neglected.''  His  object  was  undoubtedly  to  ^play 
the  wonderful  power  of  God ;  but  it  was  thought  that  he 
magnified  omnipotent  power  at  the  expence  of  omniscient 
wisdom,  and  instead  of  supposing  that  the  planets  continue 
for  ever  to  perform  their  courses,  in  consequence  of  the 
almighty ^/!a/,  and  original  impulse  impressed  upon  them^ 
when  first  they  were  drawn  out  of  chaos,  he  maintains  the 
necessity  of  a  new  force  every  instant  to  preserve  the  sys- 
tem in  motion. 

In  1768  be  went  to  Christ  church,  Oxford,  as  private 
tutor  to  Heneage  earl  o^  A}4esbury,  then  lord  Guernsey. 
To  this  university  he  appears  ta  hay^  become  attached  ; 
and  bis  first  mathematical  publication  was  elegantly  printed 

H  O  R  S  L  S  ¥.  .1^ 

at  the  Onfeaidoii  presi^  ^'  Apollonii  Pergaei  iBclinSktioniiai 
Ubfiiluo.  Restiiuebftt  S*  Horsley/'  1770.  This  work  was 
criticised  ^  with  some  severity  at  the  time,  bat  does  not 
appear  to  have  mjiirred  his  rising  reputatioi^^  especially 
with  the  oiettbers  of  the  royal  society,  who  chose  hirq  ^to 
the  aSkce  of  secretary  ia  November  1773.  In  1774  be 
was  ificorporated  B.  C.  L.  at  Oxford,  and  idamediately  pro«* 
ceeded  to  the  degree  of  D.  C  L.  and  was  presented  by  hii 
patron,  the  earl  of  Aylesbury,  to  the  rectory  of  Aldbury  in 
jSiirrey^  with  which  be  obtained  a  dispensation  to  bold  the 
rectory  of  Newhigton.  In  tfa^  sai»e  .year  be  pnbiisbed 
^^  Eeinadrks  on  the  Observations  made  in  the  late  Voyagie 
towards  the  North  Pole,  for  determining  the  acceleration 
of  the  Pendulum,  in  latitude  79*^  5i\  In  a  letter  to  the 
faon.  Constantine  John  Phtpps,"  4to.  His  intention  in  this 
pamphlet,  which  oug^evei*  to  be  bound  up  with  ^^  Pbipps's 
Voya^,'*  is  to  correct  two  or  three  important  errors  and 
inaccuracies  that  bod  been  introduced,  by  Israel  Lyons^ 
the  mathematician  aiaployed  oa  the  voyage,  in  the  nume- 
roits  matfaei»atical  calcuktioad  which  appear  in  that  valua- 
ble work ;  and  this  it  was  acknowledged,  was  performed  by 
imr  learned  aiAbor  with  equal  skill,  delicacy,  and  candour. 
Dr.  Horsley  bad  long  medita/ted  a  complete  edition  of 
the  woriss  of  sir  I«aac  Newton,  and  in  1776  issued  proposiaki 
for  printing  it^  by  sttbscription,  in  5  vols.  4to,  having  ob-^ 
tained  the  royal  permtssioa  lo  dedicate  it  to  bis  miyesty ; 
but  the  commencenefit  of  it  was  for  a  considerable  timo 
delayed  by  severe  domestic  affliction,  arising  from  the  ill-' 
neas  of  his  wife,  for  f^iom  he  had  the  tenderest  regard. 
She  died  in  the  fotiowing  year,  and  some  time  after,  the 
works  of.  Newton  were  put  to  press,  bat  were  not  finally 
completed  until  1785.  In  the  mean  time  his  great  dili« 
genee  and  proficiency  in  various  sciences  attracted  the  no- 
tice of  an  excellent  judge  of  literary  merit,  the  late  Dr« 
Lowfh^  bishop  of  London,  who  on  his  promotion  to  that 
see?  i»  1777,  i^^ointed^  Dr.  Horsley  his  domestic  chaplain  ; 
and  eoUai^d  him  to  a  prebend  in  St.  PauVs  cathedral.  He 
abo^  by  the  same  interest^  s  acceeded  his  father  as  clerk  in 
ordera  aft  St  Maif tin's  in  the  Fields, 

.  In  1 77 ^i  dttHng the  controversy  between  Piiestley,- Price, 
aod  others,'  fesped^ing  materialism,  and  philosophical  ne^ 
cesaily,^.  Dn  Honiley  preached  a  sermon,  on  Good  Friday^ 
Ajffiik  17)  entitled  *^  Providience  and  free  Agei»cy/'  4to,.  ia- 
wbiofar  be  chnsw  a  very  aimte  distinction^  between  the  phikn 


184  B  0  R  S  L  E  Y. 

sophical  necessity  of  our  subtle  moderns,  and  the  predets-* 
tination  of  their  ancestors.  It  was  evident  he  had  an  eye 
to  the  writings  of  Dr.  Priestley  in  this  discourse,  but  that 
polemic  did  not  take  any  immediate  notice  of  it.  In  1779, 
Dr.  Horsley  resigned  Aldbury,  and  in  17309  bishop  Lowth 
presented  him  to  the  living  of  Thorley,  which  he  held,  by 
dispensation,  with  Newington,  but  resigned  the  former  on 
being  appointed  archdeacon  of  Essex,  and,  in  1782,  vicar 
of  South  Weald/ in  that  county,  both  which  he  owed  to 
the  same  patron.  In  1783,  we  find  him  deeply  involved 
in  a  dispute  with  some  of  the  members  of  the  royal  society, 
not  worth  reviving  in  a  regular  narrative ;  it  is  only  to  be 
regretted  that  it  ended  in  his  withdrawing  himself  from 
the  society. 

Dr.  Horsley  was  now  about  to  enter  on  that  controversy 
with  Dr.  Priestley,  in  which  he  displayed  his  greatest  learn- 
ing and  abilities,  and  on  which  his  fame  is  irremoveably 
founded.  In  the  year  1782  (we  use  Dr.  Horsley's  words), 
an  open  and  vehement  attack  was  made  by  Dr.  Priestley 
upon  the  creeds  and  established  discipline  of  every  church 
in  Christendom,  in  a  work  in  2  vols.  8vo,  entitled  a  '<  His- 
tory of  the  Corruptions  of  Christianity."  At  the  head  of 
these  Dr.  Priestley  placed  both  the  catholic  doctrine  of 
our  Lord's  divinity,  and  the  Arian  notion  of  his  pre-extst- 
ence  in  a  nature  far  superior  to  the  human^  representing 
the  Socinian  doctrine  of  his  mere  humanity,  as  the  unani*- 
inous  faith  of  the  first  Christians.  It  seemed  to  Dr.  Hors- 
ley that  the  most  effectual  preservative  against  the  in- 
tended mischief  would  be  to  destroy  the  writer's  credit, 
and  the  authority  of  his  name,  which  the  fame  of  certain 
lucky  discoveries  in  the  prosecution  of  physical  experi- 
ments had  set  high  in  popular  esteem,  by  a  proof  of  his 
incompetency  in  every  branch  of  literature  connected  with 
his  present  subject,  of  which  <the  work  itself  afforded  evi- 
dent specimens  in  great  abundance.  For  this  declared 
purpose,  a  review  of  the  imperfections  of  his  work  in  the 
first  part,  relating  to  our  Lord's  divinity,  was  made  the 
subject  of  Dr.  Horsley^s  Charge,  delivered  to  the  clergy  of 
the  archdeaconry  of  St.  Alban -s  at  a  visitation  held  May  22, 
1783,  the  spring  next  following  Dr.  Priestley's  publication. 
The  specimens  alledged  by  Dr.  Horsley  of  the  imperfec- 
tions of  the  work,  and  the  incompetency  of  the  author, 
may  be  reduced  to  six  general  classes.  I.  Instances  of 
yeasouing  in  a  circle#    2.  Instances  of  quotations  mi^ap^* 

H  O  R  S  L  E  Y.  18& 

plied  through  ignorance  of  the  writer\<i  subject..  3.  Iu« 
Glances  of  testimonies  perverted  by  artful  and  forced  con- 
structions. 4.  Instances  of  passages  in  the  Greek  Fathers 
misinterpreted  through  ignorance  of  the  Greek  language. 
5.  Instances  of  passages  misinterpreted  through  the  same 
ignorance,  driven  further  out  of  the  way  by  an  ignorance 
of  the  Platonic  philosophy ;  and  6.  Instances  of  ignorance 
of  the  phraseology  of  the  earliest  ecclesiastical,  writers. 
Dr.  Horsley  concludes  this  masterly  and  argumentative 
Charge,  by  saying,  '^  I  feel  no  satisfaction  in  detecting  the 
weaknesses  of  this  learned  writer's  argument,  but  what 
arises  from  a  consciousness,  that  it  is  the  discharge  of  some 
part  of  the  duty  which  I  owe  to  th^  church  of  Ged."-  The 
whole  of  this  charge  affords  a  characteristic  specimen  of 
Dr.  Horsley' s  conti%)versial  style,  with  a  mixture  of  tem- 
per leading  him,  perhaps,  somewhat  nearer  the  bounds  of 
irony  than  became  the  solemnity  of  an  address  of  this  kind. 
After  speaking  of  many  things  that  may  be  perfectly  ob- 
vious to  the  peaetralion  of  such  a. mind  as  Dr.  Priestley's, 
how  absurd  and  contradictory  and,  improbable  soever  they 
may  appear  to  persons  of  plain  sense  and  common  under- 
standings, unsubtilized  by  sophistry  and  metaphysics,  and 
not  stimulated  by. the  love  of  paradox,  he  observes,  that,  to 
those  who  want  the  doctor's  sagacity,  the  ^^  true  meaning 
of  an  inspired  writer"  will  not  very  readily  be  deemed  "  to 
be  the  reverse  of  the  natural  and  obvious  sense  of  the  ex- 
pressions which  he  employs." 

Dr.  Prie^ey,  however,  felt. none,  of  the  darm^  with 
which  his  admirers  were  affected.  He  promised  an  early 
and  satisfactory,  answer.  He  predicted  that  be  should  rise 
more  illustrious  from  his  supposed  defeat ;  he  promised  to 
strengthen  the  evidence  of  bis  favourite  opinion  by  the 
very  objections  that  bad  been; raised  against  it ;  he  setaied 
to  flatter  himself  that  he  should  fiad  a  new  convert  in  his 
antagonist  himseli^  and  even  hinted  in  print  somewhat 
concerning  the  shame  and  remorse  with  which  he  was  con- 
fident his  adversary  must  be.  penetrated.  From  all  this  it 
soon  became-  evident  that  Dr.  Priestley,,  who  could  not 
but  feel  personally  what  every  unprejudiced  man  felt  ar- 
gumentaiively,  that  Dr.  Horsley  was  an  antagonist  of  no 
mean  stamp,  did  not  ^profit  by  this  conviction  so  far  as  to 
take  sufficient  leisure  to  reviise  his  own  Writings,  but  im- 
medjateiy  repeated  bis  fqrmer  assertions  respecting  the 
dofitrioe  of  the  Xxioity  noi  having  beea  maintained  by  the 

IM  H  O  R  8  L  £  Y. 

Gfaristiaa  church  in  the  hrtu  three  centarie%  in  a  pubikak 

tion  entitled  **  Letters  to  Dr.  Horsley,  in  answer  to  hb 

ammadversions   on   the  '  Histoiry  of  the   Corrnpttons  irf 

Christianity  ^  with  an  a<klitionaI  evidence  tbbi  the  primi^ 

live  Christian  church  w9ls  Unitarian^"  1783,  Sto.     In  tbii 

there  are  nnore  of  the  weaknesses  of  argument,  and  the 

errors  of  haste,  than  could  have  been  expected  front  one 

who  had  so  much  at  stake,  and  it  was  therefore  no  very 

difficult  task  for  Dr.  Horslev  to  continue  the  contest,  ill 

the  same  epistolary  form  which  his  antagonist  had  aciopted^ 

by  ^^  Letters  from  the  arofadeacon  of  St*  Alban's  in  Reply 

to  Dr.  Priestley,  with  an  Appendix,  containing  short  strio* 

turas  dn  Dr.  Priestley's  Lecters,  by  an  unknown  band," 

1784,  8vo«    These  letters  are  seventeen  in  nomber^  and 

their  cbject  is  to  pmve  that  if  Dr.  Priestley's  nsistakes 

which  be  pointed  out,  are  few  in  number^  they  are  too 

coosiderafaAe  in  size  to  be  incident  tp  a  well-informed  wriw 

ter;  that  they  betray  a  want  of  such  a  general  comprehea-i' 

aiOn  of  the  subject  aswiighc  have  enaUed  Dr.P.  to  draw 

the  srae  conelu^ons  from  the  passages  he  cit^d  'y  thofe  they 

prove  him  incompetent  in  the  very  language  of  the  writevs' 

Ibom  whom  his  proofs  should  be  di^aivn,  and  uni^illed  in 

Vke  plulosopby  whose  doctrines  he  pn^nded  to  conrpara' 

with  the  opinions  of  the  church.  TIhm  wre  serious  charges^ 

but  our  anothor  did  not  confine  himself  mevely  to  substanM 

tiate  them,  but  folioweit  up  bis  numerous  proofs  b^  odie«s 

in  behalf  of  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,  drawn  from  like 

earty  fathers  of  the  chuneh,  and  the  best  ecclestasttcal:  Ms^ 

toriaas*    The  display  of  readiiig  and  raseasek  m  these 

letters  is  wonderftiL     The  style  aha  is  adnsrabie,»  and 

while  it  assumes  the  lolly  and  somewhat  dictatorial  manner 

pecuKar  to  Dr.  Horsley,  and  which  indeed  tbe^high  ground 

on  which  he  stood  i<i  this^  ease^  seemed  to  yntifyf  the 

Header  of  tasto  finds  himself  often  cbavmed  with  the  ele^ 

ganee  of  the  language,  and  atways  with-  die  closeness  of 

the  reasoning. 

Dr.  Friesttey,  in  his  tellers,  &ad  eocpfesscd  a  great  de«- 
sire  to  draw  Dr.  Horsley  into  a  tedious  controversy  on  the 
main  questiwn,  the  artielie  of  our  Lord's  divinity,  but  oi«r 
lurihor,  knowing  that  question  to  have  been  long  sisuse  ex^ 
baustedy  and  that  nothing  new  wa^  te^  be  said  on  either 
side,  chose,  in  his  <^' Lexers  in  Reply,"  to^adheve  doaely 
to  Ais (fwn main  qnestion.  Re^  therefore^  as  wehMfemmm* 
tinned^  defended!  bis^  owtt  argamc^ti  auik  ^oMeiPtad.  new 

H  O  R  8  L  E  r.  187 

speciflMSMi  from  Dr.  Priestley's  newpublicatioD^  of  his 
letter  inability  to  throw  light  upon  the  subject.  Tb«s  a 
useless  and  endless  contention  on  the  main  question  was 
avoided ;  but  many  discussions  necessarily  arose  upon  se- 
condary points,  which  perhaps  the  learned  reader  will  es-» 
teem  the  most  interesting  parts  of  the  controversy,  such  as» 
the  authority  of  the  writings  that  go  under  the  Bame  of  tb« 
apostolical  Fetthers ;  the  rise  of  the  two.  sects  of  the  Naza^ 
vepes  and  £bionites ;  the  difference  between  tbe  two  v  and 
the  difference  of  both  from  the  orthodox  {lebrew  Cbris-* 
tians;  and  particularly  an  arti(^  on  the  accusation  of 
Tritbeism>>  which  Drw  Priestley  had  brought  against  the 
Trinitarians  of  tbe  seveivteemh  century.  The  *^  Sbort 
Strictufes  on  Dr.  Priestley*'  in  the  appendix  to  these  Let- 
ters, it  is  now  known,  were  written  by  Dr.  Townson. 

Dr.  Priestley  (we  still  use  bis  antagonist's  words),  mor- 
tified to  find  that  bis  letters  had  failed  of  the  exjpected 
success ;  that  Dr.  Horsley,  touched  with  no  shame,  witb 
nosemorse,  remained  unshaken  in  his  opinion;  and  that 
tiie  authority  of  bis  own  opinion  was  still  set  at  nought,  hia 
learning  disallowed,  his  ingenuity  in  argument  impeached; 
1^  wba4  was  least  to  be  borne*— fiiiding  that  a  haughty 
<4wrohqiaii  vemored  ijicidentally  to  avow  his  sentiments  of 
tbe  ^me  commission  of  the  epiai^opal  ministry,  and  pre* 
'sttmed  tQ  i|ueatioft  the  authority  of  those  teachers  who  osurp 
the  preaebec's  offiee  withmit  any  better  warrant  than  their 
own  opinion  of  their  own  suffimency,  lost  all  teokper.  A 
seeond  set  of  ^^  Letters  to  the  archdeacon  of  St.  Alban's'* 
apffteaiwd  in  tbe.  autiama  o£  1784,  in.  which  all  profession 
ol  persQi^  regaiid  and  civili^  was  laid  aside.  Tbe  cbang^ 
of  waufficiency  in  the  subject  was  warmly  retorted,  and 
^^  tbe  ioeorrigiUe  dtgniiary"  was  taxed  with  manifest  nm- 
cepeesentatioA  q£  his  advensary'a  argument ;  with  injustice 
to  the  cfaavaetef  of  Origen,  whose  veracity  be  had  called 
in  question ;  and  with,  the  grossest  falsification  of  ancient 
history.  He  wa3  st^matiaed  in  short  as  a  ^  falMfier  of 
history,  and  a  defrner  cyf  the  character  of  the  dead" 

Begardiess  of  this  reproach.  Dr.  Horsley  remained 
silent  fov  eigbteea  months.  A  sermon  ^^  Oe  the  Incarna- 
tion^** pveacfaed  in  bin  parish  church  of  St.  Mary  Newing- 
ton,  ispon  the  feast  of  the  Nativity  in  1785^  was  the  pre* 
liMie  to  a  senewai  of  the  contest  on  his  side,  and  was  fol- 
lowed casly  in  the  eoauing  sffringy  by  his  **  Remarks  ew 
Ik».£riaitlcy*a  second  Lettem.  to  the  arabdeacon  of  Saint 

188  H  O  R  S  L  E  Y. 


Alban^s,  with  proofs  of  certain  facts  asserted  by  the  arch* 
deacoo."     This  tract  consists  of  two  parts ;  the  first  is  a 
collection  of  new  specimens  of  Dr.  Priestley's  temerity  in 
assertion  ;  the  second  defends  the  attack  upon  the  character 
of  Origen^  and  proves  the  existence  of  a  body  of  Hebrew 
Christians  at  iElia  after  the  time  of  Adrian  —  jthe  fact  upon 
which  the  author's  good  faith  had  been  so  loudly  arraigned 
by  Dr.  Priestley.     With  this  publication  Dr.  Horsley  pro- 
mised himself  that  the  controversy  on  his  part  would  be 
closed.     But  at  last  he  yielded,  as  he  says,  with  some 
reluctance,  to  collect  and  republish  what  he  had  written  in 
an  octavo  volume  (printed  in  1789)  and  took  that  oppor- 
tunity t6  give  Dr.  Priestley's  Letters  a  second  perusal^ 
which  produced  not  only  many  important  notes,  but  some 
disquisitions  of  considerable  length ;  and  the  remarks  on 
Dr.  Priestley's  second  letters  having  produced  a  third  set 
of  *^  Letters"  from  him,  upon  the  two  questions  of  Origen''s 
Teracity,    and  the  orthodox  Hebrews  of  the  church  of 
M\\2i :  these  two  are  partly  answered  in  notes,  and  partly* 
in  two  of  the  disquisitions.     Towards  the  conclusion  of 
Dr.  Horsley's  ^^  Remarks,"  after  exhibiting  specimens  of 
Dr.  Priestley's  incompetency  to  write  on  i^uch  subjects  as 
fell  within  their  controversy,  he  says,  ^^  These'  and  many 
other  glaring  instances  of  unfinished  criticism,  weak  ar- 
gument, and  unjustifiable  art,  to  cover  the  weakness  and 
supply  the  want  of  argument,  which  must  strike  every  one 
who  takes  the  trouble,  to  look  through  those  second  letters, 
put  me  quite  at  ease  with  respect  to  the  judgment iwhicii 
the  public  would  be  apt  to  form  between  my  antagonist 
and  me,  and  confirmed  me  in  the  resolution  of  making  no 
reply  to  him,  and  of  troubling  the  public  no  more  upon  the 
subject,  except  so  far  as  might  be  necessary  to  establish ' 
«ome  facts,  which  he  hath  somewhat  too  peremptorily  de- 
nied, and  to  vindicate  my  character  from  aspersions  which 
he  hath  too  inconsiderately  thrown  out."     It  ought  not  to 
be  forgot,  that  in  this  controversy  Dr.  H(»rsley  derived  • 
not  a  little  support  from  the  Rev.  Mr.  Badcock,  whose  cri**- 
ticisms  on  Dr.  Priestley's  works  in  the  Monthly  Review  left 
scarcely  any  thing  unfinished  that  was  necessary  to  prove 
his  errors  as  a  divine,  and  his  incompetency  as  a  historian.    * 
The  reputation  Dr.  Horsley  had  now  acquir(dd^.  recom- 
mended him  to  the  patronage  of  the  lord  cbancelk>r  Thar- 
low,  who.presented  him  to  a  prebendal  stall  in  the^church  of 
Gloucester ;  and  in  i7a8|  by  the  same  interest^  h|^  waa  made 

H  O  R  S  L  E  Y.  rsjp 

bishop  of  9t  David'S)  and  in  this  character  answered  thid 
kigh  expectations  of  eminent  usefalness  which  his  elevation 
to  the  mitre  so  generally  excited.  As  a  bishop  his  conduct 
was  exemplary  and  rery  praiseworthy. '  In  this  diocese^ 
which  was  said  to  exhibit  more  of  ignorance  and  poverty 
than  that  of  any  other  in  the  kitigdom,  he  carried  through 
a  regular  system  of  reform.  He  regulated  the  condition 
of  the  clergy,  and  proceeded  to  a  stricter'  course  with 
respect  to  the  candidates  for  holy  orders,  admitting  none 
without  personally  examining  them  himself,  and  looking 
very  narrowly  into  the  titles  which  they  produced.  With 
all  this  vigilance,  his  lordship  acted  to  tbem  as  a  tender 
father,  encouraging  them  to  visit  him  during  his  stay  in 
the  country,  which  was  usually  for  several  months  in  the 
year,  assisting  them  with  advice,  and  ministering  to  their 
temporal  necessities  with  a  liberal  hand.  In  his  progress 
through  the  diocese,  he  frequently  preached  in  the  parish 
churches,  and  bestowed  considerable  largesses  on  the  poon 
He  was,  in  short,  a  blessing  to  his  people,  and  they  fol* 
lowed  him  with  grateful  hearts,  and  parted  from  him  with 
infinite  reluctance  ;  and  this  diocese  may  be  congratiilated 
in  being  again  placed  under  a  prelate  whose  zeal  for  the 
promotion  of  its  best  interests  has  seldom  beep  equalled, 
and  cannot  easily  be  exceeded.  Bishop  Horsley's  first 
Charge  to  the  clergy  of  St.  David's,  delivered  in  1790,  was 
deservedly  admired,  as  was  his  animated  speech  in  the 
house  of  lords  on  the  Catholic  bill,  May  31,  1791.  These 
occasioned  his  subsequent  promotion  to  the  see  of  Ro* 
<;hester  in  1793,  and  to  the  deanery  of  Westminster,  on 
which  he  resigned  the  living  of  Newington.  As  dean  of 
Westminster  he  effected  some  salutary  changes.  *  Finding 
the  salaries  of  the  minor-canons  and  officers  extremely 
low,  he  liberally  obtained  an  advance,  and  at  the  same 
tiuie  introduced  sooie  regulations  in  the  discharge  of  their 
office,  which  were  readily  adopted. 

During  the  turbulent  period  of  1793-4-5,  &c.  when  the 
religion,  government,  and  morals  of  the  country  were  in 
imminent  danger  from  the  prevalence  of  democratic  prin- 
ciples, the  warmth  and  zeal  of  his  endeavours  in  parlia- 
ment to  oppose  the  enemies  of  the  constitution,  procured- 
him  a  considerable  share  of  illiberal  censure,  which,  how- 
ever, was  more  than  balanced  by  the  general  applause  which 
followed  the  steady  uniformity,  consistency,  and  manly 
decision  of  bis  conduct.    As  a  senator  be  was  deservedly. 

190  H  a  R  S  L  K  Y. 

considered  in  tbe  first  class }  and'  there  were  feir  important 
discussions^  not  only  on  ecelesissticid  topics,  but  oi^ 
those  which  concerned  the  civil  interests  of  tbe  country, 
in  which  he  did  not  take  an  active  part.  He  was  not, 
however,  an  every-day  speaker/  nor  desirous  of  adding  tx» 
the  debates  unless  he  had.  something  original  to  produce, 
and  he  was  on  that  account  listened  to  with  eagerness  even 
by  those  with  whom  he  could  not  act,  and  who  found  it 
easier  to  arraign  his  manner  than  bis  matter.  In  1S02  he 
was  translated  to  tbe  bishopric  of  St.  Asaph,  and  resigned 
the  deanery  of  Westminster*  During  all  this  period  fats 
publications  were  frequent,  as  we  shall  notice  in  a  lisl^' 
of  them,  and  his  vigour  of  body  and  mind  was  happily 
preserved  until  the  year  1806,  which  proved  bis  last,  li^ 
July  of  that  year  he  went  to  bis  diocese,  a  part  of  whictt 
he  bad  visited  and  confirmed,  and  after  two  months  resi^ 
dence  intended  to  visit  his  patron  lord  Tburlow  at  Brighton^' 
where  he  arrived  Sept.  20,  after  hearing  on  the  road  that 
bis  noble  friend  was  dead.  On  tbe  30th,  a  slight  complaint 
in  bis  bowels  affected  him,  and  very  soon  brought  on  sb 
mortification,  which  proved  fatal  Oct.  4,  in  bis  73d  year. 
His  remains  were  interred  in  tbe  parish  chureh  of  St.  Mary 
Newington,  where  a  monument  baa  since  been  erected  to 
bis  memory,  with  an  inscription  written  by  himself. 

He  was  twice  married :  first  to  Mary,  one  of  tbe  dangh* 
tera  of  the  Rev.  John  Bothan,  his  predecessor  at  Aldbory, 
by  whom  he  had  one  daughter,  who  died  young,  and  a^ 
son,  now  the  rev.  Heneage  Horidey,  rector  of  Gresford  iia 
Etenbighshire,  prebendary  of  St.  Asaph,  and  chaplain  to 
the  Scotch  episcopalian  church'  at  Dundee.  By  his  second 
wife,  who  died  the  year  before  him,  be  had  no  children. 
She  is  commemorated  in  tbe  above  inscription  by  the  namo 
of  Sarah  only. 
.  Bbhop  Horsley^s  works  not  yet  mentioned,  were,  besiden 
various  occasional  Sermons  and  Charges,  1.  *^  On  the  pro- 
perties of  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages,**  1796,  Svo, 
without  his  name.  2.  <*  On  the  acronycbal  rising  of  tho 
Pleiades,'^  a  dissertation  appended  to  his  friend  Dr.  Vin- 
cent's "  Voyage  of  Nearchus,"  1797.  3.  "  A  circular  Let- 
ter to  the  diocese  of  Rochester,  on  the  Scarcity  of  Com,** 
1796.  4.  Another  circular  Letter  to  that  diocese,  od^ 
<«  the  Defence  of  tbe  Kingdom,"  179B.  5.  <<  Critical  Dis* 
quisitions  on  the  18th  chapter  of  Isaiah:  in  a  letter  to 
Sdwaord  King,  esq.  F.  R.  S.  &c«*'  1799^  4ta    Towards  tilo 

H  O  R  S  L  S  Y.  191 

^lofe  of  tbts  di^ussion,  in  which  he  applies  the  ivof ds  ^ 
Ufiiab  to  the  aspect  of  the  times,  he  says,  with  almost  a 
prophetic  spirit,  "  I  see  nothing  in  the  progress  of  the 
French  arms  which  any  nation  fearing  God,  and  worship** 
ping  the  Son,  should  fear  to  resist :  I  see  every  thing  that 
should  rouse  all  Christendom  to  a  vigorous  confederate 
resistance,  I  see  every  thing  that  should  excite  tJm  country 
in  particular  to  resist,  and  to  take  the  lead  in  a  confederacy 
of  resistance,  by  all  measures  which  poHcy  can  suggest, 
and  the  valour  and  opulence  of  a  great  nation  can  supply/* 
6.  <<  Hosea,  translated  from  the  Hebrew ;  with  notes  ex- 
planatory and  critical,*'  1801,  4to.    Archbishop  Newcome, 
in  bis  ^^  Improved  Version  of  the  Minor  Prophets,'*  had 
preceded  bishop  Horsley  in  translating  Hosea ;    but  our 
prelal:e  has  thought  proper  in  so  many  instances  to  reject 
bis  emendations,  that  bishop  Horsley^s  labours  will  probably 
be  thought  indispensable  to  a  just  illustration  of  the  sacred 
le^t.     This  )vas  reprinted  with  large  additions  in   i8(>4« 
Z.  .'^  Elementary  treatises  on  the  fundamental  principles  ol 
practical  Matbeqiatics ;   for  the  use  of  students,''   1801^ 
^yo»     These,  tracts  were  at  first  composed,  without  any 
design  of  pt^bj^cation,  for  the  use  of  his  son,  then  a  student  of 
Cbrist-'Church  ;  and  the  work  was  to  be  considered,  although 
ihen  first  published,  as  the  third  and  last  in  the  order  of  the 
subject,  of  three  volumes  of  elementary  geometry,  to  be 
i$$ued  one  after  another  from  the  university  press  of  Ox* 
(ord*     The  first  accordingly  appeared  in  1 802,  under  the 
^  Utie  of  *^  Eviclidis  Elementorum  Libri  priorcs  XII.  ex  Com- 
V^ndioi  et  Gregorii  versionibus  Latinis,"  Oxon,  8vo ;   and 
the  sfi^ond  in  1804,  ^^Euclidis  datorum  liber,  cum  addita-- 
.  9i^9ta,  necnon  tractatus  alii  ad  geomelriam  pertinentes,'^ 
ibid.  8va. 

Since  his  death  have  appeared,  <*  Sermons,'*  1810  and 
).8lJ2,  3  vols-  8vo ;  ^^  Tracts  in  controversy  with  Dr. 
Pfiesileyi  upon  the  historical  question  of  the  belief  of  the 
fy%%  ages  in  our  Lord's  Divinity,  originally  pul^shed  in  tha 
je?!^^  1733»  17^4,  and  1786  :  afterwards  revised  and  aug- 
B;iet)ted,  with  a  large  addition  of  notes  and  supplemental 
disquisitions ;  by  the  author.  The  third  edition.  To  which 
is  added,  an  Appendix  by  the  rev.  Heneage  Horsley^'* 
V819,  Svo.;  ^'The  Speeches  in  Parliament  of  Samuet 
Horsley,  &c."  1813,  8vo ;  and  lastly,  «  The  Chargea 
deliver^  at  his  several  visitations  of  the  dioceses  of  S«. 
Pavid'f^  Rochester^  and  St.Asapb,">  1811S,  ^vo.    in  thb 

1S2  H  O  R  S  L  E  Y, 

enumeration  of  bis  printed  works,  a  few  temporary  tracts 
of  lessee  importance  may  probably  have  escaped  us,  to 
being  published  without  his  name ;  but  a  complete  edition 
of  his  works,  for  which  there  is  likely  to  be  a  demand^ 
will  supply  this  deGciency.  His  papers  in  the  Philosophical 
Transactions  would  form  a  very  necessary  part  of  such  a 
collection.  It  may  also  be  noticed  here,  that  he  occasionally 
wrote  some  very  elaborate  criticisms  in  the  ^'  British  Critic,'* 
the  plan  and  principles  of  which  Review  he  cordially  ap*- 

Dr.  Horsley.was  throughout  life  an  indefatigable  stu^ 
dent ;  he  indulged  no  indolence  in  youth,  and  amidst  aiK 
accumulation  of  preferments,  contemplated  no  time  whea 
he  might  rest  from  his  labours.     His  mind  was  constantly- 
intent  on  some  literary  pursuit  or  discovery,  and  setting  a 
high  value  on  the  fame  he  had  acquired,  his  ambition  was 
to  justify  the  esteem  of  the  public,  and  the  liberality  of 
his  patrons.     Knowing  likewise,  how  much  his  fame  was 
indebted  to  his  theological  contest,  he  endeavoured  by  la« 
borious  researches,    to   acquire  that  degree  of  accuracy 
which  renders  a  controversialist  invulnerable.     It  is  evi- 
dent that  in  the  study  of  ecclesiastical  history,  particulariy 
that  of  the  early  ages,   on  which   his  controversy  with 
Priestley  hinged,  his  range  was  most  extensive^  and  it  is 
no  breach  of  charity  to  suppose  that  he  vexed  as  well  as 
surprized  his  antagonist,  by  proving  himself  more  intimate 
with  the  minutiae  of  remote^  antiquity  than  himself,  who^ 
from  a  wish  to  become  the  re-founder  of  a  sect,  had  made 
the  subject  the  study  of  bis  whole  life.     Dr.  Horsley,  on 
the  contrary,  appears  to  have  prepared  himself  as  the  exi* 
gencies  of  the  times  in  which  be  lived  demanded,  and 
whether  the  subject  was  theological  or  political,  he  quickly 
accumulated  a  mass  of  knowledge  which  his  genius  enabled 
bim  to  illustrate  with  all  the  charms  of  novelty.     While 
the  ablest  champion  of  orthodoxy  which  the  church  has 
seen  for  many  years,  he  was  so  much  of  an  original  thinker, 
and  so  independent  of  his  predecessors  or  contemporaries, 
that  his  mode  of  defence  was  entirely  his  own,  and  his  style 
and  authoritative  manner,  like  Warburton's  and  Johnson's, 
however  dangerous  to  imitate,  were  yet,  perhaps,  the  best 
that  could  be  devised  in  the  conflict  of  opinions  with  which 
be  was  surrounded.     His  writings  possessed  some  of  the 
most  prominent  features  of  his  personal  character,  in  which 
ihere  was  nothing  lukewarm,  nothing  compromising.    He 

H  OR  S  L  E  Y.  .    W4 

disfiatfied  li()erality  itself,  if  it  preiscribed  courtesy  to  men! 
whose  arrogance  in;  matters  or  faith  l^d  by  easy  steps  to 
more  violent  measures/  and  wno,  while  they  affected  only 
>ji  cal^i  and  impartial  inquiry  into  the  doctrines  of  the 
chordi,  bad  nothing  less  in  view  than  the  destruction  of 
her  whole  fabrick.  Such  men  might  expect  to  encounter 
with  a  roughness  of  temper  which  was.  natural  to  him  on 
more  common  occasions,  although  in  the  latter  qualified 
by.  much  kindness  of  heart,  benevolence^  and  charity. 
When  he  bad  onc^  detected  the  ignorance  of  his  oppo- 
nentS)  and  their  misrepresentation  of  the  ancient  record^ 
tQ  which  they  Appealed,  when  he  found  that  they  had  no 
iM^rupte  to  bend  aiuhorities  to  pre^-conceived  theory,  and^ 
th^t  their  only  way  of  prolooffing  a  contest  was  by  re-, 
peating  the  same  assertions  wit;nout  additional  proofs,  he 
fr^ueptly  assumed  that  high  tone  of  contempt  or  irony 
which  would  have  be^n  one  of  place  with  opponents  who 
bad  UQ  other  object  in  view  than  the  establishment  of 
truth.  ; 

As  a  preacher,  or  rather  as  a  writer  of  sermons^  Dr. 
Hprsley  ipigbt  be  sallowed  to  stand  in  the  first  class,  if  'we 
kneW  wttb.whom  of  that  class  we  can  compare  him.  Some 
coniparisons  we  have  seen,  the  justice  of  which  we  do  not 
think  quite  obvious.  In  force,  profundity,  and  erudition^ 
in  pret:ision  and  distinctness  of  ideas,  in  aptitude  and  fe- 
licity of  expression,  and  above  all,  in  selection  of  subjects 
and  original  powers  of  thinking,  Dr.  Horsley's  .Sermons 
have  been  very  justly  tenpaed  "  compositions  suigeneris^^ 
Upon  most  of  these  accounts,  or  rather  upon  all  in  the 
aggregate,  ^they;  remove  him  from  a  comparison  with  those 
who  may  haveacqijired  very  just  fame  as  popular.preach- 
ers.  Bishop  Horsley  everywhere  addresses  himself  to 
scholars,  pb^iiosbphers,  and  biblical  j^ritics.  By  these  he 
was  heard  with  deliglit;  and  by  these  his  works  will  con-' 
tiniie  to  be  appreciated  as  the  component  parts  of  every 
theologii^l  library,  although  they  tnay  not  assent  to  all  his 

'  JEiOR^TlUS  (James),  an  eminent  physician,  was  born 
at  Torgau  in  1 537  ;  and  took  thei  degfee  of  M.  D.  in  the 

1  Proi»  teaterisls  collected  in  Mr,  Kichols't  Bowyer.  — -Biihop  Qorslcgr'f 
printeil  M^yifit  and  the,  Reriews  ainl  MagazhBies  pf  the  period.  A  minute  life 
of  bira  would  be  desirable^  but  so  little  seems  to  be  known  of  his  early  life  an4 
Ubqurs,  (hut  if  now  attempted,  it  would  consist  principally  of  an  analysis  of  )yi\ 
later  literary  prof  resi,  which  is  still  known,  and  ariUlong  b^  remembfred. 

Vou  XVIII.  O 

19*  H  O  R  S  T  I  U  S. 

university  of  Francfort  on  the  Oder,  in  15$2*  He  W9f 
9Sered  the  place  of  public  physician  in  iseveral  places;  and 
be  practiced  successively  at  S,agan  and  S.uidnitz  in  Silesia,- 
and  at  Iglaw  in  Moravia,  till  1580,  when,  he  was  made, 
physician  in  ordinary  to  the  atchduke  of  Austria ;  and.  four 
years  after, ,  quitting  that  plape,  was  promoted  to  the  me* 
xlical  professorship  in  the  university  of  Helmstadt.  T^e 
oration  he  delivered  at  his  installation,  *^  Of  the  Difficul- 
ties which  attend  the  Study  of  Physic,  and  the  means  to, 
remove  them,^  a  .very  good  one,  is  printed  with  his 
*^  Cpistblas  Philosophical  &  Medici nales,^*  Lips.  1596,  8vou 
ypon  entering  on  this«post,  he  distinguished  himself  by 
vfhait  was  thought  a  great  singularity ;  he  joined,  devotioa 
to  the.  practice  of  physic.  H^  always  prayed  to  God  to 
bless  his  prescriptions ;  and  he  published  a  form  of  prayer 
upon  this  subject,  which  he  presented  to  the  university. 
He  acquitted  himself  worthily  in  his  functions,  and  pub- 
lished some  books  which  kept  up  the  reputation  he  had 
already  acquired,  but  among  them  was  one  which  pro<« 
duced  a  contrary,  effect,  his  ^^  Dbsertation  upon  the  Golden 
Tooth  of  a  child  in  Silesia  ;^'  concerning  which  he  suf-^ 
fered  himself  to  be  egregiously  imposed  upon.  Vau  Dale 
has  related  in  what  manner  this  imposture  was  discovered. 
Norstius,  in  the  mean  time,  took  it  for  a  great  prodigy, 
i^hich  ought  to  be  a  comfort  to  those  Christians  who  were 
oppressed  by  the  Turks  ;  as  certainly  foreboding  the  down-- 
fall  of  the  Ottoman  empire.     Horsticis^s  dissertation  vras 

Eublished  at  Leipsic,  in  1595,  Svo,  with  another  piece  of 
is  writing,  *^  De  Noctambulis,"  or  ^^  Concerning  thote 
who  walk  m  their  sleep.*'     He  died  about  1600.' 

HORSTIUS  (Gregory),  also  a  learned  physician,  ne- 

S>bew  of  the  preceding,  was  born  at  Torgau,  where  bis 
ather  was  one  of  the  chief  magistrates  in  1578.  After 
being  educated  in  the  schools  of  Torgau  and  Halberstadt^ 
*  he  went  to  the  university  of  Wittemberg,  and  coinmenced 
the  study  of  medicine ; .  and  received  the  degree  of  M.  D. 
in  March  1606,  iatt  Basil.  On  his  return  in  £e  same  year» 
to  his  native  place,  he  was  immediately  appointed  to  a 
medical  professorship  in  the  university  of  Wittemburg,  by 
the  elector  of  Saxony.  Two  years  afterwards  he  was  prp* 
^)oted  by  the  landgrave  of  Hesse  to  a  medical  chair  in 
the  college  at  Giessen,  and  in  1609  was  honoured  with 

1  Geo.  Diet.— Moreri.-^Saxii  Onomast. 

H  O  R  S  T  I  U  S.  195 

th^  title  o(  Archiater  of  Hasse.  At  this  time  his  profes* 
sional  character  bad  risen  in  the  public  estimation,  and  h^ 
numbered  among  bis  patients  the  principal  nobility  of  the 
district.  In  1622,  he  received  a  public  invitation  fronk 
the  Tmagistracy  of  Ulm  to  settle  there  as  physician  to  that 
city,  and  as  president  of  the  college.  He  fulfilled  his  du- 
ties in  both  these  offices  with  great  reputation ;  and  his 
integrity  and  humanity,  not  less  than  his  extensive  eru- 
dition, and  bis  successful  practice,  endeared  him  to  his  feU 
low-citizens,  and  claimed  the  respect  and  admiration  of 
the  surrounding  states.  He  died  in  August  1636,  aged 
fifty -eight  years.  He  left  a  considerable  number  of  works, 
which  were  collected,  and  published  under  the  title  of 
''  Opera  Medica,'*  in  1660,  3  vols,  folio,  at  Nuremberg, 
by  his  youngest  son,  OregOCiv,  who,  as  well  as  his  bro-^ 
their  John  Daniel,  acquired  eminence  as  physicians.  They 
were  also  both  professors  of  medicine  ;  Gregory  died  at  the 
age  of  thirty-five ;  but  John  Daniel  lived  to  his  sixty-fifth 
year,  and  was  the  author  of  several  works,  chiefly  anato* 
micai,  and  of  little  value  at  present.  He  was  concerned 
with  bis  brother  Gregory  in  editing  the  collection  of  his 
father's  works,  and  likewise  published  an  edition  of  the 
*^  Questk>nes  Medico-legales^'  of  Paul  Zacchias,  Francfbrt, 
1666,  in  folio;  and  an  edition  of  the  *^  Opera  .Medico"  of 
RfVerius,  at  the  same  place,  in  1674,  folio.^  't 

HORT  or  HORTE  (Josiah),  archbishop  of  Tuam^  ap- 
pears to  have  been  of  a  dissenting  family,  as  he  was  edu- 
cated in  a  dissenting  school,  between  1690  and  169.5,  un- 
der the  direction  of  the  rev.  Thomas  Rowe,  and  was  a 
fellow-student  with  the  celebrated  Dr.  Watts,  who  said  of 
him,  that   he  was  '<  the  first  genius  in  that  seminary.'* 
After  his  academical  studies  were  finished,  he  resided  some 
time  as  chaplain  with  John  Hampden,  esq.  M.  P.  for  Bucks, 
and  afterwards  settled  as  a  dissenting  minister  at  Marshfield, 
in  Gloucestershire,     The  time  of  his  conformity  is  not  as- 
certained, though  it  is  evident  that  he  was  a  clergyman  of 
thexburcb  of  England  so  early  as  1708,  for  in  that  year  he 
published  a  sermon  preaqhed  at  the  archdeacon's  visitation  at 
Aylesbury.     In  the  preceding  year  he  had  printed  a  Thanks^ 
giving  Sermon  on  our  national  Successes,  from  Ps.  cxiix. 
6^8.  There  is  a  tradition^in  the  family,  that  he  had  so  greatly 
reGoannended  himself  to  the  court  by  his  zeal  and  services 

}  Geo.  Drct.— M«wri.--Fopp#n  Bibl.  Bclg.— It«fs'«  Cy«lopi»ai^ - 

0.  2 

;        I 

196  HO  R  T. 

in  support  of  the  Hanover  succession,  that,  aa  he  s$:nip)ed 
re-ordination,  it  was  dispensed  with,  and  the  first  prefer* 
ment  bestowed  on  him,  was  that  of  a  bishopric  in  Ireland. 
It  is.  certain  that  he  went  into  that  kingdom  as  chaplain  to 
the  lord  lieutenant.     He  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Ferns 
and  Leighiin,  February  10,  17i^l,  was  translated  to  Kil- 
more  and  Ardagb,  July  27,  1727,  and  preferred  to  the 
archiepiscopal  see  of  Tuam,  January  27,   1742,  with  the 
united  bishopric  of  Enaghdoen,  in  the  room  of  Dr.  Synge^ 
deceased,  and  likewise  with  liberty  to  retain  bis  other  bv- 
shopric  of  Ardagh.     He  died  December  14»  1751,  in  a 
yery  advanced  age.     His  publications  were,  1.  in  1738,  at 
Dublin,  a  volume  of  Sermons,  sixteen  in  number,  in.  8vo  ; 
they  are  judicioqs  and  impressive  discourses.    These  \^ere 
reprinted  in  London,  in  1757^  with  the  addition  of  the 
Visitation  Sermon  mentioned  before.    In  this  volume  is  A 
Sermon  preached  Jn  the  castle  of  Dublin,  before  the  duke 
of  Bolton  the  lord  lieutenant  of  Ireland,    after  the  supr 
fMresston  of  the  Preston  rebellion*     2.  A  Charge  .entitled 
*^  Instructions  to  the  Clergy  of  the  Diocese  of  Tu^m,  at 
the  primary  visitation^  Jiily  8,' 1742."     This,   after. the 
death  of  the  author,,  was  reprinted  in  Lpqdon,  with  the 
approbation  and  consent  of  the  rev.  Dr.  Hort,  canon  of 
lVindsor<-*-it  is  an  excellent  address*     In  the  preface  to 
the  volume  of  sermona  we.  learn,  that  for  .many  years  pre- 
vious to  its  appearance  from  the  press,  the  worthy  author 
had  been  disabled  from  preaching  by  an  over-strain  of  the 
voic^  in  the  pulpit,  at  a  time  when  he  had  a  cold  with,  a 
hoarseness  upon  him.     The.  providence  of  God,  he  says, 
having  taken  from  him  the  power  of  diitchargifig  that  part 
of  his .  episcopal  ofhc^  which  consisted  in  preachings  he 
thought  it  incumbent  on  him  to  convey  his  thoughts  and 
instructions  from  the  press,  that  he  might  not  be.  useless. 
The  solemn  promise  that  he  made  at  his  consecration;,  ^'  to 
exercise  himself  in  the  Holy  Scriptures,  so  as  to  be  able 
hy  them  to  teach  and  exhort  with  wholesome  doctrine^M 
was)<ie^small  motive  to  that  undertaking,  as  being  the  only 
means  left  him  for  making  good  that  promise*     Itappears^. 
that  he  kept  up  an  epistolary   correspondence  with  his 
<^oid  friend,^*  as  he  called. him,  and  fellow-student.  Dr. 
Watt^  to  the  dosing  period  of  the  life  of  each.    laSwifi^'s 
works  we  find  a  humorous  paper  of  Dr.  Hort\  entitled 
<^  A  New  Proposal  for  the  better  regulation  and  impi^ve* 
ment  df  Quadrille,'*  and  some  letters  respecting  it.^ 

!  From  Memoinby  Dr.  Toulmin.— Swtfl't  Worki^ 

H  O  R  T  E  N  S  I  U  S.  IW 

HORTENSIU9  (Lambert),  was  a  philologer,  a  writer 
of  verses,  and  a  historian.     His  real  name  is  unknown ;  he 
took  that  of  Hortensius,  either  because  his  father  was  a 
glaVdener,  or  because  his  family  name  signified  gardener. 
He  was  born  at  Montfort,  in  the  territory  of  Utrecht,  in 
1501,  and  studied  at  Louvain.     Hortensius  was  for  several* 
year^  rector  of  the  School  at  Naarden,  and  when  that  city 
was  taken  in  1572,  he  would  have  fallen  a  sacrifice  to  the 
military  fury,  had  he  not  been  preserved  by  the  gratitude 
of  one  who  had  been  his  pupil.     His  death  happened  at 
Naarden,  in  1577.     There  are  extant  by  him,  besides  sa- 
tires^ epithalamia^  and  other  Latiii  poems,  the  following 
works :   1.  Seven  books,  "  De  Bello  Germanico,'*  under 
Charles  V.  8vo.     2.  "  De  Tumultu  Anabaptistarum,^'  fol. 
3.  "  De  Secessionibus  Ultrajectinis,"  fol.     4.  Commen- 
taries on  the  six  first  books  of  the  ^netd,  and  on  Lucan. 
5.  Notes  on  four  Comedies  of  Aristophanes. ' 

HORTENSIUS  (Quintus),  a  Roman  orator,  was  the  con- 
temporary and  rival  of  Cicero,  and  so  far  his  senior,  that  he 
was  an  established  pleader  some  time  before  the  appear- 
ance of  the  latter.  He  pleaded  his  first  eaose  at  the  age  of 
nineteen,  in  the  consulship  of  L.  Licinius  Crassus,  an,d  Q. 
Mutius  Scevola,  ninety*-four  years  before  the  Christian' 
sera,  Cicero  being  then  in'  his  twelfth  year.  This  early 
eiForl  was  cfowoed  with  great  success,  and  he  continued 
throughout  his  life  a  very  favourite  orator.  His  enemies, 
however,  represented  his  action  as  extravagant^  and  gave 
him  the  name  of  Hortensia,  from  a  celebrated  daiicer  of 
that  time.  He  proceeded  also  in  the  line  of  public  ho- 
nours, was  military  tribune,  prsetor,  and  in  the  year  68 
B.  C.  consul,  together  with  Q.  Qeecilius  JVIetellus.  He 
was  an  eminent  member  of  the  college  of  augurs,  and  was 
the  person  who  elected  Cicero  into  that  body,  being  sworn 
to  present  a  man  of  proper  dignity.  By- him  also  Cicero 
was  there  inaugurated,  for  which  reason,  says  that  author, 
'^  it  was  my  duty  to  regard  him  as  a-  parent"  He  died  in 
the  year  49  B.  C.;  and  Ctcero,  to  whom  the  news  of  that 
event  was  h^rought  when  he  was  at  Rhodes,  in  his  return 
from  Cilicia^  has  left  a  most  eloquent  eulogy  and  lamenta-  • 
tion  upon  him,  in  the  opening  of  his  celebrated  treatise 
on  ofiators  entitled  Briitus.    .'*  I  considered  him,"  says  that 

1  GcD.  Diet — Morerk— >Fo|^B  Bibl.  Belgi— Bnnnan  Traject.  Eradit. — Saxii 

»S  H  O  R  T  E  N  S  I  U  S. 

writer,  <^  not,  as  many  supposed,  in  the  light  of  an  act« 
irersary,  or  one  who  robbed  me  of  any  praise,  but  ad  a 
companion  and  sharer  in  my  glorious  labour.     It  was  much 
more  honourable  to  have  such  an  opponent,  than  to  stand 
unrivalled  ;  more  especially  as  neither  his  career  was  im- 
peded by  me,  nor  mine  by  him,  but  each,  on  the  contrary, 
was  always  ready  to  assist  the  other  by  communication, 
advice,  and  kindness/'     If,  however,  Cicero  was  sincere 
in  his  attachment,  it  was  surmised  that  Hortensius  was  not, 
and  this  is  even  insinuated  in  one  of  the  epistles  of  Cicero^ 
Hortensius  amassed  great  wealth,  but  lived  at  the  same- 
time  in  a  splendid  and  liberal  manner;  and  it  is  said  that' 
at  his  death  his  cellars  were  found  stocked  with    10,000 
hogsheads  of  wine.     His  orations  have  all  perished;  but 
it  was  the  opinion  of  Quintillian,  that  they  did  not  in  pe- 
rusal answer  to  the  fame  he  obtained  by  speaking  them. ' 
Hortensius  must  have  been  sixty t-four  at  the  time  of  hia 

HORTON' (Thomas),  a  learned  and  pious  English  di- 
vine, the  son  of  Laurence  Horton,  a  merchant  of  London, 
was  bom  in  that  city.  In  July  1623  he  was  admitted  a 
pensioner  of  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took 
the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1626,  and  that  of  master  in  1630. 
He  was  also  a  fellow  of  his  college.  In  1637  be  took  the 
degree  of  B.  D.  and  was  appointed  one  of  the  twelve  uni'* 
versity  preachers.  The  following  year  he  was  chosen 
master  of  Q.ueen*s-coIlege,  in  that  university,  after  the 
death  of  Mr.  Herbert  Palmer,  and  in  July  of  the  same  year 
minister  of  St.  Mary  Colechurch,  in  London,  a  donative 
of  the  Mercers'  company,  of  which  bis  £sither  was  a 

In  Oct.  1641,  be  was  elected  professor  of  divinity  at 
Gresham -college,  and  in  May  1647,  was  elected  preacher 
to  the  honourable  society  of  GrayVinn,  of  which  be  was 
also  a  member.  In  1649  be  was  created  D.  D.  and  the  en- 
suing year  was  chosen  vice-ohancellor  of  Cambridge.  In 
1651  he  appears  to  have  resigned  the  office  of  preacher  of 
Gray's-inn ;  and  marrying  about  the  same  time,  he  pro- 
cured an  order  from  parliament  that  he  should  not  be 
obliged  by  that  step  to  vacate  his  professorship  at  Gresham 
college.  The  Gresham  committee,  however,  referring  to 
^he  founder^s  will,  came  to  a  resolution  that  the  place  w^ 


*  Gtnh  Di^— Cieero*8  Orations 

H  O  R  TON.  19? 

•  •  ■  ' 

Vacant,  but  did  not  at  this  time  proceed  to  an  electloiit^ 
In  August  1652,  Dr.  Horton  was  incorporated  D.  D.  in  the  . 
university  of  Oxford,  and  the  year  following  was  nominated 
one  of  the  triers  or  commissioiiers  for  the  approbation  of^ 
young  ministers.     In  1656,  the  Gresham  committee  re- 
sumed the  affair  of  his  professorship,  and  proceeded  to  a  new 
election,  but  Dr.  Horton  obtained  a  fresh  dbpensation  from 
Cromwell  by  means  of  secretary  Thurloe,  and  continued. 
in  quiet  possession,  holding  with  it  his  headship  of  Queen^s 
college,  Cambridge.     On  the  restoration  he  was  obliged 
to  resign  the  headship  to  Dr.  Martin,  who  had  been  ejected, 
by  the  parliamentary  visitors ;  and  although  he  had  interest 
enough  at  court  to  retain  his  professorship  for  a  little  time, 
he  was  obliged  in   1661   to  resign  it.     When  the  Savoy 
conference  was  appointed,  he  was  non^inated  as  an  assis-. 
tant  on  the  side  of  the  presbyterians,  but,  according  to. 
Baxter,  never  sat  among  them ;  and  although  one  of  th^ 
number  of  the  divines  ejected  by  the  Bartholomew  act,  he 
conformed  afterwards,  and  in  June  1666,  was  admitted  to 
the  vicarage  of  Great  St  Helen,  in  Bishopsgate-street,, 
London,  which  he  held  till  his  death,  in  March  1673. 

Dr.  Wallis,  who  had  been  under  his  tuition  at  Cam- 
bridge,  aqd  after  his  decease  published  a  volume  of  his 
sermons,  with  some  account  of  his  life,  says  he  was  *^  s^ 
pious  and  learned  man,  an  hard  student,  a  sound  divine, 
a  good  textuary,  very  well  skilled  in  the  oriental  languages, 
very  well  accomplished  for  the  work  of  the  ministry,  and 
very  conscientious  in  the  discharge  of  it"  Nor  did  the 
close  application  to  his  province  as  a  divine,  occasion  him 
wholly  to  neglect  his  juvenile  studies.  In  the  Cambridge 
verses,  entitled  "  2«(^7f^^,'*  written  upon  the  restoration  of 
Charles  11.  there  is  a  poem  composed  by  Dr.  Horton,  while 
master  of  Queen^s.  He  printed  hut  three  sermons  him- 
self, but  left  many  oUiers  prepared  for  the  press ;  and 
after  his  death  were  published,  1.  '^  Forty-six  Sermons 
upon  the  whole  eighth  chapter  of  the  Epistle  to  the  Ro- 
mans," Lond.  1674,  foL  2.  "  A  choice  and  practical 
Exposition,  upon  the  4,  47,  51,  and  63  Psalms,"  ibid. 
1675,  fol.  3.  *<  One  hundred  select  Sermons  upon  several 
texts,"  with  the  author's  life  by  Dr.  Wallis,  ibid.  1679> 
fol.  He  left  also  some  sacramental,  funera),  and  other 
sermons,  prepared  for  the  press,  but  which  have  not  been 

t  jkth.  Oz«  Tol.  U*— Ward's  Lives  of  tlM  Grosham  Professom 

too  H  O  S  1  U  s. 

HOSlUS  (Stanislaus),  cardiaaVwas  bom  at  Cracow^ 
in  Poland,  in  1503,  of  low  parents,  hnt  being  well  edu- 
cated,- bore  such  a  character  after  taking  Bis  degrees,  as. 
to  be  admitted  into  the  Polish  senate.     He  was  here  dis- 
tinguished by  the  acuteness  of  his  genius,  the  retentive- 
ness  of  his  memory,  and  other  accomplishments  mental 
and  personal ;  and' was  advanced  successively  to  the  places  *• 
of  secretary  to  the  king,  canon  of  Cracow,  bishop  of  Culm> 
and  bishop  of  Warmia.     He  was  sent  by  the  pope  Pius 
IV    to  engage  the  emperor  Ferdinand    to  continue  the 
council  of  Trent ;  and   the  eniperor  was  so  charmed  with, 
his  eloquence  and  address,  that  he  granted  whatever  he 
askud.     Pius  then  made  him  a  cardinal,  and  employed  him, 
as  his  legate,  to  open  and  preside  at  the  council.     Hosius 
was  a  zealous  advocate  for  the  Romish  church,  and  de«. 
fended  it  ably,  both  in  speeches  and  writings ;  the  latter 
of  which  amounted  to  two  folio  volumes,  atid  wereoften 
printed  during  his  life.     He  died  in  1579,  at  the  age  of, 
seventy -six,  and  was  burieB  in  the  church  of  St.  Lawrence, 
from  which  he  took  his  title  as  cardinal.  By  his  will  he  left  bis 
library  to  the  university  of  Cracow,  with  an  annual  sum  to 
provide  for  its  support  and  increase.     Among  his  works, 
the   chief  are,   1.  "  Confessio  Catholics  Fidei,**  said  to 
have  been  reprinted  in  various  languages,  thirty- four  times. . 
2.  "  De  Communione  sub  utraque  specie.'*     3.  '*  De  sa- 
cerdotum  conjugio.'*     4.  "  De  Missa  vulgari  lingua  cele-^' 
brands,''  &c.     His  works  were  first  collectively  published 
at  Cologne,  in  1584.* 

HOSKINS  (John),  an  English  lawyer  and  poet,  was 
born  in  1566,  at  Mownton,  in  the  parish  of  Lanwarne,  in 
Herefordshire,  and  was  at  first  intended  by  his  father  for 
a  trade,  but  his  surprizing  memory  and  capacity  induced 
him  to  send  him  to  Westminster,  and  afterwards  to  Win- 
chester school,  at  both  which  he  made  great  proficiency* 
From  Winchester  he  w^as  in  1584  elected  probationer- fel- 
low of  New- col  lege,  Oxford,  and  two  years  afterwards 
admitted  actual  fellow.  In  1591  he  took  his  master's  de- 
gree ;  but  being  terra  jiliuiiy  in  the  act  following,  he  was, 
says  Wood,  **  so  bitterly  satirical,"  as  to  be  refused  to 
co^iplete  his  degree  as  regent  master,  and  was  also  ex- 
pf  her  the  university.  He  then,  for  his  maintenance, 
taught  school  for  some  time  at  lichester,  in  Somersetshire^  . 

1  Gent  Dict^-^Frebcri  TheairiUB.«— Mor«ri.«>->DupiiK 

H  O  S  K  I  N  S.  SOI 

where  he^compUed  a  Greek  lexicon  as  far  as 'the  letter  M* 
^^Tying  afterwards  a  lady  of  praperty,  be.ent/ered  him* 
4elf  as.  sjtudent  in  the  Middle -temple,  and  at  .the  usual 
time  was  cal.ied  to  the  bar.*  In  1614  he  had  aseat  in  par* 
ll^caent,.  where  some  rash  speeches  occasioned  his  being; 
imprisoned  tot,  a  year.  He.v^as  afterwards  elected  .Lent- 
reader  of  the  IVIiddle-temple,  and  fogr  years  after ,  waa 
made  a  se^rjeant  at  law,  a  justice  itinerant,  for  Wales,  ,and' 
ope  of.  the  council  of  the  Marches.  He  died  at  his  Jsouse^ 
at  Mprehampton^  iu  Herefordshire,  Aug.  27,  1638.:      .;      ! 

He  was  much  admired  for  his  talent  in  Latin  and  £ng« 
lish  poetry,  and  highly  respect^  by  the  most  eminent 
men  of  his  time,  Camden,  Selden,  Daniel,    Dr«.  Donne, 
sir-  Heqry  Wottor^  sir  Walter  Raleigh,  whose,  ^'  History^'* 
he  revised  before  it  was  sent  to  press.;  and  others,  par^ 
tieujlarly  Ben.  Jonson,  who  used  to.  say,  *^  'twas  he.  that 
polished  me,  I  do  acknowledge  it.*'     Wood  sp,eaks  of  him 
as  the  .author  of  the  Greek  (exicon  already  meutioned,  left^ 
in  MS.  and  imperf^t;  of  several  epigrams  .-aod.ep'taphs, 
in  Latin  and  l^nglish,  interspersed  in  various  .collections  ;* 
'^  The  Art  of  Memory/'  in  which  he  himself  excelled ;  and* 
of  some  ]aw  treatises,  in  MS.  which  becarnq  the  property  t 
of  his  graqdsoo,    sir  John  Hoskins,  knt.    and  bart.  mas*' 
t^r  ip  ehancery,  but  better  known  to  the  world  as  a  philo- 
sopher, and  ope  of  the  first,  members  of  the  royal  society,, 
of  which  he  was  president  in  1682.* 

HOSPINIAN    (Rauph),  a  learned   Swiss  writer,,  who* 
rendered. important  service  to  the  Protestant  cause,  was- 
born  at  Altdprf  near  Zurich,  where  his  father,  was  minister,: 
iu  1547,     He  b^gan  his  studies  with  great  diligence  and. 
success  at   Zurich,  under  the   direction   of  Woliius,  his* 
unqle  l^  his  mother's  side ;  and  lotting  his  father  in  1563, 
foujid  an  a&ctionate.  patron  in  his  godfather  Uodolpbus* 
Gualterus.  ,  He  left  Zurich  in  1565,  in  order  to  visit. the 
other  universities;,  and  spent  some  time  in  Marpurg  and 
Heidelberg.     H^  ivas,  aft;ei*wards  recalled,  and   received; 
into  the  ministry  in  1«568 ;  the  year  following  he  obtainect 
the  freedpm,  of  the  city ;  and^  was  made  provisor  of  tl>e 
.abbey  school  in  1371.     Though  bis  scUooLand  his  cuve 
engr4^sised.nui^h  of  his  time,  he  bad  the  courage  taauider*. 
take  a.nobi^  wprj^  of  vast  extent,  ,*•  An  History  of  t^e  firw. 
rors  of  Popery."'     He  considered,  that  the  Papists,  when 

. '  4^tli.  Ox.  Tol^  I. — Gr«of  er. 

*0i  H  O  S  P  I  N  I  A  N. 

defeated  by  the  Holy  Scripturesy  had  recoursis  to  traditioTi  ; 
were  for  ever  boasting  of  their  antiquity,  and  despised  ther 
protestants  for  being  modern.     To  deprive  them  of  thi» 
plea,  he  determined  to  search  into  the  rise  and  progress  of 
the  Popish  rites  and  ceremonies ;  and  to  examine  by  what 
gradations  the  truth,  taught  by  Christ  and  his  apostles^^ 
had  been  corrupted  by  innovations.     He  oould  not,  how-' 
ever,  complete  his  work,  agreeably  to  the  plan  be  had 
drawn  out ;  but  he  published  some  considerable  parts  of 
it,  aji,  1.  "DeTemplis:  hoc  est,  de  origine,  progressu, 
U8u,  &  abusu  Tempiorum,  ac  omnino  rerum  omnium  ad 
Templapertinentium,''  1587,  folio.     2.  <' Die  Monachis  t 
seu  de   origine    &    progressu    monachatus    &    ordinum 
monasticorunj,"   1588,  folio.     3.  <^  De  Festis  Judaeorum, 
ct  Ethnicorum  :  hoc  est,  de  origine,  progressu,  ceremo* 
nib,  et    ritibus    festorum  dierum  Judseorum,   Graecorunr, 
Romanorum,  Turcarum,  &  Indianorum,'*  1592,  folio.    4. 
^*Festa  Christianorum,''   &c.    1593,  folio.     5.  "  Histoiria; 
Sacramentaria :  hoc  est,  libri  quinque  de  Coen»  Domimc» 
prima  institutione^  ej usque  vero  usu  &  abusu,  in  primaBva 
ecclesia ;  necnon  de  origine,  progressu,  ceremaniis,^  &  ri- 
tibus MissdB,  Transubstantiationis,  &  aliorum  penie  infini- 
torum  errorum,  quibus  Coense  prima  institutio  borrilnHter 
inpapatu  polluta  &  profanata  est,*'  1598,  folio.     6.  ^  Para 
altera:  de  origine  et  progressu  controversis&  sacramentaria»^ 
de  Coena  Domini  inter  Lutheranos,  Ubiquistas,  &  Ortho* 
doxos,  quos  Zuinglianos  seu  Calvinistas  vocant,  exortsei  ab 
anno  1517  usque  ad  1602  deducta,  J  602,**  folio.    These  ^ 
are  all  of  them  parts  of  his  great  work,  which  he  enlarged 
in  succeeding  editions,  and  added  confutations  of  the  ar- 
gumentis  of  Bel^armin,  Baronius,  and  Gretser.     What  he 
published  on  the  Eucharist,  and  another  work  entitled' 
'^  Concordia  Discors,*'  &c.  printed  in  1607,  exasperated 
die  Lutherans  in  a  high  degree ;  and  they  wrote  against 
him  with  great  animosity.     He  did  not  publish  any  answer, 
though  he  had  almost  finished  one,  but  turned  his  arms 
against  the  Jesuits;  and  published  ^<  Historia  Jesuitica : 
hoc   est,  de  origine,  regulis,  constitutionibus,  privilegiis, 
incremehtis,  progressu,  &  propagatione  ordinis  Jesuitarum.  ' 
Item,  de  eorum  dolis,  fraudibus,  imposturis,  nefariis  faci- 
Qoribus,  cruentis  consiliis,  falsa  quoque^  seditiosa^  &  san* 
guinolenta  doctrina,**  1619,  folio. 

These  works  justly  gained  him  high  reputation,  and 
considerable  preferment    He  wias  appointed  archdeacott 

H  b  S  P  1  N  I  A  N.  20S  ^ 

^f  Caroline  church  in  1588;  and,  in  1594,  minister  of  the 
abbey-church.     He  was  depjived  of  his  sight  for  near  a 
year  by  a  cataract,  yet  Continued  to  preach  as  usual,  and 
was  happily  couched  in  1613.     In  1623,  being  76  years  of 
age,  his  faculties  became  impaired,  and  so  continued  tiH 
his  death  in  1626.    The  public  entertained  so  high  an' 
opinion  of  his  learning  from  his  writings,  that  he  was  ex-' 
horted  from  all  quarters  to  refute  Baronius^s  ''*  Annals  ;*^ 
and  no  one  was  thought  to  have  greater  abilities  for  the' 
task.     A  new  edition  of  his  works  was  published  at  Geneva/ 
1681y  in  seven  thin  volumes,  folio.  * 

HOSPITAL  (Michel  de  l'),  chancellor  of  France,  and 
one  of -the  most  liberal-minded  men  of  his  time,  was  the 
son  of  a  physician,  and  born  at  Aigneperse  in  Auvergne^ 
in  1505.     His  father  sent  him  to  study  in  the  most  cele** 
brated  universities  of  France  and  Italy,  where  he  distin* 

Jruished  himself  at  once  by  his  genius  for  literature,  and 
or  business.  Having  diligently  studied  jurisprudence,  be 
was  quickly  advanced  to  very  honourable  posts ;  being  sue* 
eessively  auditor  of  the  congregation  called  the  congregation' 
of  Rota  at  Rome,  and  counsellor  in  the  parliament  of  Paris^ 
which  he  held  during  twelve  years.  He  has  described  in  one 
of  his  poems  his  habits  of  life  during  this  time.  He  rose  at  a 
very  early  hour,  and  in  the  autumnal,  winter,  and  spriag' 
sessions,  was  often  in  the  court  of  justice  before  day-break,' 
and  reluctantly  rose  from  his  seat,  when  the  beadle,  at  teifi 
o^clock  (the  hour  of  dinner)  announced  the  breaking  up  of 
tbe  court.  He  says,  that  he  made  it  a  rule  to  listen  to  all 
with  patience,  to  interrupt  no  one,  to  express  himself  ail 
concisely  as  possible,  and  to  oppose  unnecessary  delays. 
He  mentions,  with  evident  satisfaction,  the  joy  which  he 
felt  when  the  vacations  allowed  him  to  quit  Paris,  and 
breathe  in  tbe  country.  The  cares  of  magistracy  he  then 
banished  wholly  from  his  thoughts,  and  endeavoured,  by 
harmless  relaxation,  to  enable  himself,  on  his  return  to  the 
discharge  of  bis  functions,  to  resume  them  with  fresh  vi«' 
gdur.  *'  But,*'  says  he,  ^^  there  is  nothing  frivolous  in 
my  amusements ;  sometimes  Xenophon  is  tbe  companion 
*  of  mv  walks ;  sometimes  the  divine  Plato  regales  me  with 
the  discourses  of  Socrates.  History  and  poetry  have  their 
turns  ;  but  my  chief  delight  is  in  the  sacred  writings  :  what 
comfort,  what  holy  calm,  does  the  meditation  of  them 
confer !" 

I  Geiu  Dict.*.Nieeroo,  toU  XXXVIIL— Saxii  Onomaif* 

,  ^0*  HOSPITAL. 


L^HospiUl  was  then  appointed  by  Henry  IL  to  be  bis 
embassador  at  the  council  of  Trent,  wbi^b  was  fitting  at 
Bologna.     By  his  own  desire,  he  was  soon  re<iaUed  from 
that  honourable  employment,  jand  on  his  return  expeneor 
qed,  at  firsts  aome  coldness  from  the  court,  but  was  soon 
Tijcstored  to  the  royal  favour,  and  appointed  master  of  tfa^ 
requests*    In  .the  beginning  of  1554  he  was  made  super* 
intendant  of.  the  royal  finances  .in  France.     His  merits  in 
thi^  post  were  of  the  most  singular  and  exalted  kind.    By 
a  ^vere  oe^cpnomy,  he  laboured  to  restore  the  royal  trea- 
sure, exhausted  by  the  prodigality  of  the  king,  Henry  II» 
amd  the  dishonest  avarice  of  bis  favourites ;  be  defied  the 
enmity  of  those  whose,  profits  he  destroyed,  and 'was  hini« 
self  so  rigicjly  disinterested,  that  after  five  or  six.  years'  con* 
tinpance  in  this  place,  he  was  unable  to  give  a  portion  to 
his:daughter,  and  the  deficiency  was  supplied  by  the  libe* 
rality^of  the  sovereign.    On  the  death  of  Henry,  in  151^9, 
th$  cardinal  of  Lorraine^  then  at  the  head  of  affairs,  intro*; 
duced  r  Hospital  into  the  council  of  state.     Hence  he  was 
Ir/snioved  by  Margaret  of  Valpis,  who  took  him  into  Siavoy^ 
as  her  chancellor.    Butthe  confusions  of  France  soon  made 
it  necesisary  :ta  recal  a  inap  of  such  firmness  and  undaunted, 
integrity.     In  the  midst  of  faction- and  fury,  be  was  ad- 
vapced:  to  the  high  office  of  rchancellor  of  that  kingdom, 
%here,  hemaintained  his  post,  like  a  philosopher  who  was. 
superior  to.  fear,  oi^  any  species  of  weakness.     At  the  breakf* 
ing  out  of  the  ceaspiracy  of  Amboise,  in  1560,  and  on  all* 
other  :oecasions,  he.  was  the  advocate  fpr  mercy  and  recon<» 
ciliation^  9nd  by  the  edict  of  Romorantio,  prevented  the 
eiitablishment  of  the  inquisition  in  France.     It  was  perhaps* 
for  reasons  of  this  kind,  and  his  general  ia^ersion  to  perse- 
ciition  for  religion's  sake,  that  the  violent  Romanists^  at:-' 
cijsed  him  of  being  a  concealed  Protestant:;  forgetting  that 
by  such  suspicions  they  paid  the  highest  compliment  to: 
the  spirit:  of  .Protestantism*    The.  queen,    Catherine  of;. 
Medicis, .  who  had  contributed  to  the  elevation  of  THospi- . 
tal^  being  too  .violent  to  approve  bis  pacific  measures,  •ex-* . 
eluded  him  from  the  council  of  war;  on  which  be  retired 
to  his  country-house  at  Vignay  near  £stampe8.     Some  days . 
after,  when  the  seals  were  demanded  of  him,  he  resigned  • 
tbemwithotit  regret,  saying,  that  **  the  affairs  of  the  world  ; 
were  too. corrupt  for  him  to  meddle,  with  them."     In  Itft- 
tered  ease,  amusing  himself  with  Latin  poetry,  and  a  se- » 
lect  society  of  friends,  be  truly  enjoyed  bis  rietreat,  till  his 

happiness  was  interrupted  by  tlte  atroieidas  day  ef  St.  B^r^ 
tholottiew,  in  1572.  Of  this  disgra^^al -inassacrey  li^ 
thongbt'as  posterity  has  thought';  but,  thdugh  hisfnendi 
Conceived  it  probable '  that  he  might  be  included  in  the 
proscriptian,  h«  disdained  tiy  seek  hiii'safety  by  flight.  So 
fifth  was  he,  that  when  &  party  of  boiisemen  actually  ad^ 
Tanced  to  his  house,  though  without  ordei>s,  for'  the  horrid 
purpose  of  murdering  him,' lie  refused'  to  dose'  his  gates : 
^  If  the  small  one,''  said  he,  <*  will  not  admit  them,  thro^ 
open  the  large ;''  and  he  was  preserved  Qoly^by  thei  arrival 
of  another  party,  with  expiiess  orders  from  the  king  to  de* 
clare  that  he  was  not  among  the  pr<)scHbed.  The  [i^ons 
who  made  th^  lists^,  if  Was  alided;  pai^oned  bim  the  dppo^ 
sition  he  had  always  nfiade  to  their  projects. .  '**I  did  not 
know,**  said  fa^  coldly,  without  any  change  of*  donnte-^ 
nance,  ^*  that  I  had  done  any  thing  to  deserve  eithet  death 
or  pardon."     His  motto- is  said  to  have  been. 

Si  fractus  illabatur  orbU— 
Impavidum  ferient  ruinae^ 

aiid  certaiply  no  person  ever  had  a. better  right  to  asisume 
that  subliqae  device.  This  e^xcellent  magistrate,  and  truly 
great  man, , died  March  13,  1573,  at  the  age  6(  68  yearsJ 
**  L' Hospital,"  says  Brantome,  "was  the  greatest,  wor* 
thiest,  and  most,  learned  chancellor,  that  was  ever  known 
in  France.  His  large  white  beard,  pale  cbiintenancey 
austere  manner,  ihade  all  who  saw  him  think  they  beheld 
a  true  portrait  of  St.  Jerome,  and  he  was  called  St.  Jerome 
\ff  the  courtiers.  All  orders  of  men  feared  him.;  particu- 
larly the  members  of  the  courts  of  justice ;  and,  when  he 
examined  them  on  their  lives,  their  discha/ge  of  their 
duties,  their  capacities,  or  their  knowledge,  and  particularly 
when  he  examined  candidates  for  offices,  and  found  ih^in 
deficient,  he  made  them  feel  it.  He  was  profoundly  versed 
in  polite  learning,  very  eloquent,  and  an  excellent  po^l 
His  severity  was  never  ill-natured  j  he  made  due  allowance 
for  the  imperfections  of  human  nature ;  was  always  equal 
antd  always  firm.  After  his  death  his  very  enemies  acknpw- 
[edged  that  he  was  the  greatest  magistrate  whom  France 
*Kad  known,  and  that  they  did  not  expect  to  see  such  aiio-; 
ther.'*  There  are  exunt  by  him^  1.  "  Latiui  Poems." 
Their  unpretending  simplicity  is  their  greatest  merit;'  hut 
they  shew  such  real  dignity  of  character,  they  breathe  so 
pure  a  spmi  of  virtue,  and  are  full  of  such  e&cellent  sea« 
timents  of  public  and  private  wortbi  that  they  will  always 

ao^  B  O  a  ?  I  T  A.  U 

he  ir^ied  with  pkasure^  2.  <<  Speftcbc^  delivered  in-  tbd 
meetiDg  of  the  States  at  Orleans."  As  an  orator  he  sbioes 
much  less  than  as  a  poet.  3.  **  Memoirs^  containing 
Treaties  of  Peat^e,'*  &c.  &c.  Tt  is  said  that  be  had  also 
projected  a  history  of  his  own  time  in  Latin,  hut  this  he 
did  not  execute.  The  best  edition  of  his  poems  is  that  of 
Amsterdam)  1732,  8vo.  He  left  only  one  child)  a  daugh- 
ter^  married  to  Robert  Hurault,  whose  children  added  the 
fiame.  of  T Hospital  to  that  of  their  father;  biit  the  male 
line  of  this  family  also  was  extinct  in  1706.  .  Nevertheless, 
the  memory  of  the  chancellor  ha^  received  the  highest 
honours  widiin  a  few  years  of  the  present  time.  In  .1777, 
Louis  Xy I.  erected  a  statue 'p^;whit§  marble,  to  him,  and 
in  the  same  year  be  was  proposed  by  tb^  French  academy 
for  the  subject  of  an  eloge.  M.  Guibert  and  the  abb6 
Remi  contended  for  the  prize.  It  was  adjudged  to  the 
latter,  who  did  not,  however,  print  his  work ;  M.  Guibert 
was  less  prudent,  but  his  eloge  gave  little  satisfaction^ 
The  celebrated  Condorcet  afterwards  entered  the  lists,  but 
with  equal  want  of  success.  Such  fastidiousness  of  public 
opinion  showed  the  high  veneration  entertained  for  the 
character  of  L'Hospital.  In  1807,  M;  Bernard!  published 
bis  ''  Essai  sur  la  Vie,  les  Ecrits,  et  les  Loix  de  Michel  de 
L^ Hospital,''  in  one  vol.  8vo,  a  work  written  with  taste  and 
judgment ;  from  these  and  other  documents,  Charles  But- 
ler, esq.  has  lately  published  an  elegant  '*  Essay  on^  the 
Life''  of  L'Hospital,  principally  with  a  view  to  exhibit 
bim  as  a  friend  to  toleration.' 

HOSPITAL  (William-Francis-Antony,  marquis  im 
l'),  a  great  mathematician  of  France,  was  born  of  a  branch 
of  the  preceding  family,  in  1661.  He  was  a  geometrician 
almost  from  his  infancy ;  for  one  day  being  at  the  duke  de 
Kohan's,  where  some  able  mathematicians  were  speaking 
of  a  problem  of  Paschal's,  which  appeared  to  tbeifn  ex* 
tremely  difficult,  he  ventured  to  say,  thatt  he  believed  he 
^oujd  solve  it.  They  were  amazed  at  what  appeared  such 
unpardonable  presumption  in  a  boy  of  fifteen,  for  be  was 
then  no  more,  yet  in  a  few  days  he  sent  them  the  solution. 
He  entered  early  into  the  army,  but  always  preserved  his 
love  for  the  mathematics,  and  studied  them  even  in  his 
^ent;  whither  be  used  to  retire,  it  is  said,  not  only  to 
study,  but  also  to  conceal  his  application  to  study :  for  in 


•  •  • 

tbosediip^  labeknow^g  in  the  sciences,  wm  Iboiight  to 
derogate  from  nobility;  «ind  a  soldier  of  quality,  to  pre- 
serve bis  dignity,  was  in  some  measure  obliged  to  bide  bis 
literary  attaiQments.  Del'Hospital  was  a  captain  of  borne; 
but,  being  extr^ely  sbort«sigbted,  and  exposed  on  that 
accbpnt  to  perpt^tual  inconveniences  and  errors,  be  at 
length  quittei^  the  ariny,  and  applied  himself  entirely 
to  bis  favourite  amusement  He  contracted  a  friend* 
ship  with  Malbranche,  judging  by  bis  ^^  Recherche  de  la 
VeritS,^'  that  be  nm^t  be  an  excellent  guide  in  the  sciences; 
itnd  be  took  his  opinion  upon  all  occasions.  His  abilitieif 
^x\d  knowledge  were  no  longer  a  secret :  and  at  the  age  of 
thirty-two. be  gave. a  public  solution  of  problems,  drawn 
from  the  deepest  geome.try,  which  had  been  proposed  to 
mathematicians  in  the  acts  of  Leipsic.  In  1693  be  was  re- 
ceived an  honorary  member  of  the  academy  of  sciences  at 
Pari^.;  and  published  a  work  upon  sir  IsiBUic  Newton^s  caU 
eulations,  entitled  ^^  L^ Analyse  des  iafinimens  petits."  He 
was  the  first  in  France  who  wrote  on  this  subject;  and  on 
this  account  was  regarded  almost  as  a  prodigy.  He  en- 
gaged afterwards  in  another  work  of  the  mathematical  kind# 
in  which  he  included  **  Les  Sectiones  coniques,  lea  Lieux 
geometriques,  la  Construction  des  Equations,"  and  '*  Une 
Theorie  des  Cburbes  mechaniques ;''  but  a  little  before  be 
bad  finished  it,  he  was  seized  with  a  fever,  of  which  he 
died  Feb.  2,  1704,  aged  49.  It  was  published  after  his 
death,  viz.  in  1707.  There  are  also  six  of  his  pieces  in- 
serted in  different  volumes  of  the  memoirs  of  the  academy 
;(|f  sciences.' 

HOSTE,  or  L'HOSTE  (John),  a  learned  mathemati- 
cian of  Nancy,  towards  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century, 
taught  law  and  mathematics  with  uncoounon  reputation .  ^t 
Pont-ii-Mousson,  and  was  appointed  superintendant  of  for- 
tiBcations,  and  counsellor  of  war  by  Henry  duke  of  Lo9- 
rain.  His  genius  was  extensive,  penetrating,  and  formed 
for  the  sciences.  He  died  in  16SI,  leaving  several  valu- 
able works:  the  principal  ones  are,  ^^Le  sommaire  et 
Tusage  de  la  Sphere  Artificielle,*'  4to;  <<  La  Pratique  de 
G^om^trie,"  4to ;  '*  Description  et  usage  des  prinoipaux 
instrumem  de  G6om£trie,"  4to  ;  ^<  Du  Quadran  et  quarrf ; 
lIRayon  astronomique ;  B&ton  de  Jacob ;  interpretatipn  dm 
grand  art  de  Raymond  LuUe,*^  &c.* 

1  Qtm.  Dict«-ilf  orari.«»Martia*f  Bi#s<  PliUog^         ■  Momk-^Okit.  Bi^ 

i(A  ft  O  S  T  k*  >• 

HOftTE  XPkvh),  born  May  19^^  1652,  :atin)tit:.3^iV^l«|^^ 
cntenei  among'  the  Jesuits  ih  16iSd;  smd^  ibqujred  great 
ikill  in  mathematics  ;  accompariied  ^be  ti)arechaf$'(f*F!str^e;i 
and  db'Tourville,  during  twelve  years;  in  tiVtHhiir  navai 
expeditions,  and  gained  their  esteieqpii' '  He  Was  appbintec 
king's  profeissor  of  mathematics  afTouWii-'anid  *<fiea''iher^ 
February  23,  17t30,  leaving,  "  Rfetiieirdes  JTrait^s  d^'Ma- 
tll^matiques  les  plus  necessaires  a*  tjn'  bfficier,'".    5  Vols! 
l^mo;  "  L'Art  des  armies  naralesj  oii  Traits  dies  ^vbTu- 
tibns  navales,'*  Lyons,  11597,  and  tiroyef  ctbrhpletely  in  1727. 
folio.    This  work  is  not  less  historicariban  scientific,  ana  . 
contain^  an  accodnt  of  the  most  cohsiderable  n&varbVents 
of  the  fifty  preceding  years.     He  p'fefented  it' to  Loui$ 
XIV.  who  received  it  graciously,  and  rewarded  the  author 
with  100  pistoles;  and  a  pension  of  '600  livres;  a  treatise 
o6  the  construction  of  ships,  which  he  wrote  in  conse- 
quence of  some  conversation  with  marechal  de  Tourville^ 
is- printed  at  the  end  of  the  preceding.  '  In  1762,  lieute- 
nant O'Bryen  published  in  4t03j  '**^  Naval  Evolutions,  or  a  . 
System  of  JSea-disclpfine,'*  extracted  froln  fether  L'Hoste's 
"L^'A'ft  des  armies  uavales."  * 

ftQTMA]>T  (FaANCis),  in  Latin  Hbtqmanus,  a  learned 
t^rench  civilian,  was  borii  in  '1524,  at  Paris/  where  his  fa- 
mily,  originally  "of  fireslau  in  Silesia,  had  Nourished  For  . 
some  time.     He.  made  so  rapid  ^  progress  in  the  belles 
lettres,  that  at  the  age  of  fifteen,  he  was.  sent  to  Orleans 
to  study  the  civil  l^w,  and  in  three  years  was  received  doc- 
tor to  that  faculty.     His  fether,  a  counsellor  in  parliameii^ 
had  already  designed  hirp  for  that  employment ;  andther^ 
foi'e'iiertt  for  hini  home,  and  placed  him  at  the  bar.     But 
Hotman  wa^  soon  displeased  with  the  chicanery  of  the 
court,  and  applied  himself  vigorously  to  the  study  of  th^ 
Rbrpan  law  and  polite  literature.     At  the  age  of  twenty- 
thre)?,  be  was  chosen  to  read  public  lectures  in  the  schools  / 
of  Paris :  but,  relishing  the  opinions  of  Luther,  on  ac^ 
count  of  which  many  persons  were  put  to  death  in  France,  - 
and  finding  that  he  Co^^d  not  profess  tliem  at  Paris;  h(e 
went  to  Lyons  in*1^548.     Having  npw  nothit^g  to  expect 
from' his  father.  Who  was  greatly  irritated,  at  the  change  o^  • 
his  religion,  he  left  tVance,  and  retired  to  Geneva  j  where /^ 
he  lived  some  tin)e  in  jCalviii's  house.     From  hence  he  went 
to  Lausanne,  where  the  magistrates  ;of  Bern  gave'  him  tbn  ^ 

•  Moreri.— Diet*  Hist 

H  O  T  M  A  N.  »W 

place  of  professor  of  polite  literature.  He  publisbed  there 
sdme  books,  which,  however,  young  as  he  was,  were  not 
his  first  publications ;  and  married  a  French  gentlewoman, 
who  had  also  retired  thither  on  account  of  religion.  His 
Daerit  was  so  universally  known,  that  the  magistrates  of 
Strasburg  oflPered  him  a  professorship  of  civil  law ;  whi^h 
he  accepted,  and  held  till  1561,  and  during  this  period^ 
received  invitations  from  the  duke  of  Prussia,  the  land- 
grave of  Hesse,  the  dukes  of  Saxony,  and  even  from  queea 
Elizabeth  of  England ;  but  did  not  accept  them.  He  did 
not  refuse,  however,  to  go  to  the  court  of  the  king  of  Na* 
vsirrey  at  the  begining  of  the  troubles ;  and  he  went  twice 
into  Germany,  to  desire  assistance  of  Ferdinand,  in  the 
name  of  the  princes  of  the  blood,  and  even  in  the  name  of  the 
queen-mother.  The  speech  he  made  at  the  diet  of  Franc«> 
fort  is  published.  Upon  his  return  to  Strasburg,  he  was 
prevailed  upon  to  teach  civil  law  at  Valence ;  which  he  did 
with  such  success,  that  be  raised  the  reputation  of  that 
university.  Three  years  after,  he  w^nt  to  be  professor  at 
Bourges,  by  the  invitation  of  Margaret  of  Fra,nce,  sister  of 
Henry  II.  but  left  that  city  in  about  five  months,  and  re- 
tired to  Orleans  to  the  heads  of  the  party,  who  made  great 
use  of  his  advice.  The  peace  which  was  made  a  month 
after,  did  not  prevent  him  from  apprehending  the  return 
of  the  storm  :  upon  which  account  he  retired  to  Sancerre, 
aiid  there  wrote  an  excellent  book,  <^  De  Consolatione,^' 
which  his  son  published  after  his  death.  He  returned  after- 
wards to  his  professorship  at  Bourges,  where  he  very 
natrrowly  escaped  the  massacre  of  1572:  which  induced 
him  to  leave  France,  with  a  full  resolution  never  to  return. 
He  then  went  to  Geneva,  where  he  read  lectures  upon  the 
civil  law.  Some  time  after,  he  went  to  Basil,  and  taught 
civil  law,  and  was  so  pleased  with  this  situation,  that  he 
refused  great,  offers  from  the  prince  of  Orange  and  the 
States*general,  who  would  have  drawn  him  to  Leyden. 
The  plague  having  obliged  him  to  leave  Basil,  be  retired  to 
Montbeliard,  where  he  lost  his  wife ;  and  went  afterwards 
lo  live  with  her  sisters  at  Geneva.  He  returned  once  more 
to  Basil,  and  there  died  in  1590,  of  a  dropsy,  which  had 
kept  him  constantly  in  a  state  of  indisposition  for  six  years 
before.  During  this,  he  revised  and  digested  his  works 
for  a  new  edition,  which  appeared  at  Geneva  in  1599,  in 
3  vols,  folio,  with  his  life  prefixed  by  Neveletus  DoschiuSw^ 

vouxvm.  p 

«io  ti6t  a  Ait. 

The  first  two  eoutaia  treadats  upon  the  ci?H  bw;  t^ 
third,  pieces  relating  to  tho  governvient  of  France^  and  tb€ 
fight  of  succession ;  five  books  of  flomaa  aatiquities ;  com-<^ 
inentaries  upon  TuUy's  <<  Orations  and  Epistles;"  ntdtea 
tipoii  Caesar's.''  CommeJitaries;" &c.  His  *<  Franoo-Galli^^ 
or,  *^  Account  of  the  free  state  of  France/'  has  been  trans* 
lated  into  English  by  lord  tholes  worth,  ambor  of  ^The 
Account  of  Denmark."  He  pubikbted  also  several  othef 
articles  without  his  nsune ;  but,  being'  of  the .  controversial 
kind,  they  wer^  probably  not  thought  of  consequence 
enough  to  be  revived  in  the  coUeetion  of  his  works. 

He  was  one  of  those  who  would  never  consent  to  bef 
painted  ;  but  we  are  tdd,  that  his  picture  was  uken  while 
he  was  in  his  last  agony.  '  His  integrity,  firmness,  and 
|)iety, ,  are  highly  extolled  by  the  author  of  his  life  $  yet,  it 
Baudouin  may  be  believed  (whom,  however,  it  is  more  rea* 
S(n>abie  not  to  believe,  as  he  was  bis  antagonist  in  religious 
opinions),  he  was  suspected  of  being  avaricious :  but  it 
must  be  remembered,  that  be  lost  his  all  when  be  changed 
his  religion,  and  had  no  supplies  bat  what  afx)se  from  read* 
ing  lectures ;  for  it  does  not  appear  that  his  wife  brought 
him  a  fortune.  It  is  very  probable,  however,  that  his  lee-* 
tures  Would  have  been  sufficient  for  iiis  sul^istence ;  h<td 
he  not  been  deluded  by  schemes  of  finding  out  the  philo- 
sopher's stone ;  and  we  find  him  lamenting  to  a  friend  in 
hi$  last  illness,  that  he  had  sqitatidered  away  his  substaacef 
upon  this  hopeful  project.  With  all  these  weaknesses,  he 
was  est€f€!med  one  of  the  greatest  civilians  France  ever  pro« 

HOTTINGER  (JoHN-HENaY),  a  very  learned  writor^ 
and  famous  fot  his  skill  in  the  oriental  languages,  was  born 
at  Zurich  in  Switzerland,  in  1620.  He  had  a  particular 
talent  for  learning  languages ;  and  the  progress  he  made  iti 
his  first  studies  gave  such  promising  hopes,  ttuu  it  was  ine<» 
solved  be  should  be  sent  to  study  in  foveign  coantrits,  at 
the  public  expence.  He  began  bifi  travels  in  1638,  and 
went  to  Geneva,  where  he  studied  two  months  under  FV« 
Spanheim.  Then  be  went  into  France,  and  thenfce  into 
Holland  f  and  fixed  at  Oroningen,  where  he  studied  divi«> 
nity  under  Gomarus  and  Aiting,  and  Arabic  under  P^^sor^ 
Here  be  intended  to  have  remained  ;  but  being  very  d;&si«^ 

'  Cen.  Diet.— Nioeroo,  vol.  XI.  and  XX.— Moreiri.— Freberi  Thtairnitt.— ^ 
Saxli  Ouomast. 

HOTTlNO^ll,  ill 

rems  of  iinproving  himsyf  in  tb6  oHental  Ift^gUiEigeii,  hi& 
^ent  in  1639  to  Leyden,  to  be  tutof  lb  the  dhlldfeh  of  Go- 
lius,  who  was  the  best  fikiUed  in  those  languages  of  kn  j  taih 
of  that  age.  Bythe  instructions  of  Golius»  h^  improired 
greatly  in  the  knowledge  of  Arabic,  and  feilso  by.  \ht  assist* 
anceofaTurk,  who  happisned  tb  be  at  Lieyden.  Besfdek 
these  advantages^  Grolius  had  a  fine  cbltettioh  of  Arabic 
books  an4  MS84  from  which  Hotttngef  W^  snfl^r^d  td  t'd^^f 
what  he  pleased,  during  the  foori^i§h  months  he  st^id  at 
Leyden.  Jn  1641,  he  was  offiE^red,  at  the  iretod^oiendattbii 
of  Golios,  the  place  of  chaplain  to  the  artiba^sltdor  of  tb^ 
Staies-gekierai  to  Constantinople;  And  be  vroold  gladljr 
have  attended  hitn^  a»  such  a  jouk-ney  #biild  hate  co-ope<' 
rated  wonderfully  with  his  grand  design  of  p^rfb^tihg;  hitti^ 
s^if  \h  the  eastern  languages  t  but  the  ma^istrtttes  of  Zii-^ 
rich  did  not  Consent  to  it :  tlu§y  ehode  rathtei*  to  veeAX  hiM; 
in  order  to  ibmploy  him  fof  t\vt  advantage  o^  theiic  public 
schools.  Th^y  permitted  hiin  fir^t,  hc^et^r^  to  visit  Ehg« 
laiid  ;  and  the  instant  he  returned  ffoin  that  cbtfhtry,  ihef 
appdintdd  him  prbfesitof  of  etdcfsiAstietll  hi^tofy;  and  A 
year  after,  tn  1648^  gd^e  him  tWb  pmf^sbfshtps^  thki  6i 
catecbeticat  dttiiiity^  and  that  of  kh^  oHl^iltii)  tongues. 

He  married  at  twenty^-two,  and  b^^rl  td  publish  bobki 
at  t^entjr.fomr.  New  |^ofe^6orshipd  WdH?  b^stbWt^jd  upott 
bim  ill  1653^  and  b^  was  admitted  iHIb  tb^  college  of 
candtis.  In  I655|  the  eiectot  t^aktini^,  d^^trous  to  fi^^- 
store  the  l^redft  Of  hht  aniTtet-slty  of  H^i^berg,  ebtaih^d 
leiiv^  c^  the  seriate  of  Zurich  fot  Hoitirig^V  t<s  go  fher^,  on 
condition  that  be  shotald  return  M  th^  eiid  of  thr^e  years  : 
but  befsre  he  set  out  fbijr  thdt  t&Wy^  he  w^'nt  to  Basil,  and 
took  the  degree  «f  D.  D.  Ji^  arrived  ^t  iteidelberg  the 
sasse  year^  atid  #ak  graebctely  feci^ived  iri  that  city.  Be« 
aMes  tbeprofessorshijbrof  Aivfnrty  at)d  th^  ori^Utaf  tongues, 
he  was  appoiiHed  pr'wvtX^X  of  th^  Coll^gfdhi  Sapiential. 
He  waa  rector  of  the  tiniver^ity  the  yedr  fbilo^Eing,  Hnd 
wrote  a  \sfa^  eDM^min^  the  te-'tifaion  of  th&  Lutherans 
8nd  Cailririisfs  r  which  he  d^rd  t^  pl^s^  tb^  elector,  wht) 
wt»^  Maloift  in  that  MTaiiy  t  blit  ^^rty-ai^iibositles  readied 
biir  pe^fofteitoc^  iweffeetir^K  Hottln^cfr  si^companted  this 
prinde  to  the  &)eetoral  diet  df  ¥tfii\t9M  itl  165^^  and  there 
twd  a;  6^x\htwi&t&  mth  Job  Lt^lf.  Ludolf  had  Acquired  d 
vasH  knowledge  of  Ethiopia;  and^  itif  cotijirn<^ti5h  i^ith  Hot-* 
tiiigar^  concerted  meas^ates  foif  setidifig  into  Africa  some 
peraoM  siftilled  in  the  orvAital  iongHei^^  #h^  Migifl  linake 

P  2 



exact  inquiries  concerning  the  state  of  the  Christian  re1t-« 
gion  in  that  part  of  the  world.  Hottinger  was  not  recalled 
to  Zurich  till  1661,  his  superiors,  at  the  elector's  earnest 
request,  having  prolonged  the  term  of  years  for  which  they 
lent  him  :  and  he  then  returned,  honoured  by  the  elector 
with  the  title  of  Ecclesiastical-counsellor. 

Many  employments  were  immediately  conferred  on  him  i 
among  the  rest,  he  was  elected  president  of  the  comtnis-' 
sioners  who  were  to  revise  the  German  translation  of  the 
Bible.     A  civil  war  breaking  out  in  Switzerland  in  1664, 
he  was  sent  into  Holland  on  state  affairs.     Many  universi- 
ties would  willingly  have  drawn  Hottinger  to  them,  but* 
yrere  not  able.     That  of  Leyden  offered  him  a  professor- 
ship  of  divinity  in  1667;  but,  not  obtaining  leave  of  bis 
superiors,  he  refused  it,  until  the  magistrates  of  Zurich, 
consented,  in  complaisance  to  the  States  of  Holland,  who 
had  interested  themselves  in  this  affair.     As  he  was  pre-' 
paring  for  this  journey,  he  unfortunately  lost  his  life,  June 
5,  1667,  in  the  river  which  passes  through  Zurich.     He^ 
went  into  a  boat,  with  his  wife,  three  children,  his  brother-^' 
in-law,  a  friend,  and  a  maid-servant,  in  order  to  go  and 
let  out  upon  lease  an  estate  which  he  had  two  leagues  from 
Zurich.    The  boat  striking  against  a  pier,  which  lay  under 
water,  overset :  upon  which  Hottinger,  his  brother-«in-laWy 
and  friend,  escaped  by  swimming.     But  when  they  looked 
upon  the  women  and  children,  and  saw  the  danger  they 
were  in,  they  jumped  back  into  the  water :   the  conse- 
quence of  which  was,  that  Hottinger,  his  friend,  and  three 
children,  lost  their  lives,  while  his  wife,  his  brother-in-law, 
and  servant-maid,  were  saved.     His  wife  was  the  only 
daughter  of  Huldric,  minister  of  Zurich,  a  man  of  very? 
great  learning,  and  brought  him  several  children :  for  be- 
sides the  three  who  were  drowned  with  him,  and  those  who 
died  before,  he  left  four  sons  and  two  daughters. 

As  an  author,  he  was  very  prolific,  and  it  is  surprising/' 
that  a  man,  who  had  possessed  so  many  academical  em- 
ployments, was  interrupted  with  so  many  visits  (for  every 
body  came  to  see  him,  and  consulted  him  as  an  or^^), 
and  was  engaged  in  a  correspondence  with  all  the  Uteratr 
of  Europe,  should  have  found  time  to  write  more  than: 
forty  volumes,  especially  when  it  is  considered,  that  he 
did  not  reach  fifty  years  of  age.     The  most  considerable, 
of  his  works  are :   1.  *<  Exerdtationes  Anti-Morinianse,  d^ 
^entateucho  Samaritanos  4c.*'  1644^  quarto*    Moria  had 

H  O  T  TINGE  R.  213 

asserted,  in  the  strongest  manner,  the  authenticity  of  the 
Samaritan  Pentateuch  ;  which  he  preferred  to  the  Hebrevr 
tipxt,  upon  a  pretence  that  this  bad  been  corrupted  by  the 
Jews  ;  and  it  was  to  combat  this  opinion,  that  Hottinger 
wrote  these  Exercitations.  This  work,  though  the  first, 
is,  in  the  judgment  of  father  Simon,  one  of  the  best  he 
wrote ;  and  if  he  had  never  written  any  thing  more^  it  is 
probable  that  he  would  have  left  higher  notions  of  his  abi* 
lities :  for  certainly  it  was  no  small  enterprise  for  him,  so 
early  in  life,  to  attack,  on  a  very  delicate  and  knotty  sub- 
ject, and  with  supposed  success  too,  one  of  the  most 
learned  men  in  Europe  at  that  time.  2.  '^  Thesaurus  Thi- 
lologicus,  seu  clavis  scripturae,"  1649,  4to.  There  was  a 
second  edition  in  1649,  in  4to,  with  additions.  3.  **  His- 
toria  Orientalis,  ex  variis  Orientalium  monumentis  col* 
lecta,"'  1651,  4to.  No  man  vras  better  qualified  to  write 
on  oriental  affairs  than  Hottinger,  as  he  was  skilled  in  most 
of  the  languages  which  were  anciently,  as  well  as  at  pre-* 
sent,  spoken  in  the  East:  namely,  the  Hebrew,  Syriac,' 
Cbaldee,  Arabic,  Turkish,  Persiau,  and  Coptic.  4.  ^^Promp-* 
tuarium,  siy^  Bibliotheca  Orientalis,  exhibens  catalogum 
sive  centurias  aliquot  tarn  auctorum,  quam  librorum  He^-^ 
braicorum,  Syriacorum,  Arabicorum,  ^gyptiacorum  :  ad« 
dita  maijtissa  Bibliotheearum  aliquot  EuropsBarnm,"  1658, 
4to.  Baillet  does  not  speak  very  advantageously  of  this 
work  of  Hottinger,  whom  he  accuses  of  not  being  very 
accurate  in  any  of  bis  compositions :  and  indeed  his  want 
of  accuracy  is  a, point  agreed  on  by  both  papists  and  pro-, 
testants.  5.  **  Etymologicon  Orientale,  sive  Lexicon  Har- 
monicum  Heptaglotton,"  &c.  1661,  4to.  The  seven  lan- 
guages contained  in  this  Lexicon  are,  the  Hebrew,  Cbaldee, 
Syriac,  Arabic,  Samaritan,  Ethiopic,  and  Rabbinical. 
.  These  works  are  valuable  for  containing  materials  of  a 
curious  nature,  and  which  were  before  only  accessible  to 
persons  skilled  in  oriental  languages.  A  catalogue  of  his 
other  works  may  be  seen  in,  th.e  *^  Bibliotheca  Tigurina ;" 
or  the  Latin  life  of  Hottinger,  published  by  Heidegger  at 
Zurich,  1667 :  in  either  of  which  they  are  all  drawn  up 
and  digested  into  regular  order. — John  James  Hottinger 
his  son,  was  also  a  learned  protestant  divine,  succeeded 
Beidegger  ip  the  divinity  chair  at  Zurich,  and  died  Dec; 
18,  1735,leaving  a  great  number  of  works,  chiefiy  ^'  Theo* 
logical  Dissertations,"  on  important  subjects.^^ 

^^en.  iDct,— Morcri,-^iceroD,  vol.  VIII.—* Saxii  Onoma8ticoa.-i-F^ehert 

^1*  H  Q  y  9  I  a  A  N  T« 

^QUBIGANT'(CHARit£)S^  Francis),  a  pious  aod  learaed 
^aqslatpr  of  the  l^ehr^w  Scriptures,  and  comineiuator  on 
^em,  was  b^prn  at  Paris  ia  1^86.  |n  1702  he  became  a^ 
priest  of  the  con^reg^UQn  pa^ed  the  Oratory  i  and  being, 
by  deafness,  deprived  of  tb^  chief  comforts  of  society,  a4- 
dioted  biioself  the  more  earnestly  to  I^ooks,  iii  which  he 
fqund  his  constant  consolation.  Of  a  d^sppsition  naturally 
benevolent,  with  great  firn^n^s  of  soul,  goodness  oi  tem- 
per, and  politeness,  of  i^anners,  he  w$^s  held  in  very  gei^- 
ral  e^tioi^tipn,  and  received  honours  and  rewards  from  th& 
pope.  (Benecl-  XIV.)  and  froin  h|s  couutryipei^  wbich  b^ 
had  pever  thou.gbt  of  soliciting.  Though  his  income  waa. 
but  small,  he  dedicated  a  part  of  it  to  found  a  school  near 
Chantillyi;  and  the  purity  of  bisi  judgment,  joined  tqt^e 
strei^gth  of  his  memory,  ens^bled  hi(m  ta  cajrpy  on  tiis  lite- 
rary labours  to  a  very  ^()v^p^d  s^gQ,  Ev^q  when,  his  fa* 
culti^§  h9.d  declin^,  $^n4  ^^^  further  injured  by  the  acci- 
'  dent  of  ^  fall,  the  v§ry  sight  pf  a  bppH,  that  well-known 
CQQsoler  of  aU  bis  c^re^^  raii^^d  him  to  p^apeand  rationa- 
lity, f}^  di^d  Oct  31,  17^,  a^  the  ^vanced  age  of  ninety- 
dig^t*  Hi^  works,  ibr  wl^cM  be  waf  po  less  esteemed  in 
tpr^ign  ppuntrien  tb^n  b^^  j)ia  own^  w?re  chiefly  tb^§  •  )  * 
An  edv^QQ  of  the  Hebrew  Bible,^  witl^a  Latin  version  s^pd 
^^^^  pi^blished  i^t  Paris  io  11  ys,  19  4  vols,  folio.  This  is 
th^  fnost  valiu^ble  and  iippprtant  work  of  t^e  aatbpCy  and 
copt^itis  tln^  ^ebr^w  teixt  corrected,  by  the  spm\de^t  ruies 
of  cr4t|pi|5ip»  1^  X«atin  ver«^n,  and  p^eful  notes :  find  pr^ . 
ii'^ed  tf>  f  ^t^  ^ook  b  a  v^ry  l^arnifd  preface,  ^pedicl 
XIViiM^t^o  justly  ^ppr^iat^d  %^.  value  and  difficulty  of  the 
W^:  Mgppujf^d  th^  authcyr  with,  a  n^^dc^l,  ^ad  ^^m  ^^^er 
m^rk^  of  approl^fitipp  ;  apd  t}^^  clergy  qf  bis  pwi^  poMPtry^ 
unsoliciti^df  QPnferif€^;  a  p^psipn  oc^  him,  9;  A  L^)n  trans- 
Ijitippftf  tl^$  P«^ltifr,  from  tije  yebraw^  i;46,  12^0,  3. 
Apotb^r  of  t()e  Old  Test^m^ntf  a|:  l^rge,  ip  1754,  ip  B  vojf. 
^Yp.  4.  "  ks^Qifips  IJebr»i<ii^,'*  \7S'i,  ^vp,  ^aji^st  tU<i 
poipta.  5.  "  Eic^w^ii  du  Psftutiqr  d^  C^pupUips,''  lHg\(V. 
the  mod^  of  injfirpr^t^tiop  used  ii)  YiV^ch.  hf  tti.QcigbJti  top 
^ri^itr^ry.  Q.  A  French  trapslatipnr  pf  ap  £^ngli»h  wprk  by 
ForbeSj  enticed  ^-  Thoughts  on  N^qfal  H^ligipQ-^'  7. 
Most  of  tt^p  works  of  Ctiaries  Lesljp  trajii^atpd,^  Paris,. i 770^ 
8vo.  Father  Qoubig^nt  i^  ^9t\d  £Ofio/t^p  har^  (eft  several 
works  ia  i^anus5:ciptf  whic^s  frqp^  tb^  e^cell^pc^  of  tbo.^t 
he  published,  ijiAy  be  copje.ctur^d  to  bte  well  d^sctryipg  of 
the  press.    Among^,  thiese  are  a  ^^  Trait£  des  Etudes;^'  a 

H  Q  U  BJ  O  A  N  T.  Sl$ 

^ranslalion  of  **Origen  against  Celsus;**  a  •*  Life  of  Carr 
dinal  Berulte  ;**  and  a  complete  translation  of  the  Bible, 
Eccor^iAg  to  his  own  corrections.  The  first  of  these  watt 
to  have  been  published  bj  father  Dottevi]Ie,  and  the  rest 
bj  Lalahde,  but  we  do  not  find  that  any  of  them  have  apV 

HOUBRAKEN  (Jacob),  an  eminent  engraver,  ^a^ 
the  son  of  Arnojd  Houbraken,  a  native  of  Holland,  and  a 
painter,  but  of  no  very  superior  merit.  He  is  known,  how^ 
ever,  to  the  Uterary  world,  as  the  author  of  a  work  in  Dutch, 
entitled  **  The  Gre^t  Theatre  of  the  Dutch  and  Flemish^ 
painters,*'  in  $  vols,  folio,  with  their  portraits.  He  came* 
AVer  into  England,  to  make  drawings  of  the  pictures  of 
Vandyke,  which  were  afterwards  engraved  by  Peter  Va^ 
Gunst.  He  died  at  Anis^erdam  in  the  fifty-niot^  jear  of 
^is  age,  1719. 

Hi^  son  Jacol^  was  born  December  S5,  1998.  By  wha^ 
mt^Vef  he  was  instructed  in  the  art  of  engraving,  we  are 
Hot  informed,  but  he  was  probably  initiated  in  the  art  by 
his  fetfaar ;  and  Mr.  Btrutt  supposes  that  he  studied  the; 
»eatest  portraits  of  EdMinJ^  very  attentively,  especially  that' 
Qf  Le  Brun^  which  is  usually  prefixed  to  the  engravings  of 
Gtrard  Audran,  from  his  battles  of  Alexander.  He  work-  . 
ed,  however,  for  some  time  with  little  profit,  and  with  less 
celebrity  V  atid  he  had  arrive<J  at  the  meridiap  of  life  be- 
fore he  engaged  in  that  work  by  which  he  is  best  known ;' 
/^•work,  which,  notwithstanding  some  well-founded  objec- 
tions, will  reflect  honour  on  the  several  persons  engaged 
in  it.  It  seetos  to  have  been  a  plan  of  the  accurate  and 
industriotis-  Gdorge  Vertue,  who  propose^  to  give  sets  or 
classes  of  eminent  men;  but  his  design  was  adbpted  by 
others,  a^d  at  letigth  taken  out  of  hi»  hands,  who,  as  lord 
Orford  observes,  was  best  furnished  with  material  for.stfel^' 
a  Vf&fk. 

The  person*  who  undertook  apd  brought  to  conelusi^m 
this'  great  national  wOrkj  were  the  two  Knaf^ton^r,  bo<^^* 
selfewr,  encouraged  by  Ae  vast  success  of  Rapin's  History- 
of  England:  They  employed  both  Vertu^  and  Hotibraftdtti  • 
buvcbiefl^  the  fetter^  and  the  puWication  b^gan  in  tiurti-; 
bers  in'  t^44.  The  first?  volume  wn^  conipleted  f«  I7*4T,' 
antt  the' second  in  1752:  It  was  accompamed  %vith  short 
Iives'  of  AfCf  pers6nages,  written  by  Dr.  Birch;    Lord  CSrfcrd 

i\e  H  O  U  B  R  A  K  E  N. 

ol^serves,    that  some  of  Houbraken^s  headsr  were  csre« 

lessly  done,  especially  those  of  the  moderns ;  and  the  eft*» 

graver  Hying  in  Holland,  ignorant  of  our  history,  uninqiii* 

sitive  into  tbe  authenticity  of  what  was  transmitted  to  him, 

engraved  whatever  was  sent.     His  lordship  mentions  two 

instances,  the  heads  of  Carr  earl  of  Somerset,  and  secre* 

tary  Thurlow,  which  are  not  only  not  genuine,  but  bav« 

not  the  least  resemblance  to  the  persons  they  pretend  to 

'  represent.      Mr.  Gilpin,    in   his  Essay  on  Prints,    says^ 

**  Houbraken  is  a  genius,  and  has  given  us  in  his  collection 

of  English  portraits,  some  pieces  of  engraving  at  least 

equal  to  any  thing  of  the  kind.     Such  are  tb^e  heads  of 

Hampden,  Schomberg,  the  earl  of  Bedford,  and  tlie  duke 

of  Richmond  particularly,  and  some  others.     At  the  same*' 

time,  we  must  own  that  he  has  intermixed  among  his  works 

a  great  number  of  bad  prints.     In  his  best,  there  is  a  won-: 

derful  union  of  softness  and  freedom.     A  more  elegant  and 

flowing  line  no  artist  ever  employed.^*     Mr.  Strutt  esti<« 

mates  his  general  merits  more  minutely.     Houbraken'» 

great  excellence,  says  that  ingenious  writer,  consisted  ia 

the  portrait  line  of  engraving.     We  admire  the  softness 

and  delicacy  of  execution,  which  appear  in  his  works, 

joined  with  good  drawing,  and  a  fine  taste.    If  his  I^st  per- 

fornaances  have  ever  been  surpassed,  it  is  in.  the  masterly 

determination  of  the  features  which  we  find  in  the  works 

of  Nanteuil,  Edelink,  and  Drevet ;  this  gives  an  animation 

to  the  countenance,  moire  easily  to  be  felt  than  described. 

From  his  solicitude  to  avoid  the  appearance  of  an  outline, 

he  seems  frequently  to  have  neglected  the  little  sharpnesses 

of  light  and  shadow,  which  not  only  appear  in  nature,  but, 

like  the  accidental  senoitones  in  music,  raise  a  pleasing. 

senspitipn  in  the  mind,  iq  proportion  as  the  variation  is  judi* 

cioa^y  nianaged.    for  want  of  attention  to  this  essential' 

beauty,  many  of  bis  celebrated  productk>ns  have  a  misty 

aiJ|yearancQ,  and  d^  iiot  strike  the  eye  with^  the  force  we 

might  expect,  when  we  consider  the  excellence  of  the  en*- 

graving^     The  Sacrifice  of  Manoab,  from  Rembrandt,  for 

the  collection  of  prints  from  the  pictures  in  the  Dresden 

gallery,  is  the  only  attempt  he  made  in  historical  engrav- 

ii}g ;  but  in  it  he  by  no  means  succeeded  so  well.-— Of  his* 

private  life,  family,  or  character,  nothing  is  known.     He- 

liy^  ta  a  good  old  age,  and  died  at  Am^terdam^  ta  1780.^/ 

^  Strutt's  Oiciipimry.^— Buropemn  M>;c  1803^ 


.  HOUDRY  (Vuicent),  a  Jesuit,  istraa  born  Jan,  22, 1631, 9^% 
T?ours,  and  taught  ethics,  rhetoric,  atvd  philosophy  among 
the  Jesuits,  and  devoted  himself  afterwards  to  -  preaching 
tweoty«four  years;  the  rest  of  his  life  was.spept  Jn  com* 
posing  useful  books.  He  died  at  Paris,  in  the  college  of 
l^uis  le  Grand,  March  29,  1729.  His  works  are,  ''?La 
Bibliotheque  des  Predicateurs,**  Lyons,  1733,  22  voU;.4tiO. 
*f  Morality,"  8  vojs.  the  supplement  2  vols.  "  Panegyrics,** 
4  vols,  and  the  supplement  1  yol.  The  '^  Mysteries,"  ^ 
vols,  and  the  supplement  1  ^ol.  ^' The  Tables,"  1  voL 
V  The  Ceremonies  of  the  Church,"  1  vol.  "  Cbris>tiaa 
Eloquence,"  IvoL  ^^  Trait^  de  la  maniere  d*imiter,l£{s» 
bohs  Predicateurs,"  12mo.  *^  Ars  Typographica,  carmen/' 
4to }  and  twenty  volumes  of  <'  Sermons,"  all  which  shejnr 
more  industry  than  genius,  but  some  of  them  are  consulted 
as  repositories  of  facts  and  opinions.' 

BOUGH  (John),  an  English  prelate,  memorable,  for  the 
firm  and  patriotic  stand  which  be  made  against  the  tyraooyi 
aad  bigotry  of  James  11.  was  the  son  of  John  Hough,  a- 
citizen  of  London,  descended  from  the  Hoiighs  of  I^eightoa. 
in  Cheshire,  and  of  Margaret,  the  daughter  of  fi{pb» 
Byrche  of  Leacroft  in  the  county  of  Stafford,  esq.  He  wa9) 
born  in  Middlesex,  April  12,  1651  ;  and,  after  having  re.^i 
chived  his  education  either  at  Birmingham  or  Walsall  in 
Staffordshire,  was  entered  of  Magdalen  college,  Oxford,* 
Nov.  12,  lfi69f  and  in  a  few  years  was  elected  a  fellow. 
Qe  took  >i>rdei:s  in  J  675,  and  in  1678  was  appointed  do-- 
mes^tic  9haplain  to  the  duke  of  Ormond,  at  that  time  lord: 
lieutenant  of  Ireland,  and  went  over  with  him  to. that; 
country;  but  ,bo  returned  soon  after,  and  in  1685  was^ 
made  a  pre^beajc^ary  of  Worcester.  He  was  also  presented^ 
to  the  rectory  of  Tempsford  in  Bedfordshire,  in  the  gilt  of 
the  crown.  From  these  circumstances,  it  should  seem  that, 
bf  must  have,  been  considered  as  a  man  of  talents  and. 
merits  before  he  acted  the  conspicuous  part  be  did  im 
October  1687.,       . 

in  Marph  of  (hat  year,  the  presidentship  of  Magdalen 
college  being  vacant  by  the  death  of  Dr.  Henry  Clai^ke, 
t5e,  .usual  notice  was  given  that  the  election  of  a  president 
wouldtakepljice  on  the  1 3  th  of  April;  but  the  fellows 
be^ng  afterwards  informed,  that  his  majesty  James  IL  bad 
i;raiited  letters  maadatory,  requiring  them  tp .  elecl  Mr.; 

*  Moreri.— Diet,  jyiist, 

«l»  HOUGH. 

Antbony  Farmer,  who  kid  not  been  feffow  either  of  tfaif, 
or  New  college,  as  indispensably  required  by  the  statu tes, 
Irho  bad  also  given  strong  proofs  of  hidtfflerence  to  all 
reiigions,  and  whom  they  tboaght  unfit  ki  other  respects  to 
he  tbeif  president,  petitioned  the  king,  either  to  leaye  tbem 
to  the  discharge  of  their  doty  and  conscience,  and'  to  theif 
£emiider's  statutes,  or  to  recommend  such  a  person  as  might 
be  more  serviceable  to  bis  majesty  and  to  the  college. 
No  answer  being  given  to  this  petition,  they  met  on  the 
ISth  of  April,  but  adjourned  first  to  the  14th,  and  then  to 
lile  15th,  the  last  day  limited  by  the  statutes  for  the  election 
of  a  president,  and  having  still  received  no  answer  (except 
a  i^rbal  one  by  the  rev.  Thomas  Smith,  one  of  the  fellows, 
fttmi  lord  Sunderland,  president  of  the  council,  which  was^^ 
•that  his  majesty  expected  to  be  obeyed**)  they  proceeded 
to  the  election,   according  to   the  usual  forms,    and  the' 
Mev.  Mr.  Hough  was  chosen,  who  is  stated  in  the  college 
register  to  be  ^'a  gentleman  of  liberality  and  firmness, 
phoj  by  the  simplicity  and  purity  of  his  moral  character, 
by  the  mildness  of  his  disposition,  and  the  happy  teiiipe- 
mmeiit  of  his  virtues,  and  many  good  qualities,  had  given 
everyone  ijeason  to  expect  that  he  would  be  a  distinguished 
omaioent  to  the  college,  and  to  the  whole  university." 
'  He  was  accordingly  presented  next  day,  April  16,  to  the 
mitor,'  Dr.  Mews,  bishop  of  Winchester,  and  was  the  same 
day  sworti  in  president  of  the  college.     He  returned  next 
day,  and  was  solemnly  installecT  in  the  chapel.     Many  ap- 
plieations  were  made  to  the  king  during  this  and  the  foi- 
Iftwihg  month  in  behalf  of  the  fellows,  both  by  themselves, 
llie  bishop  of  Winchester,  and  by  the  d like  of  Ormond, 
phaftcellor  of  the  university  :  notwithstanding  which,  they 
were  ^ired'to  appear  at  Whitehall,  in  June  following,  before 
Iria  majesty's  commissioners  for  ecclesiastici^l  causes,  who 
decreed  that  the  election  of  Mr.  Hough,  who  had  novi^ 
taken  his  doctor's  degree,  was  void,  and  that  be  be  amoved 
firom  his  office  of  president.     Still  as  Farmer's  iporal  cha-» 
racter  was  too  strong  to  get  over,  another  mandate  was  sent 
to  the  fellows  on  August  27,  to  admit  Dr.  Samuel  Parker 
president,  who  was  at  that  time  bishop  of  Oxford,  and  a 
Roman  Catholic.     But  this  was  declined,  9n  the  ground 
of' the  office  being  full,   and' being  directly  contrary  to 
their  statutes  and  the  oath  they  had  taketi,  although  tho^ 
king  went  to  Oxford  in  Septe_mber  Jn  order  to  enforce  hi» 
mandate,  attended  by  lord  Sunderland  and  others.    Among 

^66e  was  ^1^  c^l»br9kt(Ki  WUliUpi'  Paon  the  qiiaker,  wiuKW 
influence  with  his  brethc^Hi  w^  the  dissenters  in  general, 
Jfames  II.  inade^  u^e  of  tQ  pnoQi^e  bU  own  designs  in  favour 
Qf  popery,  qoider  tbe  cg^QUc  qf  a.  general  toieratioa  and 
suspeusiqn  ol'  the  p^nal  lavfs  against  all  sectavies,  as  wel| 
as  against  th^  R^pipan  cattbolic^*  Peno^s  interference  in  the 
present  business,  n^  appear  to  bai«rbeen 
improper.  He  even  allowed,  after  making  hinuelf  ap^ 
quainted  with  the  circu.n^Btanqes  of  the  case,  that  the 
'^  fellows  could  not  yield  obedience  without  a  hreacb  of 
their  oaths,  and  that  such  rasM^dates  wete  a  force  on  con^ 
science,  and  not  figroeablei  tP  the  king's  other  gsacious 

The  kingj  however,  witb  wboni  no  good  advice  bad  aajp 
weight,  as  soq9  as  be  arrived  at  Oxford,  sent  for  the  fel* 
lows,  Sept.  4,  to  attend  bim  in  person,  at  thrqe  ui  tbw 
afternoon,  at  Christ  Cborgb,  of  which  the  bishop  of  Ox- 
^ford  was  de^n,  Th/^  fellows  accordingly  attended,  and 
presented  a  petijti9Q|  recapitinjiating  their  obligations  to 
obey  tbe  st^tutf^,  ^q*  which  the  king  refused  to  accept, 
ai^d  tbreate^ed  tbeiP>  in  9  very  gross  n^anner,.  wi|h  the 
vifhql^  weight  of  bis  diAple^s.i|re,  if  they  did  not  ^dmit  the  , 
bishop  of  Oxford,  wl)ich  tbey  intimated  w^  pot  in  their 
fower;  add  hjsving  returned  tp  their  chapel,  and  bein^ 
^ked  by  the  sepior  fellow  whether  tbey  would  elect  the 
Jt^ishopo?  Oxford  their  president,  they  all  answered  in  theip 
turn,  tl^  it  beipg  contrary  to  their  statutes,  and  to  the 
po^itiv;e  o^tU  which  they  bad  taken,  they  did  not  apprehend 
it  wa^  in  tbf^ir  power.  Their  refusal  was  foikkwod  by  the 
appointment  of  certain  (ords  comptiissioners.  to  visit  the 
college.  These  were,^  Cactj^right^  bishop  of  Chester,  sir 
llobert  Wright^  chief  justice  of  the  king's  h^ncb,  and  sip 
Thomas  J^inqeri  J^suron  of  the  exchequer,  whq  cited  th^ 
pretended  president^  as  be  wa^  called,  and  the  fellows,  to 
appear  befpre  tUoiU  fit  ]V(|igdAlen  college  on  Oct.  21,  the 
day  before  which  the  commissioners  had  arrived  at  Oxford, 
witb  the  parade  of  three  troops,  of  horse.  Having  assem- 
bled on  the  day  .appointed  in  the  bnll,  and  their  conunis* 
lion  read,  the  na^ues  pf  the,  president  and  fellows  were 
called  over,  and  Dr.  Hough  was  mentioned  first.  It 
was  upon  this*  occ^istrtn  that  he  behaved  with  tliat  cou-, 
rage  and  iiitrepidity,.  prude"^^  and  temper,  which  will- 
endear  his  nitjmory  to  the*  latest  posterity.  The  commis-' 
sioners,  towevqf,  struck  bis.n^me  out  of  the  bool^s  of  tb^ 

iM  HO  u  o  h: 

new  buildihg  %t  that  piece  of  his  edncatidti.  He  Iik6wis€ 
contributed  1000/.  tovnird9  building  All  Saints  church  .  in 
Worcester.  In  1715  the  metropolitan  chair  was  offered  Id 
him,  on  the  death  of.  archbishop  Tenison,  whi^h  lie  de« 
clined,  from  the  too  modest  and  hambk  ftentiments  which 
he  entertained  of  himself  j  but  afterwards^  in  1717,  he 
succeeded  brshop  Lloyd  in  the  see  of  Worcester.  As  his 
pabti{i  betoefactibns  baT«  been  just'tnentibned^  it  is  neces- 
sary to  add  that  bis  private  acts  of  charily  were  very  exten-* 
sive.  Hisusirai  itiaunerof  Itvingwasajgreeable  to hisftinction, 
hospiuble  i^ithout  proftis^ness,  and  his  conversation  with 
ail  was  full  of  humanity  and  candour,  as  well  as  prudeftt 
atid  instruetive. 

His  earliest  biographer  says,  that  ^^  his  heavenly  templef 
of  mind,  his  contempt  of  the  world,  and  his  indifference 
to  life,  were  most  visible  in  the  latj:er  period  of  his  own ;  bin 
firm  faith  in  the  promises  of  the  goipel  exerted  itself  most 
remarkably  in  his  declining  years,  as  well  in  conversatibn 
with  some  of  his  friends  about  bis  hopes  of  a  better  state, 
and  even  in  his  own  private  thoughts  on  the  nature  of  that 
state,  as  in  several  letters  to  others  about  the  gradual  decay 
of  his  body,    the  just  sense  he  had  of  bis  approaching 
dissolution,  and  his  entire  resignation  to  the  will  of  Goo. 
As  he  had  on  many  occasions  expressed  his  Weil-grounded 
hopes  of  immortality,  so  they  gradu£llly  grew  stronger  oft 
him,  aud  seemed  to  be  more  vigorous  in  proportion  to  the' 
decays  of  bis  body.    Indeed,  even  the  temper  of  histtiind 
bore  so  just  a  proportion  to  bis  well-tempered  constitution 
of  body,  as  by  an  happy  result  of  both,  to  extend,  his  age 
to  thie  beginning  of  his  ninety-third  year,  and  almost  to 
the  completion  of  the  fiity-tbird  year  of  his  episcdpate* 
But  he  cast  only  a  cursory  eye  upon  (he  minute  distine-'' 
tioAs  of  human  life,  as  the  whole  is  at  best  of  a  short' 
duration.     Bishop  Hougb^s  lamp  of'  life  burnt  clear,  if  not 
bright,  to  the  Istst;  and  though  his  body  was  iVeak,  he  had' 
no  pain  or  sickness,  as  he  himself  acknowledged  on  several 
occai»ons,  not  only  at  a  censiderable  distance  from  hn 
death,  but  even  a  few  minutes  before  he  expired.^   A  little 
before  his  death,   he  wrote  a  letter  to  his  friend    lord 
Digby,  where  we  find  the  following  remarkable  words: 
f^  I  am  weak  and  forgetful-— ^ in  other  res|)ect8r  i  have  ease 
to  a  degree  beyond  what  I  dtirst  have  thoilght  on,  when 
years  began  to  multiply  upon  me^     I  wait  contentedly  for 
a  deliverance  out  of  this  life  into  ^  belter,  in  humbis 


H  O  U  O  fl.  fit 

lonfid^nc^  that  bj  the  mercy  of  God,  through  tbe  m^rita 
of  his  Son,  I  shall  stand  at  the  Resurrection  otl  his  right 
hand*'  And  when  you,  my  lord,  have  ended  those  days 
which  are  to  come,  which  I  pray  may  be  many  and'  com-* 
fortable,  as  ioopceatly  and  bs  exemplary  as  those  which  are 
passed,  I  doubt  not  of  our  meeting  in  that  state  where  the 
joys  are  unspeakable,  and  will  always  endure."  He  died 
March  8,  1743^  and  was  hnried  in  Worcester  cathedral 
sear  bis  wife,  where  his  memory  is  preserred  by  aa  elegant 
aioDument  ,  . 

It  does  not  appear  that  Dr.  Hough  ever  prepared-  any 
thing  for  the  press,  except  eight  occasional  sermons,  and 
he  gave  a  strict  charge  that  none  should  be  published  from 
his  manuscripts  after  his  death.  Many  of  his  letters,  how« 
ever,  with  various  important  docuilients  to  illustrate  bis 
character  and  public  services,  have  lately  been  given  to 
the  world  in  a  splendid  publication,  entitled  <VThe  Life  of 
the  rev.  John  Hough,  D.  D.  &c.'^  by  John  Wilmot,  esq« 
F.  R.  S.  and  S.  A.  To  this  we  are  indebted  for  the  pre^ 
^ceding  sketch;  and  Mn  Wilmot  has  accumulated  so  much 
inforniation  respecting  Dr.  Hough,  that  it  is  now  uoneces*. 
sary  to  refer  to  any  other  authority.  ^ 

HOULIERES(Antoniettadela  Gari>e  Dps),  a  French 
poetess^  was  born  at  Paris  in  163S,  and.  possessed  all  the 
charms  of  her  sex,  and  wit  enough  to  shine  in  the  age  of 
Louis  XIV.  Her  taste  for  poetry  was  cultivated  by  the 
celebrated  poet  Henault,  who  is  said  to  have  instructed  her 
in  all  he  knew,  or  imagined  he  knew.;  but  she  not  only 
imitated  him  fn  his  poetry,  but  also  in  his  irreligion ;  for. 
her  verses  savour  strongly  of  Epicureanism.  She  com*, 
posefl  epigrams,  odes,  eclogues,  tragedies;  but  succeed* 
ed  best  in  the  idyllium  or  pastoral,  which  some  affirm 
she  carried  to  perfection.  She  died  at  ParLs  in  1694, 
and  left  a  da^ighter  of  her  own  name,  who  had  some  talent 
for  poetry,  but  inferior  to  that  of  her  mother.  The  first 
verses,  however,  composed  by  this  lady,  bore  away  the 
prize  at  the  French  academy  ;  which  was  highly  to  her 
honour,  if  it  be  true,  as  is  reported,  that  Fontenelle  wrote 
at  the  sanae  ttme^  a/nd  upon  the  same  subject.  .  She  was  a 
menhber  of  the  academy  of  the  Ricovrati  of  Padua,  as  was 
ber  moither,  who  wfas  also  of  that  of  Ar}es.  She  died  at 
Paris  in  1718,     The  works  of  these  two  ladies  were  col- 

»  Life,  as  abore. 


fectivjsly  published  in  1747,  in  2  vols.  12ino.  Several 
maxims  of  the  elder  of  these  ladies  are  mncb  cited  by 
French  writers ;  as,  that  on  gaming,  *^  On  commende  par 
4tre  dupe^  on  finit  par  £tre  fripon.''  People  begin  dtipes, 
and  end  rogues.  And  that  on  self-love:  <^  Nui  n'est  con- 
tent de  sa  fortune,  ni  m^content  de  son  esprit.''  No  one 
is  satisfied  with  bis  fortune,  or  dissatisfied  with  his  talents. ' 

HOUSTON  (WiLUAM),  an  able  promoter  of  exotic 
botany  in  England,  went  first  to  the  West  Indies,  in  the 
character  of  a  surgeon,  and  upon  his  return,  after  two 
years'  residence  at  Leyden,  took  his  degrees  in  physic 
under  Boerhaave,  in  1728  and  1729.  At  Leyden  be  insti*' 
tuted  a  set  of  experiments  on  brutes ;  some  of  which  were 
made  in  concert  with  the  celebrated  Van  Swieten.  They 
were  afterwards  published  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions 
under  the  title  of  ^*  Experimenta  de  perforatione  thoracis, 
ejusque  in  respiratione  affectibus,"  the  result  of  which 
proved,  contrary  to  the  common  opinion,  that  animals 
could  Jive  and  breathe  for  some  time,  although  air  was 
freely  admitted  into  both  cavities  of  the  thorax.  Soon 
after  his  return  from  Holland,  he  was  in  1732  elected  a 
fellow  of  the  royal  society,  and  went  immediately  to  the 
West  Indies,  where  he  fell  a  sacrifice  to  the  heat  of  the 
climate,  July  14,  1733.  He  had  previously  sent  over  a 
description  and  figure,  of  the  dorsteria  contrayerva,  which 
were  published  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  voL 
XXXVII.  This  was  the  first  authentic  account  receiv€|d 
of  that  drug,  although  known  in  England  from  the  time  oF 
sir  Francis  Drake,  oV  earlier.  He  also  sent  to  his  friend 
Mr.  Miller,  of  Chelsea,  the  seeds  of  many  rare  and  new 
plants  collected  by  him  in  the  islands.  His  MS  Catalogue 
of  plants  also  came  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Miller,  and  after 
his  death  into  the  possession  of  sir  Joseph  Banks,  who, 
out  of  respect  to  the  memory  of  so  deserving  a  man,  gra- 
tified the  botanists  with  the  publication  of  them,  under  the 
title  of  ^^  Reliquise  Houstonianss,   1781,  4to.* 

HOUTEVILLE  (Claude  Francis),  a  native  of  Paris, 
was  eighteen  years  a  member  of  the  .congregation  called 
the  oratory,  and  afterwards  secretary  to  cardinal  Dubois, 
by  whom  be  was  much  esteemed.  He  was  appointed  in 
.1742  perpetual  secretary  to  the  French  academy,  but  did 


1  Moreri. — Diet.  Hist. — ^Biog.  OalHca. 
•  Fttlteney't  Hist,  and  Bk>s.  Sketckei. 

H  O  O  T  E  V  I  L  L  E.  «« 

not  foog  eiipf' bit 'prdfeMiietit>  far  lie  dM  thd  bMie-year, 
litting  iiAMMit  filly- four  yean^  did.  iie  ptfblished  a  #ork 
efltMed  ^Lft  Verii)6  de  la  Religion  G^if^ienne  frouv^  par 
fas  ieoiti^^  riie  liiMer  €diiions  of  v^nch  are  for  9a^(>«rior  to 
dw  iirft.  Tbe  foedt  ledkUm  is  that  <ili  Paris,  1741,  3  voh, 
410.  TIms  4>ook  had  an  aatofiishitig  ^uctess  on  its  first  ap« 
pearance ;  but  sunk  afterwards  kito  a  state  cf  discredit  n^ 
kas  aBtDnbfaing :  it  jiad  been  extdiled  too  highly  at  6rst, 
and  ^ftarwards  %O0  ttinok  depreciated.  The  style  is  af« 
&ated|  and  tbe  aoiiior  lays  down  ^iseless  principles,  and, 
•ome  MflMi,  ey^ti  sooh  as  are  dangerous  and  hurtful  to  his 
oatne.  His  proofs  are  not  always  solid  or-well  ehosen ; 
bat  li»e  is tpaiilioalarly  Maitioafbie  for' having  separated  th^ 
difficukies  and  Q^ectififns^m'^be  proofs  brougbt  against 
diem.  By  thus  heaping  ob^eeVions  on  e^bjections  at  the 
end  df  his 'Wioi4t|  afid  gi'^ng  rery  short  and  concise  answer$ 
fortfear^df  repetitions,  be  gives  greater  force  to  the  former 
than  to  fiA»^  latter,  makes  us  ime  sight  of  his  proofs,  and 
seatns to  destroy  what  be'had  established.  ^ 

iiHi>Y£D£N  (Itoofift  de),  an  English  historian,  Who 
flourished  in  die  refijgn  of  Henry  H.  "wcts  bora  in  Yorkshire, 
must  probably  in  tbe  «€ywn  of  that  name,  was  of  a  good 
family,  and  Jmd  beyond  the  year  1204,  biH'the  exact  pe- 
Biads  of  his  birth  anddetoth  are  not  known;  He  is  said  to 
iMMre  'hsid  -some  situation  i<n  the  fatnily  of  Hehry  H.  and  to 
hatie  bean  employed  by  that' ^monarch  in  conmlentitll  ^r^ 
vioeB,*  such  as  visiting  ad^iasteries.  He  was  by  profession 
a  ibwyer,  <bm,  hke*  other  lawyers  of  efaat  time,  in  tbe 
^dMirch,  and  aliio  a  professor  of  theology  at  Oxfoi^d.  After 
the  death  of  Henry^  be  applied  himself  diligently  to  the 
•rviting  of  Msitory,  an^  composed  annals,  which  he  com- 
meaeed  at  cive'  year  731,  tlie  period  where  Bede  left  off, 
and  oontinuefd  to  the  third  year  of  king  John,  1 202.  Tli^se 
annals  were  first  published  by  Savile  ainong  the  Hbtorici 
Anglici,  in  1595,  and  reprinted  at  Francfort  in  1601,  folio, 
in  tiMo  books.  Leiandsays  of  him,  "  If  we  fconsider  his 
dihgence^  his  kfiowiedge  of  antiquity,  and  his  religious 
Sitriotn^ss  of  veracit}'^^  he  may  be^considered  as  having  sur- 
passed, HOtoiAy  the  rude  historiaMsof  the  preceding  ssi^s, 
biftteven^wlviteould  have  befen  expected  of  himself.  If  to 
that  fidelity,  which  is  the  fir^t  quality  of  a  historfanj  he  had 
joif»ed  a4ittie  moiie  elegance  of 'Latin  style,  he  might  have 

'«  Moteri.i— Diet  HItt, 

Vol.  XVIII.  Q 

fae  H  O  V  E  D  E  N. 

stoodthe  first  among  the  authprs of  that  class/*  Vossius 
says  that  he  wrote  also  a  history  of  the  Northumbrian  kings, 
and  a  life  of  Thoinasil  Becket.  Edward  the  Third  caused 
a  diligent  search  to  he  made  for  the  works  of  Hoveden 
when  he.  was  endeatouring  to  ascertain  his  title  to  the  crowq 
of  Scotland.  Savile  bears  the  same  testimony  to  his  fide- 
lity that  we  have  seen  given  by  Leland.' 

HOW  (William),  the  first  English  botanist  who  gave  a 
sketch  of  what  is  called  a  ''  Flora,^'  was  born  in  London  in 
1619y  and  educated  at  Merchant  Taylors'  school.  He 
became  a  commoner  of  St.  John's  college  in  1637,  took 
his  degree  of  B.  A*  in  1641|  and  that  of  M.  A.  in  1645^ 
and  began  to  study  medicine,  but  we  do  not  find  that,  be 
graduated  in  that  faculty,  although  he  was  commonly 
called  Dr.  How.  ,  With  many  other  scholars  of  that.time^ 
he  entered  into  the  royal  army,  and  was  promoted  to  the 
rank  of  captain  in  a  troop  of  horse.  Upon  the  decline  of 
the  king's  aflTairs  he  prosecuted  his  studies  in  physic,  and 
began  to  practise*  His  residence .  was  first  in  Lawrence^ 
lane,  and  then  in  Milk> street.  He  died  about  the  begin- 
ning  of  Sept«  1656,  and  was  buried  by  the  grave  of  his 
mother  in  St.  Margaret's  churchy  Westminster ;  leaving 
behind  him,  as  Wood  says,  '*  a  choice  lib^ry  .of  books  of 
bis  faculty,  and  the  character  of  a  noted  hetbajist."  The 
work  which  he  published,  Cto  which  we  have  alluded,  was 
entitled  **  Phytolpgia  Britannica,  natales  exbibens  indige* 
narum  Stirpium  sponte  emergentium,"  Lond«  1650,  I2mo, 
This  list  contains  1220  plants,  which  (as  few  mosses  and 
«  fungi  are  enumerated)  is  a  copious  catalogue  for  that  time, 
tfven  admitting  the  varieties  which  the  present  state  of 
botany  would  reject,  but  there  are  many  articles  in  it  which . 
have  no  title  to  a  place  as  indigenous  plants  of  England. 

HOWARD  (Th6mas),  earl  of  Surrey*  and  duke  of 
Norfolk,  an  eminent  commander  in  the  reign  of  Henry 
VIII.  was  born  in  1473,  and  brought  up  to  arms,  and  soon 
after  the  accession  of  Henry  was  decorated  with  the  knight*- 
hood  of  the  garter.  He  served  with  bis  brother  3ir  Edward, 
against  sir  Andrew  Barton,,  a  Scotch  free-booter,  or  pirate,: 
who  perished  in  the  action.  When  his  brother,  sir  Ed* 
ward,  was  killed  in  an  action  near  Brest,  in  1513,.  be  was 
appointed  to  the  office  in  his  stead,  and  in  the  capacity  of 
high  admiral  he  effectually  cleared  the  channel  of  Freuch 

I  Leiaod.— TaDoer.— >NicoUou^s  HiftQrical  Library. 

HOWARD.  227 

cruisers.     The  Tictory  of  Flodden-fidld,  in  which  the  king 
of  Scotland  was  slain^  was  chiefly  owing  to  his  valour  and 
good  conduct     For  this  his  father  was  restored  to  the  titi0 
of  duke  of  Norfolk,  and  the  title  of  eari  of  Surrey  was  con- 
ferred on^him.     In  1521  be  was  sent  to  Ireland  as  lord« 
lieutenatit,  chiefly  for  the  purpose,  it  was  thought,  of  hay- 
iiig  him  out  of  the  way  during  the  proceedings  against  his 
father-inJaw,  the  duke  of  Buckingham.     Here  he  was 
very  instrumental  in  suppressing  the  rebellion,  and  having 
served  there  two  years  be  returned,  and  had  the  Command 
of  the  fleet  against  France.     By  the  death  of  bis  father  he 
succeeded   to   the  title  and  estates  as  duke  of  Norfolk. 
Notwithstanding  his  great  services,  Heniy,  at  the  close  of 
his  tyrannical  life  and  reign,  caused  the  duke  to  be  sent 
to  the  Tower  on  a  charge  of  high  treason,  and  his  son  to 
be  beheaded  in  his  presence.    The  death  of  the  king  saved 
the  duke's  life.     He  was,  however,  detained  prisoner  du- 
ring the  whole  of  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.  but  one  of  the 
first  aets  of  Mary,  after  her  accession  to  the  throne,  was 
to  liberate  him.     He  was,  after  this,  the  principal  instru- 
ment in  suppressing  the  rebellion  excited  by  sir  Thomas 
Wyatt.     He  died  in  August   1554,    having    passed   bis 
eightieth  year.     He  was  father  to  the  illustrious  subject 
of  our  neitt  article.  * 

HOWARD  (Henry),  Earl  of  Suhrey,  This  highly- 
accomplished  nobleman  has  been  peculiarly  unfortunate  in 
his  biographers^  nor  is  there  in  the  whole  range  of  the 
English  series,  a  life  written  with  less  attention  to  proba*^ 
bility.  Even  the  few  dates  on  which  we  can  depend  have, 
been  overlooked  with  a  neglect  that  is  wholly  unaccount- 
able in  men  so  professedly  attentive  to  these  matters,  a$ . 
Birch,  Walpole,  and  Wartoii.  The  story  usually  told  con- 
sists of  the  following  particulars  : 

Henry  Howard,  earl  of  Surrey,  was  the  eldest  son  of 
Thomas,  the  third  duke  of  Norfolk,  lord  high  treasurer  of 
England  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  by  Elizabeth,  daughter 
of  Edivard  Stailbrd,  duke  of  BuckiTiglHa.m.  He  was  born 
either  at  his  fatber-s  seat  at  Framlingham,  in  Suffolk,  or 
in  the  oity  of  Westminster,  and  being  a  child  of  great 
hopes,  all  imagitiahje  care  was  taken  of  his  education. 
When  he  wa^  very  young  he  was  companion,  at  Windsor 
castle,  with  Henry   Fitzroy,  duke  of  Richmond^  natural 

>  CqIHqi's  Pelage,  hf  Sir  S«  Brydges. 
Q   2 

$M  H  O  W  V*  R  D. 

•on  feo  Henfiy  VIII.  iMid  4iftetwavdft  ^l^deafc  in  C^Mrdinal 
coUog^  fioW  Ohri^l  Cbi»r4$b»  0«for4  Iq  15^2  be  yifm 
wiA  4be  diibe  f>f  KichiMOfid  «t  Piiri%  «ii4  coi^iim^  ifeere 
for  sooM  tme  in  ^e  ^d^aoMlion  of  bis  slttdW^  ^nd  )9£Hr^ 
ing  0he  Prencb  l^nguaf^ ;  fwd  ^oti  tb^deaib  0f  ^ai  i^ki^ 
m^tHily  iSB^y  4ivsw«Ued  4nie  <i!iesiiifiA5V  ^6tfe  be  resided 
«Mie  time  at  tbe  6«|)ef(9r*B  xeuit,  en^  *tbeni«e  n^^t  t0 
Fiorenoe,  wbere  -be  ^U  io  love  with  tbe  f^k  <7era(diin^ 
ibe  jgreat  -obj  eet  of  %%s  'poetktd  «bddf essed>.  and  hi  ibe  griMid 
dake*8  coiKt  publfsbeci  a  ob«Uei:i^&  agakiM  lell  W|o  ^b»iild 
dispute  her  beauty;  *wbiOh  diallesge  jbc^Qg  aco«!flled>  ka 
catne  4>ff  viotopieus^  ^r  this  applH^ved  ^alour^  ^be-ckabe 
^  Fldrende  wade  -bkb  large  effefa  te&^y  MHitb  bHiif  4)M 
he  refuised  ib^nb  beealirae  be  ifiteiided  lo  4efetKl  %be  boiiovut 
of  bis  Gersttdine  in  all  Dbe  obief  cities  lof  Itaibp.  But  tfajs 
design  of  his  i^^as  diverted  by  letters  sent  to  bim  by  kintg 
He^nry  \Uh  'reoalKog  him  to  Kngiandi  IS<e  left  Itaiy^  there- 
fore, where  be  had  oukiyated  bis  poeiieel ^genius  by  the 
treading  of  tbe  .^greatest  writers  of  tbat  ocmtAiy^  and  'Re- 
turned Ho  'bis  own  countryy  where  be  was  considered  as 
one  of  the  fiist  of  tbe  £ngUsb  nobility,  who  adoroed*bis 
i>tgh  birth  with  the 'advantages  of  a  polite  ttfste  utid  exten* 
sive  literatutve.  On  the  first  of  May,  1540,  he  was  one  o£ 
the  chief  of  those  who  justed  at  Westminster,  'as  a  defend- 
ant, against  i^ir  Joha  Dudley ,  sir  IHionili^s  S4ykii6m4%  atnd 
other  cballenlgers,  tvheiFe  be  bebaved  himself  with  ad« 
mirabie  •courage,  and  ^eat  skill  in  the  use  of  bis  arms, 
and,  in  1540,  served  in  the  army,  of  which  bis  father  was 
lieutenant-^general,  and  which,  in  October  thut  year,  en* 
tered  Scotland,  and  burnt  divers  ^iUs^ges.  In  February  ot 
March  foUowii^,  he  was  <:onfined  W  Windsor  castle. for 
eating  flesh  in  Lent,  contrary  to  the  king^s  proctatnation 
of  t|)e  9th  of  February  1542.  In  1544,  upon  the  expe* 
dition  to.  Boulogne,  in  France,  he  wiais  field^-inarshal  of  the 
English  army;  and  after  takirtg  that  town,  being  tben 
knight  of  tbe  garter,  be  y^as  iii  the  b^inning  of  September 
li545,  oonstitiited  the  kiiig^.s  lieutenant  and  ctiptain^general 
of  all  his  army  within  the  town  and  country  of  Boulogne. 
During  his  comomnd  there  in  1546,  bearing  that  a  convoy 
of  proi^isions  of  the  .enemy  was  coming  to  the  fort  at  Oul- 
treao,  be  resolved  to  intercept  it ;  but  the  Rbingrare,  with 
fdur  thousand  Laoskinets,  together  with  a  considejrable 
number  of  French  under  the  marshal  de  Biez,  making  a^ 
obstinate  defeijce,  the* English  were  routed,  and  sir  Ed- 

B  O  W  A  R  B.  M» 


WBoA  MtyniogS)  wl4k  dkatft  oihm$  ^mtthmen^  %litidy  and 
tk%  m9itl  of  Surrej  hknsdlf  cibUgtd  to  fty  ^  though  it  afipoM^ 
by  a  lcrtt#f  of  bis  to  the  Icings,  i&ieA  Januai^  ft,  1 4f45«6,  that 
diitt  atfvsfitage  cost  the  €ii«iiiy  a  gveat  uunxbeF  of  nma* 
But  tbeliiiig  was  to  highly  displeased  with  thii  iU  saccofs^ 
tha^  from  that  tiMO  be  contracted  a  pfojadiee  against  thf 
#arl,  and,  soon  alt#r^  removed  faiai  from  bis  coiiMnatid, 
afipoifitiiig  the  oari  of  liertfbrd  to  so^eeed  hiin.     On  this 
firWilKaai  Paget  wrate  to  the  earl  of  Surrey  to  advise  hiai 
ie  procure  some  emittent  post  unAer  the  earl  of  Hertford, 
that  he  might  f>ot  he  impro^id^  m  the  town  amtJlM.    The 
earl  heivftg  desiirous^  in  the  meaa  time,  so  legaio  his  for* 
aser  trnf^mr  with  the  kifig^  shirmi^ed  agariist  the  Frendi^ 
and  routed  them;  but,  soon  after,  writing  o?er  to  th^ 
kin^s  council,  that  as  the  enemy  had  east  much  larger 
eannoR  ihw  had  been  yet  seef»,  with  whkb  they  imagined 
they  sbouM  soon  demcjish  Boulogne,  it  deserved  const* 
ders^on,  ¥i4ietber  the  lower  town  should  stand,  as  not 
h<diiig   defensible,  tht  eouneil  ordered  him  to  return   to 
England,  in  order  to  represent  Ms  sentiments  asore  folly 
apon  those  points,  and  the  earl  of  Hertford  was  imme* 
dioteiy  sent  oif^rJn  his  room.    This  ei?aspfef«tfng  the  earl 
of  8un^,  occasioned  htm  to  let  faU  some  expressions 
which  savoured  of  reveiige,  and  a  dislike  of  the  king,  and 
aU  hatred  of  his  dounsetlors  i  and  was,  probably,  one  great 
cause  of  bis  ruin  soon  after.     His  fittber,  the  duke  of  Nor- 
folk, had  endeavoured  to  ally  himself  to  the  earl  of  Hert^ 
ford,  and  to  his  brother,  sir  Thomas  8eymour>  perceiving 
how  much  they  were  in  the  king*s  ftlvojur,  and  how  great 
an  interest  they  were  likely  to  hate  under  the  succeeding 
prince ;  and  therefore  he  would  have   engaged  his  son, 
being  then  a  widower  (having  lost  hts  wife  Frances,  daughter 
of  John  earl  of  Oxford),  to  marry  the  earl  of  Hertford** 
daughter,  and  pressed  his  daughter,  the  duchess  of  Rich* 
mond,  widow  of  the  king's  natural  son,  to  marry  sir  Tho- 
mas Seymour.     But  though  the  earl  of  Surrey  advised  his 
sister  to  the  marriage  projected  for  her,  yet  he  would  not 
consent  to  that  designed  for  himself;  nor  did  the  propo- 
sition about  himself  take  effect.     The  Seymours  could  not 
but  perceive  the  enmity  which  the  earl  bore  them ;  and 
they  ihight  weH  be  jealous  of  the  greatness  of  the  Howard 
fSsimily,  which  was  not  only  too  considerable  for  subjects,  of 
itself,  but  was  raised  so  high  by  the  dependence  of  the 
whole  popish  party,  both  at  home  'and  abroad,  that  they 


were  likely  to  be  very  dangerous,  competitors  for  tte  chief 
government  of  aiEairs,  if  the  king  should  die,  whose  disease 
was  now  growing  so  fast  upon  him  that  he  could  not  live 
many  weeks.  Nor  is  it.  improbable,  that  they  persuaded 
the  king,  that,  if  the  earl  of  Surrey  should  marry  the 
princess  Mary,  it  might  embroil  his  son's  government,  and^ 
perhaps,  ruin  him.  And  it  was  suggested  that  he  had 
some  such  high  project  in  his  thoughts,  both  by  his  con* 
tinuing  unmarried,  and  by  his  using  the  arms  of  Edward 
the  Confessor,  which,  of  late,  he  had  given  in  his  coat 
without  a  diminution.  To  complete  the  duke  of  Norfolk's 
and  bis  son's  ruin,  his  duchess,  who  had  complained  of  his 
using  her  ill,  and  had  been  separated  from  him  about  four 
years,  turned  informer  against  him.  And  the  earl  and  his 
siscer,  the  duchess  dowager  of  Richmond,  being  upon  ill 
teru)s  together,  she  discovered  all  she  knew  against  him ; 
as  likewise  did  one  Mrs.  Holland,  for  whom  the  duke  was 
believed  to  have  had  an  unlawful  affection.  But  all  these 
discoveries  amounted  only  to  some  passionate  expressions 
of  the  son,  and  some  complaints  of  the  father,  who  thought 
he  was  not  beloved  by  the  king  and  his  counsellors,  and 
that  he  was  ill  used  in  not  being  trusted  with  the  secret 
of  affairs.  However,  all  persons  being  encouraged  to  bring 
informations  against  them,  sir  Richard  Southwel  chsMrged 
the  earl  of  Surrey  in  some  points  of  an  higher  nature ; 
which  the  earl  denied,  and  desired  to  be  admitted,  accord- 
ing to  the  martial  law,  to  fight,  in  his  shirt,  with  sir  Jli- 
chard. .  But,  that  not  being  granted,  he  and  his  father 
were  committed  prii^oers  to  the  Tower  on  the -12th  of 
December  1646  ;  and  the  earl,  being  a  commoner,  was 
brought  to  his  trial  in  Guildhall,  on  the  13th  of  January 
following,  before  the  lord  chancellor,  the  lord  mayor,  and 
other  commissioners;  where  he  defended  himself  with 
great  skill  and  address,  sometimes  denying  the  accusa- 
tions, and  weakening  the  credit  of  the  witnesses  against 
him,  and  sometimes  interpreting  the  words  objected  to  him 
in  a  far  different  sense  from  what  bad  been  represented. 
For  the  point  of  bearing  the  arnis  of  Edward  the  Confessor, 
he  justified  himself  by  the  authority  of  the  heralds.  And 
when  a  witness  was  produced,  who  pretended  to  repeat 
some  high  words  of  his  lordship's,  by  way  of  discourse, 
which  concerned  him  nearly,  and  provoked  the  witness  to 
re  urn  him  a  braving  answer;  the  oarl  left  it  to  the  jury  to 
JLC^^e  whether  it  was  probable  that  this  man  should  speak 

HOWARD.  231 

thus  to  hitDf  and  be  not  strike  him  again.  In  oonclusion, 
he  insisted  upon  his  innocence,  but  was  found  guilty,  and 
had  sentence  of  death  passed  upon  him.  He  was  beheaded 
on  Tower-hill  on  the  19th  of  January  1546-7;  and  his 
body  interred  in  the  church  of  All  Hallows  Barking,  and 
afterwards  removed  to  Framlingham,  in  Suffolk. 

Such  is  the  account  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Birch  for  the  *'  lU 
lustrious  Heads,"  from  Anthony  Wood,  Camden,  Herbert, 
Dugdale,  «id  Burnet's  History  of  the  Reformation.  The 
principal  errors,  (corrected  in  this  transcription,)  are  his 
making  the  earl  of  Surrey  sen  to  the  second  duke  of  Nor* 
folk  *,  and  the  duke  of  Richmond  natural  son  to  Henry  the 

His  next>  biographer  to  whom  any  respect  is  due  was 
the  late  earl  of  Orford,  in  his  Catalogue  of  **  Royal  and 
Noble  Authors.** :  The  account  of  Surrey,  in  this  work,  de- 
rives its  chief  tnmt  from  lord  Orford*s  ingenious  expla* 
nation  of  the  sonnet  on  Geraldine,  which  amounts  to  this, 
that  Geraldine  was  Elizabeth  (second  daughter  of  Grerald 
Fitzgerald  earl  of  Kildare),  and  afterwards  third  wife  of 
Edward  Clinton  earl  of  Lincoln;  and  that  Surrey  proba^ 
biy  saw  her  first  at  Hunsdon-house  in  Hertfordshire,  where, 
as  she  was  second  cousin  to  the  princesses  Mary,  and 
Elizabeth,  who  were  educated  in  this  place,  she  might 
have  been  educated  with  them,  and  Surrey,  as  the  com-? 
panion  of  the  duke  of  Richmond,  the  king's  natural  son, 
might  have  had  interviews  with  her,  when  the  duke  went 
to  visit  his  sisters.— -Ail  this  is  ingenious;  but  no  light  is 
thrown  upon  the  personal  history  of  th^  earl,  and  none  of 
the  difficulties,  however  obvious,  in  his  courtship  of  Gerald- 
ine removed,  or  even  hinted  at;  nor  does  lord  Orford 
condescend  to  inquire  into  the  dates  of  any  event  in  hia 

Mr.  Warton  commences  his  account  of  Surrey  by  ob- 
serving,  that  ^*  Lord  Surrey's  life  throws  so  much  light  on 
the  character  and  subjects  of  his  poetry,  that  it  is  almost 
impossible  to  consider  the  one,  without  exhibiting  a  few 
anecdotes  of  the  other.''  He  then  gives  the  memoirs  of 
Surrey  almost  in  the  words  of  lord  Orford,  except  in  the 
following  instances : 

*  The  same  error  appears  on  the  second  son  Henry  earl  of  Northamp- 
llioniimeut  erected  to  the  earl's  me-  too.  Dugdale  admits  the  error  in  p. 
Biory  at  FrsailiDfbAiD  in  1612,  by  bis     268^  but  corrects  it  in  p.  274.  vol.  IL 

i«3!  ttOWARDL 

^Afrieitclsfaipofthe  elosesi  kind  ooBUil6tf€iiig  Itft^vMH^ 
thene  ,\rwo  illustrioas  yowthsr  [Smrtey  and  th^  defkid  dl 
Riehmond)^  abotit  the  year  15B<^  tbey  were  both  removed 
t9  ibardinal  'WdUdy's  coiiieg^  at  Oxtfo«d.--^Tm)  y6ar»  after^ 
Wards  (153^2)  for  the  purpose  of  ibcqoiiini^  every  dccocil-^' 
plishment  of  aiv  etegant  edocauoiiy  the  cavl  a(5co«ftptnii<ed^ 
his  noble  friend  and  fdlow-papil  mta  Fra«eie,  wbftr«  ttbey 
received  kiog  HeUry,  on  bi»  arHval  at  Calais  t&  i^h^ 
Francis  I.  with  a  most  magtiificentt  fBtitiM.  The  Mwd^ 
riiip  of  these  two  yoilng  noblemen  was  soon  £{rr«ng«ben^d{ 
by  a  new  tie ;  for  Riehmoiid  Ofarried  the  lady  Mal'y  flow^ 
srd,  Surr^y^s  sister.  Richmond,  However,  appears  to^  bsvre 
died  in  the  year  1 53^6,  about  the  age  of  seventeen^  haviit^ 
never  cohabited  with  his  wifev  it  wa»  bng  before  S^irfey 
forgot  thd  tmtimely  losffcf  this  aqftableyomh,  1^6*  flpi^fvdf 
and  associate  of  bis  childhood,  and  who  neariy  tt^sefivlrted 
himself  in  gettios,  refixietnetit  of  mitaii^Vf^/'  am  libiMtt  ac^ 

After  adiopting  brd  Qrf<ird*s  expktiammi  iif  the  soitftet 
dn  Oeraldine,  Mr.  Warton  pifoceedi&  to  Stivt«y^»  travels^ 
beginning  with  a  circtnofstance  on  wiiich  miicb  inore  zMHen^ 
tien  onght  to  hsv€  been  besto<wed% 

^^  It  is  net  precisely  known  a€  what  period  tke  isari  df 
Surrey  began  his  travels;  They  have  the  ^ir  of  aveiMi^Mi 
He  niadie  the  tpnr  of  Europe  in  the  trae  spirit  of  ebivtftty, 
a/nd  with  the  ideas  of  an  Amadis:  pmclafiming  the  ^nprnr-^ 
ralleled  charms  of  his  mistresa,  and  prepared  to^  defend  the 
cause  of  her  beauty  with  the  weapons  of  km'gbt-«rfimtry< 
Nor  was  this  adventaroos  journev  perfotmed  witltoUt  the 
if^terveiition  of  an  enebanter.  The  first  city  i^  Itaty  whUiH 
he  proposed  to  visit  was  Florence,  the  eapttal  of  l^scfa^y^ 
and  the  original  seat  of  the  ancestors  of  hi^  Geraldine.  M 
his  way  thither,  he  passed  a  few  days  at  the  emper^'^ 
court ;  where  he-became  aoqnainti^d  WithGdrnelins  Agrippa, 
8  celebrated  adept  in  natural  magie.  This  -  viatonai^ 
phil(»opfaer  fthewed  our  bero^  in  a  mirror  of  gVa^,  a  living 
im^age  of  Geraldiiie,  reclining  on  aceoch,  iiidt,  andread^^ 
ing  one  of  his  most  tender  sonnet*  by  a.WAxeti  taper. 
His  imagination,  which  Wanted  net  the  flattering  frepfis* 
sentations  and  artificial  incentives  of  iltusiofi,  was  heated 
anew  by  this  interesting  and  affecting  spectacle.  Inflamed 
with  every  enthiisiastn  of  the  most  romantic  pftssion,  he 
hastened  to  Florence  :  and  on  bis  arrival,  iminedisiiely,pttb-^ 
Ushed  a  defiance  against  any  person  who  could  handle  a 

H  O  W  A  R  Di-  f  St 

kade  tod  w«s  in  lave,  «tictlMr  Cbristnm^  Jeiv^  Tiit^,  8i^ 
racen,  or  Cteikat^  wbd  sbouM  f)resu«e  t^  dis)mte  tkt  so* 
fMviorkj  of  Geraldine^s  beaoty;  At  the  Iftdy  was  pt%^ 
lerrded  to  be  at  Tii9emn*03GtriK«io»>  tlie  pride. •£  the  ¥\o^ 
rdittineft  wa»  liattered  oft  cbis  occaikMi' :  and  the  grand  d^kt 
of  Toseslny  permkted  a  general  mid:  anoMlested  irrgresA 
into  his  domnioM  of  the  combatants  of  all  oooairies,  tSt 
ibis  impettaM%  trial  sbottld  be  decided.  Tbe  chatienge  waa 
aecapted,  and  the  ear)  victorioM,  The  skMd  wbicb  be 
ffPtaef^^A  to  tbe  dtibe  before  tbe  loamsfnent  began,  is 
esrbibked  in  Vertue^i  vakiaUe  plate  of  tbe  Arotidel  ftimily, 
and  was  actuaUy  in  the  possessioii  of  tbe  late  duke  of 

^  These  berofc  vanities  did  not,  bowever,  so  totaHy  en^ 
gross  the  time  wbfcb  Syrrey  spef»t  in  Italy,  as  to  alienate 
bis  mind  frbm  letters :  fa#  sto<iied  with  the  greatest  sttc« 
eess  a  eritieal  knowle^e  of  tbe  Italian  tongue ;  and,  that 
be  might  give  new  lustre  to  the  name  of  Geraldin^  attilineid 
a  jost  taste  for  tbe  pecnltar  graces  of  the  Italian  poetry. 

^  He  was  i^called  to  Eag^nd  for  some  idk  tems^n  by 
Hbe  king,  much  soooev  than  be  expaeted :  and  he  returnea 
koMe,  tbe  most  elegant  traveller,  tbe  tmmtfoike  lover j  th^ 
V^st  tearneid  noblesnan,  and  tbe  aiost  aecoinpltsbed  gefi« 
tteoifan,  of  his  age.  Dexterity  in  tthing,  and  gracefulness 
in  maitagtog  a  horse  nnder  arms,  were  excellencies  nofT 
viewed  with  a  critical  eye,  and  practised  with  a  high  degnee 
of  emubitiofs.  In  1340,  at  a  tournameivt  held  in  tiie  pre^ 
senee  of  ther  coort  at  Westminster,  aad  in  which  the  prin* 
cipal  of  the  nobility  were  engaged,  Surrey  was  distin- 
gaididd  above  tbe  rest  for  bis  address  in  tbe  use  and!  ex- 
ereise  of  arms;  But  bis  martial  skill  was  ftot  solely  dis- 
played ia  tbe  parade  and  ostentation  of  these  domestic 
oombats.  In  1542,  he  marched  into  Scotland,  as  a  chief 
coasmander  io  his  father's  army ;  and  was  conspicuous  for 
kis  coaduct  and  bravery  at  the  memorable  battle  of 
Flodden-field^  where  James  tbe  Fourth  of  Scotland  was 

Tbe  only  other  passage  in  which  Mr.  Warton  improves^ 
upon  bis  authorities  is  a  veiy  proper  addition  to  the  above 
j^ccount  of  lord  Surrey^s  travels. 

<^  Among  these  anecdotes  of  Surrey^ s  life,  I  had  almost 
forgot  to  mention  what  became  of  his  amour  with  the  fair 

*  It  is  perhaps  iinneeessary  topofnt     tkrs  story,  for  which  we  are  entirely 
•at  the  many  littJe  embeiltsbments  in     indebted  to  Mr.  Warton's  elegant  pen« 


H  O  WAR  D. 

QeraMine.  We  lament  to  find  that  Surrey^s  devotion  to 
this  lady  did  not  end  in  a  wedding,  anSl  that  all  hi&  gal* 
lantries  and  rerses  availed  so  little.  No  memoirs^  of  that 
incurious  age  have  informed  us  whether  her  beauty  was 
equalled  by  her  cruelty;  or  whether  her  ambition  pre- 
yailed  so  far  over  her  gratitude,  as  to  tempt  her  to  prefer 
the  solid  glories  of  a  more  splendid  title  and  ample  fortune 
.to  the  challenges  and  the  compliments  of  so  magnanimous^ 
^o  faithful,  and  so  eloquent  a  lover.  She  appears,  how- 
.evei;,  to  have  been  afterwards  the  third  wife  of  Edward 
Clinton,  earl  of  Lincoln.  Such  also  is  the  power  of  time 
and  accident  over  amorous  vows,  that  even  Surrey  himself 
outlived  the  violence  of  bis  passion.  He  married  Frances, 
daughter  of  John  earl  of. Oxford,  by  whom  he  left  several 
children.  .  One  of  his  daughters,  Jane  countess  of  West- 
moreland, was  among  the  teamed  ladies  of  that  age,  and 
became,  famous  for  her  knowledge  of  the  Greek  and  Latin 

It  is  truly  wonderful  that  lord  Orford  and  Mr.  Warton^ 
delighted  as  they  were  with  the  ^*  romantic  air'*  of  lord 
Surrey's  travels, :  should  by  any  enchantment  have  been 
prevented  from  inquiring  whether  the  events  which  they 
have  placed  between  1536  and  1.546,  when  lorH  Surrey 
died,  were  at  all  consistent  with  probability.  Ua^^  they 
made  the  slightest  inquiry  into  the  age  of  lord  Surrey,  al- 
though the  precise  year  and  day  of  his  birth  might  not 
have  been  recoverable,  they  could  not  have  failed  to  ob« 
tain  such  information  as  would  have  thrown  a  suspicion  on 
the  whole  story  of  his  knight-errantry. 

The  birth  of  lord  Surrey  may  be  conjectured  to  have 
taken  place  some  time  between  1515  and  1520,  probably 
the  former,  or  at  least  earlier  than  1520*^  He  was,  it  is 
universally  agreed,  the  school  companion  of  the  duke  of 
Richmond,  who  died  in  1536,  in  his  seventeenth  year,  and 
if  we  allow  that  Surrey  was  two  or  three  years  older,  it  will 

*  Id  hift  letter  addressed  to  the 
I^rds  of  the  Coancil  when  be  vms  in 
the  Tower,  previous  to  his  trial  and 
execution,  we  find  him  more  than  once 
pleading  his  youth.  He  requests  their 
lordships  to  "  impute  his  error  to  the 
farie  of  rechelesse  youlh,** — "  Let  my 
ya»/h  unpractised  in  durance,  obtain 
pardop."— «•  Neither  am  I  the  first 
young  nmn  that,  foreroed   by  fury. 

hath  enterprised  such  things  as  be  bath 
afterwards  repented."  These  expres- 
sions give  some  countenaitce  to  ib« 
supposition  that*  the  date  on,  his  por* 
trait  in  the  picture-gallery  at  Oxford  is 
nearly  right.  See  the  above  letter  in 
the  Historical  Anecdotes  of  the  Howard 
Family  ;  or  in  Mr.  Park's  valuabi* 
edition  of  the  Royal  and  Noble  Au- 

H  O  W  A  B  D-  M5 

fiot  much  affect  the  .bi^  probability  that  he  urits  a  very 
young  oian  at  the  time  irhen  bis  biographers  ix^ade  him  fall 
in  love  with  Geraldioet. and  maintain  her  beauty  at  Flo* 
rence.  None  of  tbe  portraits  of  Surrey,  as  far  as  the  pre- 
sent writer  has  beeu  able  toascertaioi  mention  his  age,  ex^ 
cept  that  in  the  picture  gallery,  at  Oxford,  on  which  ia 
inscribed,  that  he  was  beheaded  in  '^  1547,  sat  27.**  Thd 
inscription,  indeed,  is  in  a  hand  posterior  to  the  date  of 
the  picture  (supposed  to  be  by  Holbein),  but  it  may.  have 
been  the  hand  of  some  successful  inquirer.  None  of  the* 
books  of  peerage  notice  his  birth  or  age,  nor  are  these  cir- 
cumstances  inserted  on  his  monumet^t  at  Framlingham* 
Conjecture,  it  has  been  already  observed^  supposes  him  to 
have  been  born  some  time  between  1515  and  1520.  If 
we  take  the  earliest  of  these  dates,  it  will  still  remain  that 
his  biographers  have  either  crowded  more  events  into  his 
life  than  it  was  capable  of  holding,  or  tbat  they  have  de- 
layed his  principal  adventures  until  they  become  unde-^ 
serving  of  credit,  and  inconsistent  with  his  character. 

Mr.  Warton  observes,  that  '^  it  is  not  precisely  known 
at  what  period  tbe  earl  of  Surrey  began  his  travels;*'  but 
this  is  a  matter  of  little  consequence  io  refuting  the  ac- 
count usually  given  of  those  travels,  because  ail  bis  bio* 
graphers  are  agreed  that  he  did  not  set  out  before  1536, 
At  this  time  he  had  ten  years  only  of  life  before  him^  which 
have  been  filled  up  in  a  very  extraordinary  mauner.  -  First, 
he  travels  over  a  part  of  Europe,  vindicating  the  beauty 
of  Geraldine — in  1540  be  is  celebrated  at  the  justs  at 
Westminster — in  1542  be  goes  to  Scotland  with  his  father's 
army-^-in  1543  (probably)  be  is  imprisoned  for  eating 
flesh  in  lent — in  1544 — 5,  he  is  commander  at  Boulogne— 
and  lastlyj,  amidst  all  these  romantic  adventures,  or  serious 
events,  he  has  leisure  to  marry  tbe  daughter  of  tbe  earl  of 
Oxford,  and  beget  five  children,  which  we  may  suppose 
would  occupy  at  least  five  or' six  of  the  above  ten  years, 
and  those  not  the  last  five  or  six  years,  for  we  find  hioi  a 
widower  a  considerable  time  before  his  death.  Among 
f^her  accusations  whispered  in  the  ear  of  his  jealous  sove* 
teigUi  one  was  his  continuing  unnuirried  (an  expression 
which  usually  denotes  a  considerable  length  of  time)  after 
the  period  when  a  second  marriage  might  be  decent,  in 
order  that  he  might  marry  the  princess  Mary,  in  the  event 
of  the  king*s  death,  and.  so  disturb  the  succession  of  Kd- 

f»  HOWAll'D. 

The  pheing  4f^  these  e^ts  m  thi^  series  w^uld  rMid^ 
the  stocy  of  iMs  kMg;bl*«i*mntry  tdrffifeiently  ittiproliabte^ 
wer6  ire  left  wkhcMit  any  iiiforiiiatipn  respectiiyg  tfae  date 
of  Sumy'a  mamage^  b«it  that  erent  neaders  the  whole  tm^ 
possible,  if  we  wii^  to  preserve  an j  yes^peet  fer  the  c<m* 
sistency  of  hi»  chaFactfer. '  S^trej  was  ae^ally  mametl 
before  the  corameiiGdnlent  ef  his  trai^  m  pwsuit  or  itt 
defence  of  Geraldine^a  bea«ly.  His  eldest  son,  Thoniasy 
tkird  dvfce  of  Norfolk)  was  eighteen  yeaH  old  when  m 
grandfiatfaer  died  in  1554.  He  was  eonsequently  born  in 
1536,  and  his  father,  it  is  surely  reasonable  to  svrppose^ 
W90  noanieid  in  1535*.  It  wot»tdy  therefore,  be  umreces* 
sary  to  examine  the  story  of  Snrrey's  roEBantic  travels  any 
&rther,  if  we  bad  not  soine  collateral  authorities  whieb^ 
nay  still  show  that  whatever  may  be  wrong  in  the  pre* 
sent  statement,  it  is  certain  that  there  is  nothing  right  in 
the  comnion  accounts,  which  ha^e  been  read  and  copied 
widiottt  any  suspicion. 

If  it  be  said  that  Surrey's  age  is  not  exactly  ki^own,  and 
therefore  allowing  1536,  thie  date  of  his  travels,  to  be  er- 
roneous, it  is  possible  that  he  might  have  been  enamouretl 
of  Geraldine  long  before  this,  and  it  is  possible  that  his 
travels  might  have  cooimenced  in  1 526,  or  atiy  other  pe- 
riod founded  on  this  new  conjecture.  This,  however,  is 
as  im^probable  as  all  the  rest  of  the  story,  for  it  can  be  de« 
cidedly  proved  that  there  was  no  time  for  Surrey's  gal«> 
lantries  towards  Geraldine,  except  riie  period  which  his 
biographers,  however  absnrdly,  have  assigned,  namely^ 
when  be  was  a  married  man.  The  fkther  of  lady  Eliza- 
beth the  supposed  Geraldine,  married  in  1519,  one  of 
the  daughters  6f  Thomas  Grey,  marquis  of  Dorset,  and 
by  her  bad  6ve  children,  of  whom  Elizabeth  was  the 
fourth,  and  therefore  probably  not  born  before  152S  or 
1524.  If  Surrey's  courtship,  therefore,  must  be  carried 
farther  back,  it  must  be  carried  to  the  nursery  ;  for  even 
in  1536,  when  we  are  told  he  was  her  knight-errant,  she 
could  not  have  been  more  than  eleven  or  twelve  years  old. 
Let  us  add  to  this  a  few  particulars  respecting  Geraldine'^s 
husband.  She  married  Edward  lord  Clinton.  He  was 
born^in  1512,  was  educated  in  the  cxHirt,  and  passed  h'w 

>  If,  aooo^tqg  to    tbe   pteceHug  siipp«»itioii,  there  a r«  not  «t»ti|i£  iir? 

coojecUire,  he  was  born  ia  1515,  he  stances  of  as  early  marriages  in. past 

was  now  twenty  3rear8  of  age;  bat  had  times.    The  duke  of  ftichmond,   w^ 

he  been  bora  in  1520,  tbe  more  usual  find,  died  a  married  man  at  sevaileep. 

youth  in  th^^se  «fe|tgiu(uif»ntaiid  r^aatB^k  i^^ 
dilFtingiiiisbed  the  banning  of  ^Heni^  VUL'fi  jteJ^B^,  but 
did  not  9fipituc  ait;a^ub^4c  chariuatar  until  J|j»44>  «th0n  iie 
was  thirty-ttiKo  y ^rs  of  «m;e^  G^raldine  about  tweat^-loMiv 
and  SttKi^y  wilLin  'two  y^ac^  of  bpa  daatji,  ainl  mwt  pmr 
bftli^y  «  m^ow^.  This  earl  of,  Lkicoln  bad  tl^ee  Rvi?«is 
the  date  of  bis  marriage  with  any  of  them  is  tiot.^kaowii^ 
99^  bow  long  tbi^y  liv€4»  but  Geraldine  was  the  Abiv4>  'the 
oa]^  one  l^y  wbo«i  he  bad  no  dvldnen^  and  w^bo  ««im\it4 
his  death>  wbiich  took  /plaoe  in  13M^  thkty-ejgfat  jream 
a^fitec  the  4eath  of  Siuvrey.  M£*  Warto%  iti  hi»  earneat 
d»iiiBe'iia  oonneot  ber  with  Sorifey^  insinuates  that  abe  aright 
liaye  beeu  oHber  pruel,  or  that  ber  ^^afnb«tio(n  pveimlad 

r  so  trover  her  gratituide  as  to  teaipt  har  to  fprefer  ibhio 
9pUd  glories  of  a  more  ^endid  tiiie  <and  aaaple-  fartuna^ 
|o  tbe/Qballen^s^a»d  the  comprlidaaents  of  so  oiagnaninaoiis^ 
so  iaithfuJ,  alid  so  eloquent  a  loveri.^'  On  this  it  is  only 
ueceiKsaitjr  to  ifofnacHy  that  the.  lady^s  ambkion  might  ibame 
l^en  8(9  highly  gratified  by.  inarrying  theacootnpUisbad«and 
gallant.  Sufrey,  the  heir  of  the  dadke  of  Iiiorfolk^  as!byal« 
^ing  h^rsolf  to  a  JooUevaan  of  inforior  talent  and.xank^ 
Bat  df  his  two  oonjectufes^,  Mr.  Wmiqb  seems  mosjt  id 
adhere,  to. 'thai;  of  orH^lty»  forheadds^  that  ^^  Surrey  him** 
self  outUvod  bis  amorous  ^ows,  and  aoarvied  tbe  daughter 
of  the  earl,  of  OKford«"  This,  howievcar,  ia  as  Httle  de** 
serving  of  serious  examination^  as.t^  ridict^lous  story  ^of 
Cornelius  A^rippa  showing  Gecaldioe  in  ^aiglass,. wbicb 
Aiithony  Wood  found  in  Draytom'd  ^^'lleroical  £piatle/' 
OX  probably^  as  Mr»  Park  thinks,  took  it  fwnx  Nash's 
fenciAil  *^  'Life  of  Jack  Wilton^"  :publiBhed  in  l&94fy 
where,  under  the  character  of  his  hero,  be  professes  to 
have  tvavelied  to  the  emperor^s  cou^^t  as  page  to  the  earl  of 
l^ucrey.  But  it  is  unfortunate  for  this  snory,  wherosoevor 
borrowed)  that  Agrippa  was  no  moi^e  a  ooq^urer  than  any 
other  learned  man  of  his  time^  and  that  bae  died  at  Gre<- 
noble  the  y-ear  before  Surrey  is  said  to  have  set  out  on  his 
rpooantic  expedition.  Drayton  tias  made. a  similar  mistake 
in  giving  to  Surrey,  as  one  of  the  companiona  of  hi^ 
^•oyi^S^f  tbe.great  sir  Thomas  .More,  who  was  beh^ded  in 

^l^5Z5f  a  year  likewise  before  Surrey  sot  out  Poetioal 
authorities,  although  not  wholly  to  be  rejected,  are  of  all 
others  to  be  received  with  the  greatest-caution,  yet  it'ims 
probilbly  Drayton's  ^'  Heroical  .i£pistle  * "  which  led  IVIr^ 

V  aeeJ)r»yton»s  Wotks/lrol.  TV.  p.  ^,  et  seqq. 

«38  HOWARD. 

Walton  into  so  egregiotis  a  blunder  as  that  of  our  poet 
being  present  at  Flodden-field,  in  1513.  Dr.  Sewell,  in* 
deed,  in  the  short  memoirs  prefixed  to  bis  edition  of  Sur-* 
rey's  Poems,  asserts  the  same ;  but  little  credit  is  due  to 
the  assertion  of  a  writer  who  at  the  same  time  fixes  Sur- 
rey's birth  in  lif20,  seven  years  after  that  memorable 
battle  was  fought. 

It  i^  now  time  to  inquire  whether  the  accounts  hitherto, 
given  can*  be  confirmed  by  internal  evidence.  It  has  been 
so  common  to  consider  Geraldine  as  the  mistress  of  Surrey, 
that  all  his  love-poems  are  supposed  to  have  a  reference 
to  bis  attachment  to  that  lady.  Mr.  Ws^rton  begins  bis 
narrative  by  observidg,  that  ^'  Surrey's  life  throws  so  much 
light  on  the  character  and  subjects  of  his  poetry,  tbal  it  is 
ainiost  inipossibte  to  consider  the  one  without  exhibiting  a 
few  anecdotes  of  the  other."  Wcbave  already  seen  wbat 
those  anecdotes  are,  how  totally  irreconcileable*with  pro-^ 
bability,  and  how  Bmply  refuted  by  the  dates  which  hisi 
biographers,  unfortunately  for  their  story,  have  uniformlj 
furnished.  When  we  look  into  the  poems,  we  find  the 
celebrated  ioivnet  to  Geraldine,  the  only  specious  foun- 
dat](>n  for  his  romantic  attachment ;  but  as  that  attachment 
and  its  consequences  cannot  be  supported  without  a  con* 
tinual  violation  of  probability,  and  in  opposition  to  the 
very  dates  which-  are  brought  to  confirm  it,  it  seems  more 
9afe  to  conjecture  that  this  sonnet  was  one  of  our  authorV 
earliest  productions,  addressed  to  Geraldine,  a  mere  child,^ 
by  one  wbo  was  only  not  a  child,  as  an  effort  of  youthful, 
gallantry,  in  one  of  his  interviews  with  her  at  Hunsdoki. 
Whatever  credit  may  be  given  to  this  conjecture,  for 
which  the  present  writer  is  by  no  means  anxious,  it  is  cer- 
tain that  if  we  reject  it,  or  some  conjecture  of  the  same 
import,  and  adopt  the  accounts  given  by  his  biographers, 
we  cannot  proceed  a  single  step  without  being  opposed  by 
invincible  difficulties.  There  is  no  other  poem  in  Surrey's 
collection  that  can  be  proved  to  have  any  reference  to 
Geraldine,  but  there  are  two  with  the  same  title,  viz.  ^^  The 
Complaint  of  the  absence  of  heir  lover  being  upon  the  sea,'* 
which  are  evidently-written  in  the  character  of  a  wife,  la- 
menting the  absence  of  her  husband,  and  tenderly  alluding 
to  •*  his  faire  litle  Sonne,"  Mr.  Warton,  indeed,  finds 
Geraldine  in  the  beautiful  lines  beginning  ^<  Give  place, 
ye  lovers,  here  before,'^  land  from  the  lines  ^^  Spite  drave 
me  into  Boreas  reign/'  infers  that  her  anger  *^  drafVe  hin 

HOWARD.  29t 

into  a  colder  climate,**  with  what  truth  may  now  be  left  to 
the  reader.  But  another  of  bis  conjectures  cannot  hie 
passed  over.  "  In  1 544,"  he  says,  "  lord  Surrey  was  fields 
marshal  of  the  English  army  in  the  expedition  to  Boulogne^ 
which  he  toolc.  In  that  age,  love  and  arms  constantly 
went  together;  and  it  was  amid  the  fatigues  of  this  pro« 
tracted  campaign,  that  he  composed  his  last  sonnet,  called 
*  The  Fansie  of  a  Wearied  Lover.'*  Bat  this  is  a  mere 
supposition.  The  poem^  of  Surrey  are  without  dates,  and 
were  arranged  by  dieir  first  editor  without  any  attention 
to  a  matter  of  ^o  much  importance.  The  few  allusion^ 
made  to  his  personal  history  in  these  poems  are  very  dark| 
but  in  some  of  them  there  is  a  train  of  reflection  which 
seems  to  indicate  that  misfortunes  and  disappointments 
had  dissipated  his  Quixotism,  and  reduced  him  to  the  som- 
ber and  serious  tone  of  a  man  whose  days  bad  been^'few 
and  evil.'*  Although  he  names  his  productions  songs  and 
sonnets,  they  have  less  of  the  properties  of  either  than  of 
the  elegiac  strain.  His  scripture-translations  appear  to  be 
characteristic  of  his  mind  and  situation  in  his  latter  days*. 
What  unless  a  heart  almost  broken  by  the  unnatural  con- 
duct of  his  friends  and  family,  could  have  induced  the 
gay  and  gallant  Surrey,  the  accomplished  courtier  and 
soldier,  to  console  himself  by  translating  those  passages 
froai  Ecclesiastes  which  treat  of  the  shortness  and,  uncet'^ 
talnty  of  all  human  enjoyments,  or  those  Psalms,  which 
direct  the  penitent  and  the  forsaken  to  the  throne  of  aU 
mighty  power  and  grace  ?  Mr.  Wartoii  remarks  that  these 
translations  of  Scripture  *^  show  him  to  have  been  a  friend 
to.  the  ^reformation  ;"  and  this,  which  is  highly  probable, 
may  have  been  one  reason  why  his  sufferings  were  em- 
bittered by  the  neglect,  if  not  the  direct  hostility  of  his 
bigotted  father  and  sister.  The  translation  of  the  Scriptures 
into  prose  was  but  just  tolerated  in  his  time,  and  to  fami- 
liarize them  by  the  graces  of  poetry  must  have  appeared 
yet  more  obnoxious  to  the  enemies  of  the  reformation. 

Although  the  present  writer  has  taken  some  liberties  with 
the  Historian  of  English  poetry,  in  his  account  of  Surrey*a 
life,  he  has  not  the  presumption  to  omit  Mr.  Warton's  ele- 
gant and  just  criticism  ou  his  poems.  **  Surrey  for  just« 
ness  of  thought,  correctness  of  style,  and  purity  of  ex- 
pnession,  may  justly  be  pronounced  the«.first  English  clas- 
sical poet.  He  unquestionably  is  the  first  polite  writer  of 
love- versus  ia  ourlanguag;e,  although  it  must  be  allowed  thyx 

t$9  II  O  .W  :A  A  O. 

|d|6rv«!iii4t#li«ldiigjnAtim  boMtf  im  sbpae  of  our  faKw-rcneft 
writfeeD  mnaek  ewHer  Abaa  Swrroy 's.'*  It  itt  also  >«nitb j  icC 
iKi^0€^;  that  while  all  "hi^  hiagmpiieiia aen A  liiai  4o  Sfealy  9 
^i^ly  k»  poelry,  Mr.  Waitoo  finds  imibing  m  bu  unrks  «f 
^t  lamtapbjfiaical  cast  whipb  muk$  the  Ifcaliw  fK>ctts  iUk 
aii{if)0Md  TiuaatOfs,  ^spoeiaUy  PeJaoaroh.  -^^Sanfey^a  aemv- 
QMOli^  91^  ifar  thcoBost  pa«t  mdnisid  and  un«fiariKrfs  ^aoBinf 
fyum  his  <)vviri.fealiagSy  and  <filjictalail  by  the  present  ciccum- 
MaAcea*  Hia  >p€Mrjr  k  Ji4ike  iiiueaabanaaied  by  ksroad  (Bi»> 
toiiWiWj  .or  elabonate  conaeits*  If  etar  aatkor  copies  iie»> 
traisoh/ i t /is Petrarch'^  battermaauEier:;  wlieD  he  descemte 
jhomi  hia  Fialenie  ajbpateactiDns^  hi»  ittfiaeocsits  ^  tpaasiea^ 
h«i  eiKstggeiBted  oompllhiiaatsy  and  ifaas  ftkiy  upoia  tofapatte 
SMiioiealSi  into  a  tnack  of  tendemess^  ssoafkhcstfy,  ^Jan^  na^ 
tijiae^  J^oaaroh  would  b$gvfa  been  a  J)elter  ppet  bnd  iiefaNH 
e.  worse  adhohur.  Oih:  ambor'a  aniod  was  nuat  iboo  anoab 
ev«r-iaid  by  iearaiag.'^ 

Thia  traoslattmi  of  the  'two  fa}dks^ef  the  Aiieid  is  **  eae« 
culted  iPfiAh  (fickaiaty^  srithoiaE  a  ptoaeic  servility:;  tbe^ietaaa 
is  xtften  fo^tkal,  aod  ^e  ^enofiaaaion  varbsid  mtli  .paofmr 
pauaes/V.. lis  pianoipdl. merit,  ibom&ireBf  is  ahat  of  bmn^ 
ibe  6|rat  apeciaaeii  in  tlie  >£liigJishJa(Bguage»  of  blaqh  vtrse^ 
whach  iwas  At  tibat^iime  >gvowHig  fasdiioniLbde.iii  the  itaUam 
p!ael;ry»  It  is  rei^y  padbable  4&at  beintettded  to  hov^  tiiaiw*^ 
lated  t^e  ifabalei  .aad-  haa  lis  so  loousb  tmene  <elegaiit  and  iOCHu 
vedt  in  this  than  ^ia  bk  other  aianslationa,  stfaafcntbe  Eiieid 
af^earsiia  bajre.bceB,tifae!pitiduBaioB  jo£  hiBibappsa[*;4a3^ 

Tbe  (fidelkb^  whioh  Mi%  Weurton  aatribaies  to  abe  traiiaku> 
lioDsVfrom  Vargid^  our  auahor  bas'noa  fMneaenred  in  bis^rasia*^ 
lations  (from  Scriptuae,  which  sure  very  Ubenad,  fand*  by 
f^equeat  oinissions^atYd.  a  difi'imrent  arraiigeiiieot,  >li]ade  to 
auit  his  aituation.aiid  feelings  at  the  time  they  weve  iwrit^ 
tee,  'which -Hias probably  was  in  the  Toiaer. 

.  Surrey^s  jaoe^Bsajirere  in  bigh.repul»iion  among  bis  coti** 
lemporaiies  and  imooediate  isaocesaors,  who  xaied  with  eaob 
other  in  eoooapiinteiits  to^tatgenius,  gaUaotry,  and  .penotiirl 
WQVtb.  ^Xhey  imeseffiiatfwtnted  in  1657,  by  Tioaiel,  in<44;o, 
with  tbe  .titie  of  ^'  ^oages.and  aounettes  by  due  riglit  bo*- 
aoiable  .Henry  Havard,  jiafeejearl  of  'IBorrey^  land  otbev.'^ 
Senreral  edition^  of  6he  same  followed  nn  M&65j.  liSiG?,  '1  $69^ 
j.H'M'y  1^65,  and  iShl,  80  laanj;  editions  prorea  degree 
ofipoputarity  which  fell  to  <tfae  lot  of  very  few  poema>of 
that  agfo*  iBut  after  the  time  of  Eiiaabetb  they  became 
fradttaUyohsourey  and  we  find  no  modevn  edition  until 

HOWARD.  2«l 

p9p^M  iiieideutal  notice  of  tiim  (in  Windsor-Forest),  at^ 
Ibe  **  Oranville  of  a  former  age,''  induced  the  booksellers 
t»  employ  Dr.  Sewell  to  be  tbe  editor  of  Surrey 's^  Wjat's^ 
and  the  poems  of  uncertain  authors.  But  the  doctor  per** 
ibrtoed  his  laA  with  so  liule  knowledge  of  tbe  language^ 
th^  this  is  perhaps  tbe  most  incorrect  edition  extant  of 
any  ancient  poet  It  would  have  been  surprizing  had  it 
contributed  to  reviye  his  memory,  or  justify  Pope's  com^* 
parison  and  eulogium. 

The  translation  of  the  second  and  fourdi  book  of  the 
Soeid  was  pubKshed  in  i557,  but  it  seems  doubtful  whe« 
tber  together  or  separately.  The  translations  of  the  Psalms, 
Scclesiastes,  and  the  few  additional  original  poems,  were 
printed*,  but  not  published,  many  years  ago,  hy  Dr. 
Percy,  from  a  MS.f  now  in  the  possession  of  Thomas  Hill, 
esq.  A  more  correct  and  perfect  edition  of  Surrey  may 
soon  be  expected  from  Dr.  Nott.^ 

HOWARD  (Hbnry),  earl  of  Northampton,  second 
son  of  the  preceding,  but  unworthy  of  such  a  father,  was 
born  at  Sboltisham  in  Norfolk  about  1539.  He  was  edu* 
cated  at  King^s  college,  and  afterwards  at  Trinity-hall, 
Cambridge,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  A.  M.  to  which 
he  was  also  admitted  at  Oxford,  in  1568.  Bishop  Godwin 
says,  his  reputation  for  literature  was  so  great  in  the  uni« 
versity,  that  he  was  esteemed  ^*  the  learnedest  among  the 
nobility;  and  the  most  noble  among  the  learned.''  Ha 
^as  at  first,,  probably,  very  slenderly  provided  for,  being 
often  obliged,  as  Lloyd  records,  ^'  to  dine  with  the  cjiatr 
of  duke  Htimpbrey.'*  He  contrived,  however,  to  spend 
some  years  in  travel ;  but  on  his  return  could  obtain  na 
favour  at.  court,  at  least  till  tbe  latter  end  of  queen  Eliza* 
beth's  reign,  which  was  probably  owing  to  hi^  connections. 
In  1597,  it  seems  as  if  he  was  in  some  power  (perhaps^ 
)iowever,  only  through  the  influence  of  his  friend  lord  £s* 
sex}/  because  Rowland  White  applied  to  him  concerning^ 
sir  Robert  Sydney's  suits  at  court.  He  was  the  grossest  of 
flatterers,  as  appears  by  his  letters  to  his  patron  and  friend 

'  #  The  whole  imprettton  irtt  oon-  tioo  of  the  Nugv  Aatiqa«.    In  his 

filmed  iu  the  destractive  fire  which,  edition  of  the  Royal  tnd  Noble  Author*, 

look  place  in  Mr.  Nichols's  premisesy  are   some  interestint^  particaUrs   re- 

tth»  1808.  speeting  the  Tations  editions  of  Sur- 

;  f  This  MS,  descended  from  the  Har-  vey's  Poems. 
riB|tQii  family.    See  Mr.  Parkas  edi- 

*  Johnson  and  Qhalmers'e  BogUsh  Poets. 

VouXVIlI.  It 


to  he  readly  on  any  emergency,  reposed  so  entrre  a  coviH^ 
deace  in  the  earl  of  Nottingham,  that  she  comtnitled  to 
btmtbe  chief  command.  But  these  forces  behig  again 
difbaiided  a  few  days -after,  he  had  no  opportunity  for  ac* 
lion  until  160^1,  when  he  suppressed  the  earl  of  Essex '9 
insorrectfon.  The  same  year  he  was  appointed  one  of  the 
commissioners  for  exercising  the  office  of  earl  marshal  of 
Sngiand;  and  in  the  beginning  of  1602-3,  during  tbd 
queen^a  last  illness,  he  was  deputed  by  the  council,  with 
the  l<9rd  kieep^r  Egvrton  and  secretary  Cecil,  to  know  bet 
maj/esty^s  pleasure  in  referenee  to  the  succession,  which 
Ae  dedlared  in  favour  of  Jaimes  king  of  Scotland.  - 

'  -Upon  the  accession  of  that  king  to  the  throne  of  Eng^ 
l«nd^  the  earl  was  continued  in  his  post  of  lord  admiral^ 
«nd  at  the  coronation  was  made  lord  high  steward  of  Eng« 
land  for  that  oecasioti ;  and  the  year  following,  upon  the 
leoewing  the  comaiission  to  seven  lords  for  exercising 
the  office  of  earl  marshal,  he  was  appointed  one  of  that 
Bdmbdr.  In  1604  he  was  one  of  the  commissionei^  to 
treat  of  an  union  between  England  and  Scotland;  and  in 
1605,  aent  ambassador  to  tbe  court  of  Spain,  attended  with 
a  splendid  retinue,  who  being,  as  Wilson  says,  **  persons 
of  qiiali^^  accoutred  with  all  ornament!!  suitable,  were  tbe 
wore  admired  by  tbe  Spaniards  for  beauty  and  excellency, 
%y  bow  nimch  tbe  Jesuits  had  made  impressions  in  tbe  ▼ul'* 
fjat  bpitfloii,  tbat  since  tbe  English  left  the  Roliian  reli'^ 
gioni  they  were  tnmaformed  into  airange  horrid  shapes, 
irink  heads  and  taib  like  beasts  and  monsters."  His  em- 
ployasent  tbeve  was  to  take  the  oath  of  tbe  king  of  Spairi 
lo  ike  trea^  of  peace  latcAy  made  with  hm ;  amd  he  bad  a 
jialiicabir  inatruction,  that  in  performing  that  ceremony, 
which  was  most  likely  to  be  in  the  royal  ehi^cll,  he  should 
f  hwf%  ^special  care,  tbat  it  might  be  done^  not  in  the  fcire* 
^tiooii  in  the  time  of  mass,  but  rather  in  the  afternoon,  At 
tirbich  time' tbe  Momtsh  sendee  is  most  free  from  supersti^ 
tion.  During  this  embassy,  the  king  of  Spain  did  mdrts 
iKmoor  to  tbe  earl  than  eter  be  huo  dond'to  any  person  in 
bis  employBlent  in  that  kingdom ;  and  (he  people  in  gen^ 
lal  shewed  all  possible  regard  for  b)m,  as  bis  lordship's  be^ 
jbaviour  there  justly  deserved  ;  and  at  bia  departure  from 
^eocde  in  June  tbe  same  year,  he  had  prese»ta  made  bim 
by  that  king  in  plate,  jewels,  and  horses,  to  tl^e  value  of 
$!0,000/.  besides  the  gold  chains  and  jiewela  given  to  bia 
'^tendants.    Upon  the  marriage  of  the  lady  Eibabetb.t^ 

HOWARD.  $41 

^  ileclor.  Palatine,  February  14,  1612-13,  tbc|  ^  of 
Nottingham  with  the  duke  of  Lenox  cofulucted  ber  ^%b* 
Dena  frofB  the  cbapel;  and  bad  the  honour  of  convoying 
her  with  a  royal  navy,  to  Flushing*  He  Goutmued  lord  >igh 
afdaiind  of  England  tilijebruary  6,  1618-19,  when  finding 
hinself  uoable  any  Icfiger  to  perform  the  necessaiy  .duties 
pf  that  great  eaploymeiit,  which  he  bfid  ei^oyed  abo«4 
thirty^tfaree  yours  with  the  highest  applause,  be  fvoluih' 
tarUy  resigned  it  to  his  nwyesty  \  who  bei^ig  sensible  ^of  ijbi^ 
insportamt  services:  which  be  bed  done  Jjina  nation,  remitted 
him. A  debt  owing  to  the  crown  of  18,000/.  seuled  mpeii 
hi»  ft  pension  of  1000/.  a  year  for  life,  atkl  granted  hioi 
the  place  and  pnecedenqy  of  John  lilowbray,  who  had  been 
eiwated  earl  of  Nottingham  by  kic^  Ricbard  II.  at  the  tliaMi 
of  his  coronation. 

, .  He  died  at  the  age  of  eighty*etgbt,.  leaviiig  /rafb^  at 
ev^erlasting  memcMrial  of  his  extraordiaa^ry  worth,  tb^n  an^ 
gseat  estate  to  his  family ;  although  be  had  ei^oyed  si^ 
long  the  poofitahle  post  of  lord  admiral.  He  live^  in  ^ 
jttost  splendid  an4  oaiagAiiicent  manner,  keeping  savjeii 
ataoding  houses  at.ibe  same  time;  and  was  always  fotiy 
snurd  to  pvoamte  any  design  servioaable  to  his  ,coQ(»t^ 
J9e  expended  in  severail  expeditions  gveat  sutns  out  ^: 'hip 
private  fortune ;  and  in  the  critical  year  15^  whieni  ^m 
la  aurmisey  that  the  Spaniarda  wese  unable  to  set  saUtba^ 
year,  secretary  Walsiogbam,  by  ocdejr  of  itbe  queen^  rWfote 
to  him  to  send  back  i»ttr  of  his.4angei|t  ships,,  ha.  desina^b 
that  nothing  might  be  arasbly  credited  in  S0  w^eigbty  a  mfl4h 
tJtr^  and  that  .he  might  Jieepr  those  ships  with  ihim,,  tbqugh 
it  ynae  jat.  his  own  cost ;.  tand  in  the  eicpecUtion  toflgdif^ 
)ie,  and.  the  earl^f  Easex^  the  two  <:ofninandidn?,.cofi|ri^ 
^buted  ^sery  <  largely  out  of  their  own  jestanes*  Sir  Bob^vt 
Naimtan  styles  him  ^  a  good,  honest,  land  brare  man  ;.  ImmI 
4W  £or  ins  person,  as  g^dly  a  gentleman  i^  any  of  tbf|t 
•ge^*'  and  Mr.  Osborne  tells  us,  that  hb  ^^fid^ily  wna 
jflspiregnafaie  in  aelataon  to  corruption.*'  fiy  his  first  wife^ 
^Catharine,  da'ugbter  to  Hensy  Cary  lord  Hunsdooyihieba^ 
tssovsooi  and  three  daubers;  and  by  his  second,  Macv 
^garet,  .danghter  to  James  Stuart  earl  of.  Murray  in  Scotf 
imody  twosoM.^  -) 

^  HO V(f  AKD  <JoBK),  ^ht  indefatigable  friend  of*  thia  poor 
smd  unfortunate,  was  born  at  Hackney,  in  i73€b 

'  1  Bi«r.  Brit.-*Birch'8  XItcs.— Lloyd's  Statj|  Wonbi«s»«->JittSie's  Qiit,  si 


Ikther^  who  kept  a  carpet-warehouse  in  Long-lafie,  Sinidi* 
field,  dying  while  he  was  very  yoong,  left  him  to  the  caito 
Vf  guardians,  by  whom  be  was  apprenticed  to  Mr.  Newii^ 
haoi,  grandfather  to  the  late  aldennan  Newnham,  a  wbote« 
iMtle  grocer  in  the  city  of  London.  His  constitution  ap* 
pearifig  too  weak  for  attention  to  trade,  and  his  father  hav^ 
Ittg  left  bio),  and  an  only  sister,  in  circumstances  which 
placed  them  above  the  necessity  of  pursuing  it,  he  bought 
'out  the  remainder  of  his  indentures  before  the  time,  and 
took  a  tour  in  France  and  Italy:  On  his  return,  he  lodged 
«t  the  house  of  a  Mrs.  Lardeau,  a  widow,  in  Stoke-Newing« 
ton,  where  be  was  so  carefully  attended  by  the  lady,  that 
though  she  was  many  years  older  than  himself,  he  formed 
ati  attachment  to  her,  and  in  1752  made  her  his  wife.  She 
was  possessed  of  a  small  fortune,  which  he  generously  pre- 
iented  to  her  sisten  She  lived,  however,  only  three  3rear» 
Hfter  their  union,  and  he  was  a  sincere  mourner  for  her 
)oss.  About  this  time  be  became  a  fellow  of  the  royal  ao- 
tiety,  and,  in  1756,  being  desirous  to  view  the  state  o( 
Lisbon  after  the  dreadful  earthquake,  he  embarked  for  that 
city.'  In  this  voyage,  the  Hanover  frigate,  in  which  he 
ftailed,  was  taken  by  a  French  privateer,  and  the  inconve- 
niences which  he  suffered  during  his  subsequent  conBue- 
tnent  in  France,  are  supposed  to  have  awakened  his  aym- 
)>athies  with  peculiar  strength  in  favour  of  prisoners,  and 
to  have  given  rise  to  his  plans  for  rendering  prisons  lesa 
pernicious  to  health.  It  is  supposed,  that  after  his  release^ 
he  made  the  tour  of  Italy.  On  his  return,  he  fixed  himself 
at  Brokenhurst,  a  retired  and  pleasant  villa  near  Lyming- 
ton,  in  the  New  Forest.  Mr.  Howahl  married  a  second 
time  in  1758  ;  but  this  lady,  a  daughter  of  a  Mr*  Leeda^ 
of  Croxton  in  Cambridgeshire,  died  in  chikl-bed  of  her 
only  child,  a  son,  in  1765.  Either  before  or  aooD  after 
the  death  of  his  second  wife,  he  left  Lyminvton,  and  pur- 
chased an  estate  at  Cardington,  near  Bedfonl,  adjoinhq^  to 
that  pf  his  relation  Mr.  Whitbread.  Here  he  laodi  conci- 
liated the  poor  by  giving  them  employment*  hoiMii^  them 
cottages,  and  other  acts  of  benevolence;  and  legniariy  «u 
tended  the  congregations  of  dissenters  at  Bedford,  being 
of  that  persuasion.  His  time  was  also  a  good  deal  ooc«* 
pied  by  the  education  of  his  only  son,  a  task  far  wldeh  he 
is  said  to  have  been  little  qualified.  Willi  all  kis  benevor 
lence  of  heart,  he  is  asserted  to  hare  beem  dBipoaed  to  i^ 
trigid  severiQr  of  discipUne,  arisii^  piebiJ%  Ifiram  a  teiy 

HOWARD.  2« 

Utict  teose  of  rectitude,  but  not  well  caicuUied  to  form  a 
lender  mind  to  advantage.     In  1773,  he  served  the  office 
of  sberifF,  wUch,  as  be  has  said  bimsdf,  '^  brought  the  dis* 
tress  of  prisoners  more  immediately  under  bis  notice,*'  and 
led  to.  his  benevolent  design  of  visiting  the  gaols  and  other 
places  of  confinement  throughout  England,  for  the  sal^e  of 
procuring  alleviation  to  the  miseries  of  the  sufferers.     In 
1774,  trusting  to  his  interest  among  the  sectaries  at  Bed« 
ford,  be  offered  himself  as  a  candidate  for  that  borough^ 
but  was  not  returned ;  and  endeavouring  to  gain  his  seat 
by  {>etition,  was  unsuccessful.     He  was,  however,  in  the 
same  year,  examined  before  the  House  of  Commons,  oq 
the  subject  of  the  prisons,  and  received  the  thanks  of  the 
house  for  his  attention  to  them.     Thus  encouraged,  he 
completed  his  inspection  of  the  British  prisons,  and  ex«*' 
tencled  bis  views  even  to  foreign  countries.     He  travelled 
with  this  design,  three  times  through  France,  four  through 
Germany,  five  through  Holland,  twice  through  Italy,  once 
an  Spain  and.Portugal,  and  once  also  through  the  northern 
states,  and  Turkey.  These  excursions  were  taken  betweea 
,1775  and  1787.     In  the  mean  time,  his  sister  died,  and 
left  him  a  coiisiderable  property,  which  be  regarded  as 
the  gift  of  Providence  to  promote  his  humane  designs,  and 
applied  accordingly.     He  published  also  in  1777,  ^^The. 
State  of  the  Prisons. in  England  and  Wales,  with  prelimi- 
nary Observations,  and  an  Account  of  some  Foreign  Pri- 
sons,^' dedicated  to  the  House  of  Commons,  in  4to.     In 
1780  he  published  an  Appendix  to  this  book,  with  the 
narrative  of  bjs  travels  in  Italy;  and  in  1784,  republished 
it,  extending  his  account  to  many  other  countries.     About 
this  time,  his  benevolence  had  so  much  attracted  the  pub- 
.  Uc  attention,  that  a  large  subscription  was  made  for  the 
jsttrpose  of  erecting  a  statue  to  his- honour;  but  he  was  too 
modest  and  sijicere  to  accept  of  such  a  tribpte,  and  wrotci 
kioiself  to  the  subscribers  to  put  a  stop  to  it.     **  H^tve  I 
notone  friend  in  EngUnci,"  he  said,  when  be  first  heard 
of  the  design,  *'  that  would  put  a  stoj^  to  such  a  proceed-, 
-ingP     In.  1789,  he  published  f^  An  Account  of  the  prin- 
ciple Lazarettos  in  Europe,  with  various  Papers  relative  to*. 
the  Plague,  together  with  further  Observations  on  some 
-foreign  Prisons,  and  Hospitals ;  and  additional  remarks  oiv 
the  present  state  of  tho^  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.'\ 
.  He  had  published  also,  iu  1780,  a  translation  qf  a  French 
, account  of  the  Bastille;  wd,  in  1789,  the  duke  of  Tua^* 
cany's  new  code  of  civil  law^  with  an  English  translation* 

2«^  ttOWARDJ 

>  In  hU  book  on  Lazarettot^  hebad  aDhooneed  histnten^f 
tion  of  revisiting  Kussiai  Turkey,  and  iDme  other  cOuiiv 
tries^  -aud  extending  bis  tour  in  the  Ea&t*.  ^^1  am  not  in** 
sensible,"  says  he,  **  of  the  dangers  tbat  must  attend  sucb 
a  jburney.  Trusting,  however,  in  the  protection  of  tha& 
kind  Providence  wbicb  bas  bitherto  preserved  me^  I  calmly 
and  cheerfully  ooiainit  myself  to  ^he  disposal  of  unerring 
wisdom.  Should  it  please  God  to  cut  off  my  life  in  the 
inrosecution  of  this  design^  let  not  my  conduct  be  oncan* 
didly  imputed  to  rashness  or  enthusiasm,  bet  to  a  serious^ 
deliberate  conviction,  tbat  I  am  pufssuing  the  path  of  duty  j^ 
^4nd  to  a  sincere  desire  of  being  made  an  iostrument  of., 
more  ea^tensive  usefulness  to  my  feUow-creatures,  than; 
could  be  expected  in  the  nari^wer  circle  of  a  retired  life.'* 
He  did  actually  fall  a  sacrifice  to  this  design ;  for  in  viattingi 
a  sick  patient  at  Cherson,  who  had  a  malignant  epidemnd 
fever^.  he  caught  the  distensper,  and  died,  Jan.  20,  i%90i 
An  honour  was  now  paid  to  him,  whieh  we  believe  is  with«^ 
out  a  precedent :  his  death  was  ansiouoced^  in  the  London 

Mn  Howard  wad,  in  bis  own  habits  of  lif<^,  rigid^  tem** 
perate,  and  even  abstemious ;  subaistiiig  entirely,'  at  one 
time,  on  potatoes  ;  at  anotbecy  chiefly  on  tea  and  bread 
and  batter ;  of  course  not  mixing  in  convivial  society,  nee 
accepting  invitations  to  public  repasu.  His  labenni  ba^e 
certainly  .bad  the  adniirable  effect  of  drawing  th«»at|Bntion  of 
this  country  to. the  regnlation  of  public  prisons.  *  In  tommf 
places  his  improvements  have  been  adopted,  and  peitiapA^ 
in  all  our  gaols  some  advantage  has  been  d^ivted  from 
them.  We  may  hope  that  these  plnM  will  terminate  in 
such  general  regulations  as  will  make  judicial  confifiemenl^ 
instead  of  the  means  of  confirming  and  increasing  deppa« 
vity  (as  it  has  been  too  generally),  the  successful  inatmrneiit 
of  amendment  in  morality,  and  ficqniring  hahfts  of  industry* 
While  tlie  few  criminals,  and  probably  very  few^  itvbo  m»f 
be  too  depraved  for  amendment^  will  be  comfiriled  to  bii 
beneBcial  to  tbe  community  by  their  labour;  and^  being 
advantageously  situated  in  point  of  health,  may  snfler 
nothing  more  than  tbat  restraint  which  isneoessaiy  lor  dbe 
sake  of  society^  and  tbat  exertion  which  they  ongbt  never 
to  have  abandoned.  Oonndered  as  the  fimt  mover  of  itfaesA 
important  plans,  Howard  will  always  be  honoured  with  tte 
gratitude  of  his  conntry  ;  and  his  monument,  lately  erected 
in  St  Pjaml's  catb^drali  is  a  proof  tbat  this  gratitude  v^PM 


iilert.  Tbe  ntottiiaie^t  k  at  tha  same  Ihb^  a  noble  pt^ot 
of  tbeskiUand  gooiusof  the  artist,  Mr.  Baoon^  and  re«^ 
presents  Mr.  Howard,  io  a  Roman  dressy  with  •  look  and^ 
attitiide  expressire  of  ben^oleoce  and  aotmty,  holding  in 
one  hand  a  scroll  of  plans  for  the  imptovemMt  of  prisons; 
hospsftals^  &c*  and  in  the  ochiOT  a  key ;  while  be  is  tramp-* 
ling  on  chains  and  fetters^  The  epitaph  oonttias  a  dietch  oS" 
Us  life,  and  conckides  in  words  which  we  alsoheartUy  adopt ; 
'^  He  trod  an  opeb  hot  unfrequented  path  to  imflsoKtatttyt*^- 
10  the  ardent  and  unremitted  exercise  of  Christian  cbsrity** 
May  this  tribute  to  his  fame  excite  an  emulation  of  his  tntfy 
j^iorions«ehteyements !"  To  this  may  be  added  the  eloqnentr' 
eulogiiim.  pronounced  upon  Mr.  Howard  by  Mr.  BurkeV  ia 
bis  '^  Speech  at  Bristol^  previous  to  the  election  in  1780*'! 
Having  oecasion  to  mention  him,  he  adds,  ^^  I  cannot  name 
this  gentleman  witbont  reBiariung,  that  his  labours  and 
writings  have  dcme  much  to  open  the  eyen  and  hearts  of 
mankind.  He  haa  visited  all  £orop^-*^ot  to  survey  the 
sumptttomaess  of  pidaoes»  or  the  statdiness  of  temples  | 
not  to  make  accurate  measunements  of  the  remains  of  an*4 
cient  gcaadeur,  nor  to  ibrai  a  scale  of  the  curiosity  of 
flsddem  art  $  not  to  collect  medal$^  or  collate  aoanusctiptsi 
^-irbot  to  dive  into  the  depthaof  dungeons ;  toplnnge  into 
the  iofeoaion  of  hospitals ;  to  sufvey  the  manaions  ,of  8or<^ 
iiear  and  pain ;  to  take  the  gage  arid  dimensions  of  misery^ 
depressioDi  and  conteoipt;  to  Iwmenibar  the  fotf^en^  to 
attend  to  the  neglected,  to  vMt  ^heforsakeiiy  and  to  com*-t 
pant  «nd  odlate  the  distresses  of  all  toen  in  all  cooutrieils* 
Hia  pfam  is  oftginal,  and  it  is  as  full  x>i  genilis  as  it  is  of 
faMnanity*  It  was  a  voyage  of  discOveiy ;  a  direumnav^^ 
tijon  <rf  chariiv.  <  Already  the  benefit  of  hia  kboutf  is  felt 
mere  or  less  «n  every  country ;  1  hope  he  wilt  anticipate 
hia  final  fewatd,  byaeeing  all  its  effects  fbllyTealised  ih 
hie  own*  He  ^ill  recseive,  not  by  retail,  but  id  gross,  the 
Inward  of  those  who  visit  the  prisoner ;  anid  he  has  so  foie4 
stalled  and  monopolized  this  branch  of  charity,  thAt  there 
wqll  bit,  I  trusty  little  room  to  merit  by  imcfa'ac^  of  beote* 
veMce  hereafter/' ' 

HOWARD  (Sir  RoamT}^  an  EngUsfa  Writer  of  isbme 
abilities  and  lisarning,  bom  Jan.  I«6i6^  wias  a  younger  son: 
of*  Thomas  earl  of  ficdEvhire,  and  educated  at  Magdaleit 

•• « 

1  Aikin's  Life  of  Howard,  8to.  •— Accoaot  of  hi»  death,  Clarke*!  Travela, 

wo  H  <>  W  A  R  D; 

college,  Cambridge.  DuriDg  the  civil  war  he  laffisred^ith 
his  family,  who  adhered  to  Charles  I.  but  at  the  Reatora-' 
tioQ  was  made  a  knight,  and  chosen  for  Stockbridge  in 
Hattipshire,  to  serve  in  the  parhament  which  began  in. 
May  1661.  He  was  afterwards  made  auditor  of  the  ex^ 
chequer,  and  was  reckoned  a  creature  of  Charles  II.  whom 
the  mooarcb  advanced  on  account  of  his  faithful  services, 
in  cajoling  the  parliament  for  money.  In  1679  he  was 
chosen  to sen^  in  parliament  for  Castle  Rising  in  Norfolk; 
and  re-elected  for  the  same  place  in  1688.  He  was  a 
strong  advocate  for  the  Revolution,  and  became  so  pas- 
sional^e  an  abhorrer  of  the  nonjurors,  that  be  disclaimed  all 
manner  of  conversatiqa  and  intercourse  with  pessons  of 
that  description.  His  obstinacy  and  pride  procured  hki^ 
many  enemies,  and  among  them  the  duke  of  Bockiogfaam^ 
who  intended  to  have  exposed  him  under  the  name  of 
Bilbea  in  the  ^*  Rehearsal,"  btt  afterwards  altered  hie 
resolution,  and.  levelled  bis  ridicule  at  a  much  greater 
Dame,  under  that  of  Bayes.  He  was  so  extremely  posi^ 
live,  and  so  sure  of  being  in  the  right  upon  every  snbject^ 
that  Sbadwell  the  poet,  though  a  man  of  the  same  prin* 
tiplies,  could  not  help  ridiculing  him  in  his  comedy  of  the 
**  Sullen  Lovers,"  tinder  the  character  of  Sir  Positt^  At^lk 
'  In  the  same  play  there  is  a  lady  Vaine,  a  courtesan;  which 
the  wits  then  Understood  t6  be  the  mistress  of  m  Robert^ 
whom  he  i^rwards  married.  He  died  Sept.  S,  169S.  .;He 
published,  1.  .<<  Poems  and  Plays."  2.  *^  The  History  of 
the  Reigns  of  Edward  and  Richard  II.  with  reflections  and 
characters  of  their  chief  ministers  and  ftivourites ;  also  a 
comparison  of  these  princes  with  Edward  L  ^nd  III."  16M^ 
Svo.  3*  ^^  A  letter  to  Mr.  Samuel  Johnson,  occasioned  by 
a- scurrileus  pamphlet,  entitled  Animadveisions.  on  Mr; 
Johnson^s  answer  to  Jovian,"-  1692,'8vo.  4.  **  The  History 
of  Religion,"  1694,  8vo.  5.  <<  The  fourth  book  of  VirgU 
ccanslated,"  1660,  ^vo.  6.  <<  Statius's  Acbilleis  translated^'^ 
:1660,  8vo. 

^  £j> WAao  HoWAaD,  esq.  likewise,  his  brother,  exposed  him- 
self to  the  severity  of  our  satirists,  by  writing  bad  plays; 
and  the  hon.  Jam^  Howard,  probably  a  relative,  wrote 
two  plays  about  the  same  time,  called  <<  All  Mistdcen,"  and 
5'  The  English  Monsieur,"  which  were  successful ;  but  Utdo 
else  is  recorded  of  him.' 

V  jOibb«r's  Liv«i.-i»Biog*  Dram.— Nichols's  Poems,** Bllii's  Sptcimftis.— » 
MtlOoe'8  0rydeii,  vol.  I.  398,  II.  34,  in»  145, 155.  . 

irOWARD.  251 

HOWAUD  (Sawuei),  Mus.  D.  was  bt^ught  up  in  the 
king's  chapel,  and  took  his  degree  of  doctor  of  music  at 
Cambridge  ac  the  timeof  the  Installation  of  theduke  of  Graf-^ 
ton  as  chancellor  of  that  university.  Dr.  Howard  had  studied 
tmich  under  Dr.  Pepusch  at  the  Charter-house,  and  was 
well  acquainted  with  the  mechanical  rules  of  counterpoint. 
His  overture  in  the  **  Amorous  Goddess,*^  a  happy  imita- 
tion of  Handel's  overture  in  "Alcina,"  particularly  the 
musette  and  minuet,  was  very  popular  in  the  theatres  and 
public  gardens.  But  his  ballads,  which  were  long  the  de- 
light of  natural  and  inexperienced  lovers  of  music,'  had 
the  merit  of  facility ;  for  this  hbnest  Englishman  preferred 
tiie  style  of  his  own  country  to  that  of  anjr  other  so  mucb^ 
that  be  never  staggered  in  his  belief  of  its  being  the  best 
in  the  world,  by  listening  to  foreign  artists  or  their  pro- 
ductions^ for  whom  and  for  which  he  had  an  invincible 

He  began  to  flourish  4^bout  l^e  year  1740,  and  from  that 
time  tifU  Arne's  Vauxhall  songs  were  published  under  the 
tide  of  *^  Lyric  Harmony,"  they  were  the  most  natural  and 
pleasing  which  oor  country  could  boast.  After  the  decease 
of  Michael  Christian  Pesting,  Dr.  Howard  took  the  lead 
in  managing  the  affairs  of  the  musical  fund-;  but  not  with 
oqual  address  and  intelligence.  He  was  a  dull,  vulgar^ 
amd  unpleasant  man  ;  and  by  over-rating  his  own  import^ 
ftnce^  and  reigning  paramount  over  his  equals,  he  rendered 
the  monthly  meetings  disagreeable,  and'  cooled  the  zeal 
of  many  well-wishers  to  the  society.  He  long  laboured 
under  a  dropsy^  yet  walked  about  with  legs  of  an  enormous 
aise,  during  aeveral  years.  But  it  was  not  this  disorder 
which  put  an  end  to  hi$  existence  at  last,  but  repeated 
paralytic  strokes.     He  died  about  the  year  1783.^ 

HOWE  (ChaALES),  the  author  of  a  very  popular  book 
of  ^^  Devout  Meditations,'^  was  the  third  son  of  John 
Grubham  Howe,  of  Langar  in  Nottioghamshire,  by  his 
wife  Annabelia,  third  natural  daughter  and  coheiress  of 
Emanuel  earl  of  Sunderland,  lord  Serope  of  Bolton.  He 
.was  born  in  Gloucestershire  in  1661,  and  during  the  latter 
end  of  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  was  much  at  court.  About 
1686  he  went  abroad  with  a  near  relation,  who  was  sent  bf 
blames  IL  as  ambassador  to  a  foreign  court.  The  ambas'> 
fadordied;  and  our  author,  by  powers  given  to  him  t<i 

1  f^Mtnefs  Hist,  of  Music^^By  the  fiame^  ia  Kees^s  Cyclodfl|dU% 

iSt  B  O  W  E. 


that  effect,  eoncloded  the  business  ^  the  emlwssy*  H^ 
bad  an  offer  of  being  appointed  successor  to  his  friend  ill 
his  public  charac^sr ;  but  disl&ing  the  measures  that  were 
then  carried  on  at  courts  he  declined  it,  and  returned  to 
England,  where  he  aoon  after  married  a  lady  of  rank  and 
fortune,  who,  dying  m  a  few  years^  left  behind  her  aa 
only  daughter,  manried  afterwards  to  Peter  Bathurst,  esq^ 
brother  to  tb^  first  earl  Batii^rst.  After  his  lady's  death/ 
Mr.  Howe  lived  for  the  most  part  in  the  country,  where 
be  spent  mliny  of  his  Utter  years  in  a  close  retirement^ 
eonseorated  to  religiotts  meditatioas  and  eseroises.  He 
was  a  man  of  good  understanding,  of  an  exeknplary  I^^ 
and  cheerful  coiiversatian.  He  died  in  i74&i  The  work 
by  wbich  be  is  still  remembered,  was  entitled  ^  Deveut 
Meditations;  or  a  collection  of  thougbts  upon  reltgioas 
and  pbilojsopbical  subjects/'  ;8vo,  and  waa  first,  pubiished 
anotiymously ;  but  the  second  edition,  at  the  instance  of 
Dr.  Young  and  others,  camie  out  ia  17^2  With  the  author's 
name.  It  baaoftsen  been. reprinted  sinee^  Dr.  Yonngasid 
of  this  book,  that  be  ^Ubould  never  lay  it  far  out  of  hit 
reaeh ;  for  a  greater  demonstration  of  a  aound  bead  and 

lincere  heart  he  never 'saw.V 
HOWE  (J^HK^  eaf(|.),  a  relation  of  the  preceding,  wni 

tbe  younger  brother  of  sir  Scroop  Howe,  of:  Nattingbam* 

shire.    In  the  cdnvention«pariiament,  wkicfa  met  at.Wesb^ 

ininsler  Jan^  22,  1^^849,  he  served  for  Gifeaoesterj  end 

was  constantly  chosen  for  that  borough,  or  as  a  knight  of 

Isbe  shire  for  the  county  of  Glonoesterj  in.  tbe  three  iast 

parliaments  of  Mng  William,  and  in  tbe  three  first  <^  queen 

Anne.     In  1696  he  was  a  strenuous  advocate  for  sir  JofaA 

Fenwick;  aiid  bis;  pleadings  in  behalf  of  that  unfortunate 

gentleman,  sfaews  his  extensive  knowledge >of  the  laws,  and 

aversion  to  unconstitutional  measures.    In  1699,  whence 

aro^'  vras  reduced,  it  was  principaHy  in  consideration  of 

Mr.  Howe's  remottstrances,  that  the  Home  of  Comnonir 

iBigreed  to  allow  half-pay  to  the. disbanded  officers 4  and 

when  the  partition^treaty  was  afterwards  und^  the  consi* 

deration  of  that  house,  he  e^presaed  bis  sentiments  of  itin 

auoh  terms^  that  king  William  declared,  that  if  it  were  not 

Isr  tbe  dispari^  of  tbeirrank^  be  would  demand  satisfaction 

with  the  si^ord.    At  the  accession  of  «qi»en  Aimey  he  wna 

«hvorn  of  her  privy •aouncil^pril  2I9  1702  ;  and,  on  Jnne 

7  following,   constituted  vice-admiral  of  the  county   of 

S  Gent.  Mag.  JUXTV.-^BaUer'i  Life  of  fiUdesIey^  p.  350,. 

HOWE.  i$$ 

Gloucester.  Before  the  «nd  of  that  ytor,  Jan.  4y  170^*3* 
he  was  constituced  paymaster^general  of  her  taiajesty's 
gfuards  and  garrisons;  Macky  says  of  bim,  ^*  be  seemed 
to  be  pleased  with  and  joined  in  the  Revolution^  and  was 
made  vice-chaoiberlaia  to  queen  Mary ;  but  harkig  asked 
a  grant,  which  was  refused  him,  and  given  to  lord  Port-* 
brtd/he  fell  from  the  court,  and  was  all  that  reign  the  most 
violent  and  open  antagonist  king  WiUiam  had  in  thehouse^f 
A  great  enemy  to  foreigners  settling  in  England  ;  most' 
clauses  inacts  against  them  being  brought  in  by  him.  He 
is  indefatigable  in  whatever  he  undertakes ;  witness  the  old 
East  India  company,  whose  cause  he  maintained  till  he 
fixed  it  upon  as  sure  a  foot  as  the  new,  even  wheq  they 
thought  themselves  past  recovery.  He  lives  up  to  what  bis 
visible  estate  can  afiord  ;  yet  purcjba^es,  instead  of  running 
in  debt.  He  is  endued  with  good  natural  parts,  attended 
With  an  unaccountable  boldness ;  daring  io  say  what  -he 
pleases,  and  will  be  heard  out ;  so  that  be  passeth  with 
some  for  the  shrew  of  the  bouse.  On  the  queen's  acces* 
aton  to  the  throne  he  was  made  a  privy-eoun^ellor,  and 
paymaster  of  the  guards  and  garrisons.  He  is  a  tall^  thii)^ 
pale-faced  man,  with  a  very  wild  look ;  brave  in  his  person^ 
hold  in  expressing  himself,  a  violent  enemy tv.a  sure  friend^ 
and  seems  to  be  always  in  a  huny.  Near  fifty  years  bid.'* 
Such  is  the  character  given  of  this  gentleman  in  170^* 
A  new  privy  council  being  settled  May  10, 1708,  aceording 
to  act  of  parliament,  relating  to  the  union  of  the  two 
kingdoms,  he  was,  among  the  other  great  officers,  sworn 
into  it.  He  continued  paymaster  of  the  guards  and  garri- 
sons tin  after  the  accession  of  George  I.  who  appointed 
Mr.  Walpole  to  succeed  him  on  Sept.  23,  1714 :  the  privy 
touncil  being  also  dissolved,  and  a  new  one  appointed  to 
meet  on  Oct.  1  following,  he  was  left  out  of  the  list.  Re- 
tiring to  his  seat  at  Stowell  in  Gloucestershire,  he  died 
Aere  in  1721,  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  the  church 
of  Stowell. 

Mr.  Howe  was  author  of  *' A  panegyric  on  king  William/* 
and  of  several  songs  and  little  poems ;  and  is  introduced  ii| 
Swift's  celebrated  ballad  "  On  the  Game  of  Traffic.**  He 
married  Mary,  daughter  and  coheir  of  Humphrey  Basker^ 
Ville,  of  Pantryllos  in  Herefordshire,  esq.  widow  of  sir 
Edward  Morgan,  of  Laternam  in  Monmouthshire,  bart^  by 
whom  he  was  father  to  the  first  lord  Chedworth.^     , 

aS4  HOWE. 

HOW£  (John),  a  learued  fioa*cODfbraii$t  cfmoe  in  the . 
seventeenth  century,  was  a  minister's  son,  and  nephew  to 
Mr.  Obadiah  Howe,  vicar  of  Boston  in  Lincolnshire.  He 
was  born  May  17,  1630,  at  Loughborough  iii  Leicester* 
shire,  of  which  town  his  father  was  minister,  being  settled 
there  by  archbishop  Laud,  though  afterwards  ejected  by 
that  prelate  on  account  of  his  adherence  to  the  Puritans  ; 
upon  which  he  went  with  his  son  to  Ireland,  where  they 
continued  till  the  Irish  Rebellion  hroke  out,  when -they 
returned  to  England,  and  settled  in  Lancashire,  where  our 
author  was  educated  in  the  first  rudiments  of  learning  and 
the  knowledge  of  the  tongnes.  He  was  sent  pretty  early 
to  Christ  college  in  Cambridge,  where  he  continued  till  he 
had  taken  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts,  and  then  removed 
to  Oxford,  and  became  bible-clerk  of  Brazen-nose  college 
in  Michaelmas  term  1648,  and  took  the  degree  of  bachelor 
of  arts  Jan.  IS,  1649.  He  was  made  a  demy  of  Magdalen 
college  by  the  parliament  visitors,  and  afterwards  fellow ; 
and  July  9, 1652,  took  the  degree  of  master  of  arts.  Soon 
after  this  he  became  a  preacher,  and  was  ordained  by  Mr« 
Charles  Herle  at  his  church  of  Winwick  in  Lancaishire» 
and  not  long  after  became  minister  of  Great  Torrington  in 
Devonshire.  His  labours  here  were  characteristic  of  the 
times.  He  inforiiied  Dr.  Catamy,  that  on  the  public  fasts 
it  was  his  common  way  to  begin  about  nine  in  the  morning 
with  a  prayer  for  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  in  which  he 
begged  a  blessing  on  the  work  of  the  day ;  and  afterwards 
read  and  expounded  a  chapter  or  psalm,  in  which  he  spent 
about  three  quarters  ;  then  prayed  for  about  an  hour^ 
preached  for  another  hour,  and  prayed  for  about  half  an 
hour.  After  this  he  retired,  and  took  some  little  refresh-* 
ment  for  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour  or  more  (the  people 
singing  all  the  while),  and  then  came  again  into  the  pulpit^ 
and  prayed  for  another  hour,  and  gave  them  another  ser* 
mon  of  about  an  hour's  lengthy  and  so  concluded  the  ser- 
vice of  the  day,  about  four  o'clock  in  the  evening,  with, 
half  an  hour  or  more  in  prayer. 

In  March  1654  he  married  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Georg6 
Hughes,  minister  of  Plymouth.     Having  occasion  to  take 
a  journey  to  London,  be  went  as  a  hearer  to  the  chapel  at 
Whitehall.     Cromwell  was  present,  and,  struck  with  his 
/  demeanor  and  person,  sent  a  messenger  to  inform  hiin  that 

be  wished  to  speak  with  him  when  the  service  was  over, 

la  th^  couris^  of  the  int^rvi^w  be  desired  him  to  preach 

before  bim  the  following  Sunday:  he  requested  to  be  ex** 
cusedy  but  Cromwell  would  not  be  deoiedy  and  even  an* 
dertook  to  write  to  bis  eongrogation  a  sufficient  apology 
for  his  absence  from  them  longer  than  he  intended.  This 
led  to  the  appointment  of  Mr.  Howe  to  the  office  of  his 
domestic  cbaplaini  and  he  accordingly  removed  with  his 
family  to  Whitehall.  :  Dr.  Calamy  tells  us,  that  while  he 
was  in  this  station,  he  behaved  in  such  a  manner  that  he 
was  never  charged,  even  by  those  who  have  been  most  for- 
ward to  inveigh  against  a  number  of  his  contemporaries^ 
with  improving  his  ii^terest  in  those  who  then  b&d  the  ma- 
nagement of  affairs  in  their  hands,  either  to  the  enriching 
himself,  or  the  doing  ill  offices  to  others,  though  of  known 
differing  sentiments.  He  readily  embraced  every  occasion 
that  offered,  of  serving  the  interest  of  religion  and  learns, 
ing,  and  opposing  the  errors  and  designs  which  at  that  time 
threatened  both.  The  notion  of  a  particular  Jaiih  pre« 
yailed  much  at  Crom well's  court;  and  it  was  a  common 
opinion  among :tbem,  that  such  as  were  in  a  special  manner 
favoured  of  God,  when  they  offered  up  prayers  and  sup- 
plications to  bini  for  his  mercies,  either  for  themselves  or 
Qthe;rs,  often  had  such  impressions  made  upon  their  minds 
and  spirits  by  a  divine  hand,  as  signified  to  them,  not  only 
in  the  general  that  their  prayers  .would  be  heard  and  an- 
swered, but  that  the  particular  mercies  which  were  sought 
for  would  be  certainly  bestowed  ;  nay,  and  sometimes  also 
intimated  to  them  in  what  way  and  manner  they  would  be 
afforded,  and  pointed  out  to  them  future  events  befprehand, 
which  in  reality  is  the  same  with  inspiration.  Mr.  Howe 
told  Dr.  Calamy,  that  not  a  little  pains  was  taken  to  cni-' 
(ivate  and  support  this  notion  at  Whitehall ;  and  that  he 
once  heard  a  sermon  there  from  a  person  of  note,  the 
avowed  design  of  which  was  to  defend  it.  He  said,  that 
be  was  so  fully,  convinced  of  the  ill  tendency  of  such  a 
principle,  that  after  hearing  this  sermon,  he  thought  him^ 
^e\i  bound  in  conscience,  came  next  to  his  turn 
to  preach  before  Cromwell,  to  set  himself  industriously  to 
oppose  it,  and  to  beat  down  that  spiritual  pride  and  con- 
fidenpe,  which  such  fancied  impulses  and  impressions  were 
CLpt  to  produce  and  cherish.  He  observed,  while  he  was, 
in  the  pulpit,  that  Cromwell  heard  him  with  great  atten- 
tion, but  would  sometimes  knit  his  brows,  and  discover 
great  uneasiness.  When  the  sermon  was  over,  a  person 
Zs  distinction  came  to  him,  and  asked  him,  if  he  knew 

2^5^  11  O  W  EL 

what  be  had  done  ?  and  isignified  it  to  him  as  hi«  apptv*^ 
hension,  that  Cromwell  would  be  so  incensed  at  that  dis- 
cottftei  that  he  would  find  it  vety  diflBcult  ever  to  make  his 
peaee  with  him,  or  secure  his  favour  far  the  fotm^e.  Mr. 
Howe  replied,  that  he  had  but  discharged  his  conscience, 
and  could  leave  the  event  with  God.  He  afterwards  ob* 
served,  that  Cromwell  was  cooler  in  bis  carriage '  to  him 
itian  before;  and  sometimes  he  thought  he  would  ba^'e 
spoken  to  him  of  the  matter,  but  nevel*  did. 
«  Upon  the  death  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  his  non  Richard 
succeeding  him  as  protector,  Mr.  Howe  stood  in  the  same 
relation  to  him  of  chaplain  as  he  had  done  to  the  father ; 
and  was  in  his  judgment  very  mnch  averse  to  Richard's 
parting  with  his  parliament,  which  he  foresaw  would  prove 
his  ruin.  When  the  army  had  set  Richard  aride,  Mr.  Howe 
teturned  to  .his  people  at  Great  Torrington,  among  whom 
he  continued  till  the  act  of  uniformity  took  place  August 
24,  1662,  after  which  he  preached  for  some  time  in  private 
houses  in  Devonshire.  In  April  1671  he  went  to  Ireland, 
where  he  lived  as  chaplain  to  the  lord  Massarene  in  the 
parish  of  Antrim,  and  had  leave  from  the  bishop  of  tbe 
diocese  and  the  metropolitan  to  preach  in  the  public  church 
of  that  town  every  Sunday  in  the  afternoon,  without  sub* 
oiitting  to  any  terms  of  conformity.  la  1675,  upon  the 
death  of  Dr.  Lazarus  Seaman,  he  was  chosen  minister  of 
his  congregation,  upon  which  he  returned  to  England  and 
settled  at  London,  where  he  was  highly  respected,  not 
only  by  his  brethren  in  the  ministry  among  the  dissenters, 
but  also  by  several,  eminent  divines  of  the  church  of  Eng- 
land, as  Dr.  Whichcot,  Dr.  Kidder,  Dr.  Fowler,  Dr.  Lucas, 
and  others.  In  August  1685  he  travelled  beyond  sea  with 
tbe  lord  Wharton,  and  the  year  following  settled  at  Utrecht, 
and  took  his  turn  in  preadiing  at  the  English  church  in 
that  dty.  In  1687,  upon  king  James's  publishing  his 
<<  Declaration  for  Itbertv  of  coiiscience,*'  Mr.  Howe  returned 
to  London,  where  he  oied  April  2,  1 705,  and  was  interred 
in  the  parish  church  of  Allballows  Bread*street. 

Mr.  Howe,  abating  his  attachment  to  the  family  of  the 
0sufper,  was  a  man  of  more  moderation  than  most  of  hia 
brethren,  and  as  a  divine  laboured  zealously  to  promote  the 
interests  of  real  practical  religion,  and  to  diffuse  a  iipirit  of 
candpur,  charity,  and  mutual  forbearance,  among  his  dis* 
senting  brethren.  He  was' a  man  of  distingfuished  piety 
and  virtue^  of  eminent  inteUectual  esdowmeotSi  and  of 

HO  W  E-  2« 

•zt^mif 0  learning.  Granger  says,  **  He  was  one  of  tfie 
■lost  learned  and  polite  writers  among  the  dissenters.  His 
reading  in  divinity  was.  very  extensive :  he  was  a  good 
Orientalist,  and  undel^tood  several  of  the  modern  Ian- 

Among  his  works  are,  1.  <*  A  Treatise  on  th^  blessedness 
of  the  righteous/*  1668,  8vo.  2.  **  A  Treatise  on  delight- 
ing ia  God,"'  1 674.  3.  <<  Of  tboughtfulness  for  the  mor« 
row  ;'*  and  many  sermons  and  discourses  on  several  sub^ 
jects.  His  whole  works  were  printed  in  1724^  2  vols,  folio, 
with  a  life  by  Dr.  Calamy.* 

HOWE  (Josiah),  an  accomplished  scholar  of  the  seven* 
teenth  century,  was  born  at  Crendon  in  BuckiiYghamshire, 
aad  elected  sdiolar  of  Trinity-college  in  1632,  of  which, 
when  B.  A  he  became  fellow  in  1637.  By  Hearne,  in  his 
preface  to  **  Robert  of  Gloucester,''  he  is  called  <^  a  very 
great  cavalier  and  loyalist,  and  a  most  ingenious  man.'* 
He  appears  to  have  been  a  general  scholar,  and  in  polite 
Ht&ature  was  esteemed  one  of  the  ornaments  of  the  uni- 
versity., In  1 644  he  preached  before  Charles  I.  at  Christ- 
cfaureh  cathedral,  Oxford ;  and  the  sermon  was  printed,  and 
in  red  letters  (but  only  thirty  copies),  of  whieh.perhaps  the 
only  one  extant  is  in  the  Bodleian  library.  In  1 646  he  was 
created  bachelor  of  divinity  by  decree  of  the  king,  among 
others  who  were  complkneuted  with  that  degree  for  having 
distiBguished  themselves  as  preachers  before  the  court  at 
Oxfofd-.  He  was  soon  afterwards  ejected  from  his  fellow- 
ship by. the  presbyterians,  but  not  in  the  general  expulsion 
in  1648,  according  to  Walker.  Being  one  of  the  bursars 
of  the  eoUege,  and  foreseeing  its  fate,  and  having  resolved 
at  the  same  time  never  to  acknowledge  the  authority  of 
CroBoiwelFs  visitors,  he  retired,  in  the  beginning  of  1648^ 
to  acoUegeestate  in  Buckinghamshire,  carrying  with  him 
many  rentals,  rolls,  papers,  and  other  authentic  documents 
belonging  to  his  ofiice.  These  be  was  soon  after  ipduced 
t<»  return  on  a  promise  of  being  allowed  to  retaiahis  fel- 
lowship ;  but  they  were  no  sooner  recovered  than  he  was 
expelled,  aqd  not  restored  until  1660> .  He  lived  forty-^wo 
years  after  this,  greatly  respected,  and  died  fellow  of  tbo 
coUege,  whfre  he  constantly  resided,  Aug.  28,  1701,  and 
was  interred  i«  die  college  chapel.     Hearne  says,  ^*  He 

^  life  by  Calamy.r*^o.  i>ict.«^?io|^'^it.  vol.  YlL^i^Bir^'t  Tillotsin,— 
WllMm's  Hist,  of  Piiaentios  ClM[^itlif9, 

voL.xvni.  s 

258  HOW  E. 

lived  sb  retiredly  in  the  latter  part  of  hjs  life,  that  he  rarefy 
came  abroad ;  so  that  I  could  never  see  him,  though  I  have 
often  much  desired  to  have  a  sight  of  him." 

Mr.  Howe  has  a  copy  of  recommendatory  English  verses 
prefixed  to  the  foiio  edition  of  Beaumont  and  Fletcher^ 
printed  in  1647 ;  another  to  Randolph's  poems,  1640,  and 
another  to  Cartwright*s  comedies  and  poems,  1651.  These 
pieces,  says  Wartoo,  which  are  in  the  witty  epigrammatic 
$tyle  that  then  prevailed,  have  uncommon  acuteness,  and 
highly  deserve  to  be  revived.  Denham,  Waller,  Jonson, 
Corbet,  Brome,  Shirley,  &c.  appear  to  have  been  of  his 
intimate  acquaintance.  Wood  says  that  he  wrote  some 
English  verses,  which  were  much  applauded,  spoken  be- 
fore the  duke  and  duchess  of  York,  in  1683,  at  Trinity- 

HOWE   (Richard),  fourth  viscount  Howe,    and  earl 
Howe,  and  first  baron  Howe  of  Langar,  a  gallant  English 
admiral^  was  the  third  son  of  sir  Emanuel  Scrope,  second 
lord  viscount    Howe,  and  Mary   Sophia  Charlotte,  eldest 
daughter  to  the  baron  Kilmansegge.     He  was  born  in  1725, 
was  educated  at  Eton,  entered  the  sea-service  at  the  age 
of  fourteen,  on  board   the   Severn,  hon.  captain   Legge, 
part  of  the  squadron  destined  for  the  South  Seas  under 
Anson.     He  next  served  on  board  the  Burford,.  1743,  under 
admiral  Knowles,  in  which  he  was  afterwards  appointed 
acting  lieutenant;  but  his  commission  not  being  confirmed, 
he  returned  to  admiral  Knowles  in  the  West-Indiesj  where, 
be  was  made  lieutenant  of  a  sloop  of  wai* ;  and  being  em* 
ployed  to  cut  an  English  merchantman,  which, had  been 
taken  by  a  French  privateer  under  the  guns  of.  the  Dutch 
settlement  of  St.  Eustatia,  and  with  the  connivance  of  the 
governor,  out  of  that  harbour,  he  executed  the  difficult 
and  dangerous  enterprise  in  such. a  manner,  as  to  produce 
the  most  sanguine  expectations  of  his  future  services.     In 
1745,  lieutenant  Howe  was  with  admiral  Vernon  in  the 
Downs,  but  wa4i  in  a  short  time  raised  to  the  rank  of  com- 
«  mander,  in  the  Baltimore  sloop  of  war,  which  joined  the 
squadron  then  grqizing  on  the  coast  of  Scotland,  under  the 
command  of  admiral  Smith.     During  this  cruize  an  action 
took  place,  in  which  captain  Howe  gave  a  fine  example  of 
persevering  intrepidity.    The  Baltimore,  in  company  with 


t  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  n.-*Wairt<m'8  Life  of  sir  ThomM  IPope^  prelkce— ud  «f 
Batkarlt,  pp.  154,  tSll. 

HOWE.  259 

another  kriiied  vessel,  fell  id  with  two  French  frigates  of 
thirty  guns,  with  troops  and  ammunition  for  the  service  of 
the  pretender,,  which  she  instantly  attacked,  by  running 
between  them.  In  the  action  which  followed,  capt.  Howe 
received  a  wound  in  his  head,  which  at  first  appeared  to  be 
fatal.  He,  however,  soon  discovered  signs  of  life,  and 
when  the  necessary  operation  was  performed,  resuoied  all 
his  former  activity,  continued  the  action,  if  possible,  with 
redoubled  spirit,  and  obliged  the  French  ships,  with  their 
prodigious  superiority  in  men  and  metal,  to  sheer  oflF,  leav- 
ing the  Baltimore,  at  the  same  time,  in  such  a  shattered 
condition,  as  to  be  wholly  disqualified  to  pursue  them.  He 
was,  in  consequence  of  this  gallant  service,  immediately 
made  post-captain,  and  in  April  1746,  was  appointed  to 
the  Triton  frigate,  and  ordered  to  Lisbon,  where,  in  con- 
sequence of  captain  Holbourne's  bad  state  of  health,  he 
was  transferred  to  the  Rippon,  destined  for  the  Coast  pf 
Guinea.  But  he  soon  quitted  that  station  to  join  his  early 
patron  admiral  Knowles  in  Jamaica,  who  appointed  him 
first  captain  of  his  ship  of  80  guns;  and  at  the  conclusion 
of  the  war  in  1748,  he  returned  in  her  to  England.  In 
March  1750-51,  captain  Howe  was  appointed  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  Guinea  station,  in  La  Gloire,  of  44  guns ; 
when,  with  bis  usual  spirit  and  activity,  he  checked  the 
injurious  proceedings  of  the  Dutch  governor-general  on  the 
coast,  and  adjusted  the  difference  between  the  English  and 
Dutch  settlements.  At  the  close  of  1751,  he  was  appointed 
to  the  Mary  yacht,  which  was  soon  exchanged  for  the  Dol- 
phin frigate,  in  which  he  sailed  to  the  Streights,  where  he 
executed  many  difficult  and  important  services.  Here  he 
remained  about  three  years ;  and  soon  after,  on  his  return 
to  England,  he  obtained  the  command  of  the  Dunkirk  of 
60  guns,  which  was  among  the  ships  that  were  commis- 
sioned from  an  apprehension  of  a  rupture  with  France. 
This  ship  was  one  of  the  fleet  with  which  admiral  Boscawen 
sailed  to  obstruct  the  passage  of  the  French  fleet  into  the 
Gnlph  of  St.  Lawrence,  when  captain  Howe  took  the  Al- 
cide,  a  French  ship  of  64  guns,  off  the  coast  of  .Newfound- 
land. A  powerful  fleet  being  prepared,  in  1757,  under 
the  command  of  sir  Edward  Hawke,  to  make  an  attack 
upon  the  French  coast,  captain  Howe  was  appointed  to  the 
Magoanime,  in  which  ship  he  battered  the  fort  on  the 
island  of  Aix  till  it  surrendered.  In  1758  he  was  appointed 
commodore  of  a  small  squadron,  which  sailed  to  aiinoy  the 

S  2 


269  HOWE. 

tn^ttiy  on  their  totsts.    This  he  effected  with  his  tniml 
tuccess  at  St.  Malo,  where  an  hundred  sail  of  ships  and 
neveral  magaRsines  were  destroyed ;   and  the  heavy   gale 
blowing  into  shore,  which  rendered  it  impracticable  for 
the  troops  to  land^  alone  prevented  the  executing  a  similar 
mischief  in  the  town  and  harbour  of  Cherbourg.     On  the 
1st  of  July  he  returned  to  St.  Helen's.    This  expedition 
was  soon  followed  by  another,  when  prince  Edward,  after- 
wards duke  of  York,  was  entrusted  to  the  care  of  commo-» 
dore  Howe,  on  board  his  ship  the  Essex.    The  fleet  sailed 
on  the  1st  of  August  175a,  and  on  the  6th  came  to  an 
anchor  in  the  Bay  of  Cherbourg ;  the  town  was  taketi)  and 
the  bason  destroyed.    The  commodore,   with  his  royal 
midshipman  on  boards  next  sailed  to  St.  Malo;  and  as  his 
instructions  were  to  keep  the  coast  of  France  in  continual 
alarm,  he  very  effectually  obeyed  them.    The  unsuccess- 
ful affair  of  St.  Cas  followed.     But  never  was  courage, 
skill,  or  humanity,  more  powerfully  or  successfully  dis- 
played than  on  this  occasion.     He  went  in  person  in  his 
barge,  which  was  rowed  through  the  thickest  fire,  to  save 
the  retreating  soldiers ;  the  rest  of  the  fleet,  inspired  hy 
his  conduct,  followed  bis  example,  and  at  least  seven  hun- 
dred men  were  preserved,  by  his  exertions,  from  the  fire 
of  the  enemy  or  the  fury  of  the  waves.     In  July  in  the 
same  year  (1758),  his  elder  brother,  who  was  serving  his  . 
country  with  equal  ardour  and  heroism  in  America,  found 
an  early  grave.    That  brave  and,  admirable  officer  was  kil- 
led in  a  skirmish  between  the  advanced  guard  of  the  French, 
and  the  troops  commanded  by  general  Abercrombie,  in  the 
expedition  against  Ticonderago.     Commodore  Howe  then 
succeeded  to  the  titles  and  property  of  his  family.    In  the 
following  year  (1759).  lord  Howe  was  employed  in  the  Chan- 
nel, on  board  his  old  ship  the  Magnanime ;  but  no  oppor« 
tunity  offered  to  distinguish  himself  till  the  month  of  No- 
vember, when  the  French  fleet,  under  Conflans,  was  de- 
feated.   When  he  was  presented  to  the  king  by  sir  Edward 
Hawke  on  this  occasiOD^  bis  majesty  said,  *<  Your  lifie,  my   ^ 
lord,  has  been  one  continued  series  of  services  to  yonr 
country.^*    In  March  ITBO,  be  was  appointed  colonel  of  the 
Chatham  division  of  marines ;  and  in  September  fdlowiag, 
he  was  ordered  by  sir  Edward  Hawke  to  reduce  tlie  French 
fort  en  the  isle  of  Dumet,  in  order  to  save  the  expence  of 
the  transports  employed  to  carry  water  for  the  use  of  the 
fleet.    Lord  Howe  continued  to  serve,  as  occasion  reqttire4^ 

HOWE.  5l«l 

in  the  Channel )  ftnd  in  th^  gdaioief  of  1762,  he  f^ntoted 
to  the  Princess  Amelia,  of  SO  gunft,  having  accepted  thd 
command  as  captain  to  his  royal  highness  the  ddke  of  York^ 
Bo^  rear-admiral  of  the  blue^  serving  as  aeoond  in  com- 
mand under  sir  Edward  Hawke,  In  the  Channel.  On  the 
23d  of  August,  1763,  his  iordsbip  was  appointed  to  the 
board  of  admiralty,  where  he  remained  till  August  1765  i 
he  was  then  made  treasurer  of  the  navy ;  and  m  Octobef 
1770,  was  promoted  to  be  rear-admiral  of  the  blue,  and 
eommander  in  chief  in  the  Mediterranean.  In  Mlirch  1771^ 
he  was  appointed  r^ar-admiral  of  the  white ;  and  was  soon 
after  chosen  to  represent  the  borough  of  Dartmouth  in  paN 
liament.  In  the  month  of  December,  in  the  same  y^ar,  h^ 
was  made  vice-admiral  of  the  blue.  It  was  on  ohe  of  these 
promotions  that  lord  Hawke,  then  first  lord  of  the  admi- 
ralty, rose  in  the  honse  of  peers,  and  said,  *^-l  adVi^^  bil 
Biaje^y  to  Btiatte  th6  promotion.  I  h&Ve  tried  my  loMd 
Howe  on  important  occasions  ;  he  never  asked  me  bow  h^ 
was  to  execute  any  service^  but  always  went  and  peVf6ymed 
it.*'  In  1778,  France  having  become  a  party  in  th*  war^ 
the'  I'rencb  admiral  D'Estaitig  appeared,-  on  the  flth  of 
July,  in  6ight  of  the  Aritish  fleet,  at  Sandy  Hopk,  v^^ith  d 
eonsKlerable  force  of  tin^  of  battle  ships,  in  complete  equlp*^ 
ment  and  condition.  Most  of  the  ships  und^r  lord  How6 
tnai  been  long  in  servicei  were  not  well  mtiinned,  and  weri 
liot  line  of  battle  ships  of  the  present  day.  The  Frendb 
admiral,  however,  remained  seven  days  without  making  an 
a^ttacky  aild  by  that  time  lord  Howe  nad  ^sposed  his  in'<> 
ferior  force  in  such  a  manner  as  to  set  him  at  defiance.  On 
D'Estaing's  leaving  the  Hook,  lord  Howe  heard  of  thd 
critical  situation  of  Rhode  Island,  and  made  every  possible 
exertion  to  preserve  it  He  afterwards  acted  chiefly  on  th^ 
defensive.  Such  a  conduct  appears  to  have  been  required, 
from  the  state  of  his  fleet,  and  the  particular  situation  of 
the  British  cause  in  America.  He,  however,  contrived  to 
baffle  all  the  designs  of  the  French  admiral ;  and  may  be 
said,  considering  the  disadvantages  with  which  he  was  sur- 
rounded, to  have  conducted  and  closed  the  campaign  with 
honour.  Lord  Howe  now  resigned  the  command  to  admi-> 
ml  Byron;  and$ on  his  return  to  England  in.Octoberj^  imi- 
inediately  struck  his  fl^g.  In  the  course  of  this  year,  he 
had  been  advanced  to  be  vice-admiral  of  the  white,  and 
rik)rtly  after,  to  the  same  rank  in  the  red  squadron.  On 
the  change  of  administration  in  1782,  lord  Howe  was  raised 

262  HOWE, 

to  the  dignity  of  .a  viscount  of  Great  Britain,  having  bi^en 
previously  advanced  to  the  rank  of  admiral  of  the  blue.  He 
viras  then  appointed  to  command  the  fleet  fitted  out  for  the 
relief  of  Gibraltar ;  and  he  fulfilled  the  important  objects 
of  this  expedition.  That  fortress  was  effectually  relieved, 
the  hostile  fleet  baffled,  and  dared  in  vain  to  battle ;  and 
different  squadrons  detached  to  their  important  destina- 
tions ;  while  the  ardent  hopes  of  his  country^s  foes  were 
disappointed.  Peace  was  concluded  shortly  after  lord 
Howe^s  return  froav  performing  this  important  service :  and 
in  January  17B3,  he  was  nominated  first  lord  of  the  admi- 
ralty. That  office,  in  the  succeeding  April,  he  resigned 
to  lord  Keppel ;  but  was  re-appointed  on  the  30th  of  De- 
cember in  the  same  year.  On  the  24th  of  September  i787» 
he  was  advanced  to  the  rank  of  admiral  of  the  white ;  and 
in  July  1788,  h^'finally  quitted  his  station  at  the  admiralty^ 
In  the  following  August  he  was  created  an  earl  of  Great 

.  But  the  greatest  glory  of  lord  Howe^s  life  was  reserved 
^Imost  to  its  close.  On  the  breaking  out  of  the  revolu- 
tionary war  in  1793,  he  accepted  the  command  of  the 
lyestern  squadron.  Three  powerful  armaments  were  pre- 
pared for  the  campaign  of  1794 ;  one  under  lord  Hood 
commanded  the  Mediterranean,  reduced  the  island  of  Cor- 
sica, and  protected  the  coasts  of  Spain  and  Italy ;  a  second 
Yinder  sir  John  Jervis,  afterwards  lord  St  Vincent,  with  a 
military  force  headed  by  sir  Charles  Grey,  reduced  Marti- 
nico,  Guadaloupe,  St.  Lucia,  and  St  Domingo;  but  the 
most  illustrious  monument  of  British  naval  glory,  was  raised 
by  earl  Howe.  During  the  preceding  part  of  the  war^ 
France,  conscious  of  her  maritime  inferiority,  had  conr 
fined  her  exertions  to  cruizers  and  small  squadrons  for  ha- 
rassing our  trade ;  but  in  the  month  of  May,  the  French 
were  induced  to  depart  from  this  system,  and  being  very 
anxious  for  the^  safety  of  a  convoy  daily  expected  from 
America,  with  an  immense  supply  of  corn  and  flour,  naval 
stores,  &c.  the  Brest  fleet,  amoimting  to  twenty-seven  sail 
of  the  line,  ventured  to  sea  under  the  command  of  rear- 
admiral  Villaret  Lord  Howe  expecting  the  same  convoy, 
went  to  sea  with  twenty  ships  of  the  line,  and  on  the  28th 
of  May  descried  the  enemy  to  windward.  After  various 
previous  manoeuvres  which  had  been  interrupted  by  a  thick 
fog,  the  admiral  found  an  opportunity  of  bringing  the 
French  to  battle  on  the  ist  of  June.     Between  seven  and 

H  O  WE.  263 

eight  in  the  morning,  our  fleet  advanced  in  a  close  and 
compact  line;  anxl  the  enemy,  finding  an  engagement  un- 
avoidable, received  our  onset  with  their  accustomed  va- 
lour. A  close  and  desperate  engagement  ensued,  ih  the 
course  of  which,  the  Montague  of  130  guns,  the  French 
admiraPs  ship,  having  adventured  to  encounter  the  Queen 
Charlotte  of  100  guns,  earl  Howe^s  ship,  was,  in  less  than 
an  hour,  compelled  to  fly;. the  other  ships  of  the  same 
division,  seeing  all  efforts  ineffectual,  endeavoured  to  foU 
low  the  flying  admiral :  ten,  however,  were  so  crippled 
that  they  could  not  keep  pace  with  the  rest ;  but  many  of 
the  British  ships  being  also  greatly  damaged,  some  of  these 
disabled  French  ships  effected  their  escape.  Six  remained 
in  the  possession  of  the  British  admiral,  and  were  brought 
safe  into  Portsmouth,  viz.  two  of  80  and  four  of  74  guns ; 
and  the  Le  Vengeur,  of  74,  was  sunk,  making  the  whole 
loss  to  the  enemy  amount  to  seven  ships  of  the  line.  The 
victorious  ships  arrived  safe  in  harbour  with  their  prizes ; 
and  th€^  dlews,  officers,  and  admiral,  were  received  with 
*every  testimony  of  national  gratitude.  On  the  26th  of  the 
same  month,  their  majesties,  with  three  of  the  princesses, 
arrived  at  Portsmouth,  and  proceeded  the  next  morning  in 
barges  to  visit  lord  Howe's  ship,  the  Queen  Charlotte,  at 
Spitbead.  His  majesty  held  a  naval  levee  on  board,  and 
presented  the  victorious  admiral  with  a  sword^  enriched 
with  diamonds  and  a  gold  chain,  with  the  naval  medal  sus- 
pended from  it.  The  thanks  of  both  houses  of  parliament, 
the  freedom  of  the  city  of  London,  and  the  universal  ac- 
clamations of  the  nation,  followed  the  acknowledgments  of 
the  sovereign.  In  the  course  of  the  following  year,  he 
was  appointed  general  of  marines,  on  the  death  of  admiral 
Forbes ;  and  finally  resigned  the  command  of  the  western 
squadron  in  April  1797.  On  the  2d  of  June  in  the  same 
year,  he  was  invested  with  the  insignia  of  the  garter.  The 
IjAst  public  act  of  a  life  employed  against  the  foreign  ene- 
mies of  his  country,  was  exerted  to  compose  its  internal 
dissentions.  It  was  the  lot  of  earl  Howe  to  contribute  to 
the  restoration  of  the  fleet,  which  he  had  conducted  to 
glory  on  the  sea,  to  loyalty  in  the  harbour.  His  experi- 
ence suggested  the  measures  to  be  pursued  by  government 
on  the  alarming  mutinies,  which  in  1797  distressed  and 
terrified  the  nation ;  whilci  his  personal  exertions  power- 
fully promoted  the  dispersion  of  that  spirit,  which  had,  for 
»  time,  changed  the  very  nature  of  British  seamen,  and 

364  HOWE. 

greatly  helped  to  recall  them  to  their  former  career  of  dotjr 
and  obedience.  This  gallant  of&cer,  who  gained  the  first 
of  the  four  great  naval  victories  which  have  raised  the  re- 
putation of  the  British  navy  beyond  all  precedent  and  all 
comparison,  died  at  his  house  in  Grafton-street,  London, 
of  the  gout  in  his  stomach,  August  5,  1199.  In  i75S  his 
lordship  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Chiverton  Hartop,  esq. 
of  Welby,  in  the  county  of  Leicester.  His  issue  by  this 
lady,  is  lady  Sophia  Cbarloite,  married  to  the  hon.  Pen 
Ashton  Curzon^  eldest  son  of  lord  Curzon,  who  died  in 
1797 ;  lady  Mary  Indiana,  alid  lady  Louisa  Catharine, 
married  to  earl  of  Altamont,  of  Ireland.  He  ^as  succ  ceded 
in  his  Irish  viscounty  by  iiis  brother,  general  sir  WtUiaoi 
Howe,  who  died  (1814)  while  this  sheet  was  passing  through 
the  press ;  and  in  the  English  barony  by  lady  CurzonJ 

HOWELL  (James),  a  voluminous-  English  writer,  the 
son  of  I'homas  Howell,  minister  of  Abernant  in  Caer* 
marthenshire,  was  born  about  1594,  and,  to  use  his  own 
words,  '<  his  ascendant  was  that  hot  constellation  of  cancer 
about  the  midst  of  the  dog-days.*'  He  was  sent  to  the  free- 
school  at  Hereford  -,  and  entered  of  Jesus-college,  Oxford, 
in  1610.  His  elder  brother  Thomas  Howell  was  already  a 
fellow  of  that  society,  afterwards  king's  chaplain,  and  was 
nominated  in  1644  to  the  see  of  Bristol.  James  Howell, 
having  taken,  the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1613,  left  college,  and 
removed  to  London;  for  being,  says  Wood,  ^^u,  pure 
cadet,  a  true  cosmopolite,  not  bom  to  land,  lease,  house^ 
or  .office,  he  had  his  fortune  to  make;  and  being  withal  not 
$o  much  inclined  to  a  sedentary  as  an  active  life,  this  situ- 
ation pleased  him  best,  as  most  likely  to  answer  his  views.'* 
Xh^  first  employment  he  obtained  was  that  of  steward  to  a 
gliassohouse  in  Broad*street,  which  was  procured  for  hioi 
by  sir  Robert  Mansel,  who  was  principally  concerned  in  it. 
The  proprietors  of  this  work,  intent  upon  improving^  the 
manufactory,  came  to  a  resolution  to  send  an  agent  abroad^ 
who  should  procure  the  best  materials  and  workmea;  and 
they  made  choice  of  Howell  for  this  purpose,  who,  setting 
off  in  1619,  visited  several  of  the  principal  places  in  HoU 
land,  Flanders,  France,  Spain,  and  Italy*  In  Dec.  1621, 
he  returned  to  London ;  having  executed  the  purpose  of 
his  mission  very  well,  and  particularly  having  acquired  n 

^  CoUiDs's  Peenage  by  Sir  E.  lB|iydfe9»— rChaniock>  Bbg.  N»?iklM*-»NaTi4 

HOWELL.  265 

masterly  knowledge  io  the  modern  languages,  wbicb  af- 
forded bim  a  siagalar  cause  for  gralitude.  ^*  Thank  God/* 
be  says,  ^^  I  have  tbis  fmit  <if  my  ioreign  travels,  that  f 
can  pray  unto  bim  every  day  of  the  week  in  a  separate 
language,  and  upon  Sunday  m  seven.** 

800B  after  his  return,  be  quitted  his  stewardship  of  the 
glass-house ;  and  having  experimced  the  pleasuiea  of  tra^ 
veiling,  was  anxious  to  obtain  more  employments  of  the 
same  kind.     In  1632  he  was  sent  into  Spain,  to  recover  a 
rich  English  ship,  seized  by  the  viceroy  of  Sardinia  for  his 
master's  use,  on  pretence  of  its  having  prohibited  goods 
on  board.     In  1623,  during  bis  absence  abroad,  he  was 
chosen  fellow  of  Jesus  college  in  Oxford,  upon  the  new 
foundation  of  sir  Eubule  Tbelwal ;  for  be  had  tdcen  unte*- 
mitting  care  to  cultivate  his  interest  iu  tbat  society.  He  telb 
sir  Enbule,  in  his  letter  of  thanks  to  bim,  thdt  be  ^  will 
reserve  bis  fellowship,  and  lay  it  by  as  a  good  warm.  gar«» 
ment  against  rough  weather,  if  any  fall  on  bim  :**  in  which 
be  was  followed  by  Prior,  who  alleged  the  same  reason 
for  keeping  his  fellowship  at  St.  Jobn^s-eollege  in  Cam^ 
bridge.  ^  Howell  returned  to  England  in  1624;  and  was 
soon  after  appointed  secretary;  to  lord  Scrope,  afterwarda 
earl  of  Sunderland,  who  was  made  lord-president  of  the 
North.    This  office  carried  him  to  York ;  and  while  be ' 
resided  there,  the  corporation  of  Richmond,  without  any 
application  from  himself,  and  against  several  competitors, 
chose  him  one  of  their  representatives,  in  the  parliament 
which  began  in  1627..   In  1632,  he  went  as  secreiaiy  to 
Robert  earl  of  Leicester,  ambassador  extraordinary  from 
Charles  I.  to  the  court  of  Denmark,  on  occiision  t>f  the 
death  of  the  queen  dowager,  who  was  grandmother  to  that 
king:  and  there  gave  prdofii  of  his  oratorical  talents,  in 
several  Latin  speeches  before  the  king  of  Denmark,  and 
other  princes  of  Germany.    After  bis  return  to  England^ 
his  affairs  do  not  appear  so  prosperous;  for,  except  an 
inconsiderable  mission,  on  which  be  was  dispatched  to 
Orleans  in  Fmnce  by  secretary  Windebank  in  1635,  be  was 
for  some  years  destitute  of  any  employment.    At  last,.iu 
1639,  be  went  to  Ireland,  and  was  well  received  by  lord 
Straiford,  the  lord-lieutenant,  wl)o  had  before  made  hint 
very  warm  professions  of  kindness,'  and  employed  him  as 
an  assistant^derk  upon  some  business  to  Edinburgh,  and 
afterwards  to  London ;  but  his  rising  hopes  were  ruined  b^ 
the  unhappy  £i^te  i/^ioh  soon  oy^ook  X^X  nobleman.    In 

866  HOWELL. 

1640  he  was  dispatched  upon  some  business  to  France; 
and  the  same  year  was  made  clerk  of  the  council)  which 
post  was  the  most  fixed  in  point  of  residence^  and  the  most 
permanent  Jn  its  nature,  that  he  had  ever  enjoyed.  But 
his  royal  master,  having  departed  from  his  palace  at  White^ 
ball,  was  not  able  to  secure  his  continuance  long  in  it :  for, 
in  1643,  having  visited  London  upon  some  business  of  his 
own,  all  his  papers  were  seized  by  a  committee  of  the 
parliament,  his  person  secured,  and,  in  a  few  days  after, 
he  was  committed  close  prisoner  to  the  Fleet  This  at 
least  he  himself,  assigns  as  the  cause  of  his  imprisonment : 
hxLt  W^^ood  insinuates,  that  he  was  thrown  into  prison,  for 
debts  contracted  through  his  own  extravagance ;  and  in- 
deed some  of  his  own  letters  give  room  enough  to  suspect 
it.     But  whatever  was  the  cau^e^  he  bore  it  cheerfully. 

He  had  now  no  resource  except  his  pen :  and  applied 
hims/elf  therefore  wholly  to  write  and  translate  books. 
^'  Here,"  he  says,  '^  I  purchased  a  small  spot  of  ground 
upon  Parnassus,  which  I  have  in  fee  of  the  muses,  and  I 
have  endeavoured  to  manure  it  as  well  as  I  could,  though 
I  confess  it  hath  yielded  me  little,  fruit  hitherto.^'  This 
spot,  however,  brought  him  a  comfortable  subsistence, 
during  his  long  stay  in  prison,  where  he  was  confined  till 
some  time  after  the  king's  death ;  and  as  he  got  nothing^  « 
by  his  discharge  but  his  liberty,  he  was  obliged  to  continue 
the  same  employment  afterwards.  His  numerous  produc- 
tions,  written  rather  out  of  necessity  than  choice,  shew,* 
however,  readiness  of  wit,  and  exuberant  fancy.  Though 
always  a  firm  royalist,  he  does  not  seem  to  have  approved 
the  measures  pursued  by  Buckingham,  Laud,  and  Straf- 
ford ;  and  was  far  from  approving  the  imposition  of  ship*' 
money,  and  the  policy  of  creating  and  multiplying  mono* 
polies.  Yet  the  unbridled  insolence  and  outrages  of  the 
republican  governors  so  much  disgusted  him,  that  he  wasf 
not  displeased  when  Oliver  assumed  the  sovereign  power 
under  the  title  of  protector ;  and  in  this  light  he  addressed 
him  on  that  occasion  in  a  speech,  which  shall  be  mentioned 
presently*  His  behaviour  under  CromwelKs  tyraiTny  was 
prudential,  and  was  so  considered ;  for  Charles  H.  at  his 
restoration,  thought  him  worthy  of  his  notice  and  favour  : 
and  his  former  post  under  the  council  being  otherwise  dis* 
posed  of,  a  ,oew  place  was  created,  by  the  grant  of  wbicb 
be  became  the  fir^t  historiographer  royal  in  England.  He 
died  Nov.  16^)  and  was  interred  in  the  Temple-chorch^ 

•HOWE  L  L.  i6T 

London,  wher^  a  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory^ 
with  the  following  inscription,  which  was  taken  down  when 
the  church  was  repaired  in  1683,  and  has  not  since  been 
replaced :  ^<  Jacobus  Howell,  Cambro-Britannus,  Regiuti 
Historiographus  in  AngUa  primus,  qui  post  varies  pere^ 
grinationes  tandem  naturae  cursum  peregit,  satur  anno«^ 
rum  &  famsB ;  domi  forisque  hue  usque  erraticus,  hie  fixus 

His  works  were  numerous.     1.  ^^  Dodona's  Grove,  or. 
The  Vocal  Forest,  164a"  2.  "The  Vote:"  a  poem,  pre- 
sented to  the  king  on  New-year's  day,  1641.     3.  "In- 
structions for  Forraine  Travel! ;  shewing  by  what  course,^ 
and  in  what  compass  of  time,  one  may  take  an  exact  sur^ 
vey  of  the  kingdomes  and  states  of  Christendome,  and  ar^ 
rive  to  the  practical  knowledge  of  the  languages  to  good 
purpose,  1642."    dedicated  to  prince  Charles.    Reprinted 
in  1650,  with  additions.  These  works  were  published  before 
be  was  thrpwn  into  prison.     4*  "  Casual  Discourses  and 
Interlojcutions  between  Patricius  and  Peregrin,  touching' 
,the  distractions  of  th#  times."    Written  soon  after  the  bat- 
tle of  Edgehill,  and  the  first  book  published  in  vindication 
of  the  kiiig.     5.  "  Mercurius  Hibernicus :  or,  a  discourse ' 
of  the  Irish  Massacre,  1644."     6.  "  Parables  reflecting  on 
the  Times,  1644."     7.  <^  England*^  Tears  for  the  present 
Wars,  &c*  1644."     ^. ^^  Preheminence  and  Pedigree  of 
Parliaments,  1644."     9*  *^  Vindication  of  some  passages 
reflecting  upon  him  in  Mr.  Prynne's  book  called  The  Po-^ 
pish  Royal  Favourite,   1644."     10.  ^^  Epistoiae  Ho^Elianse  : 
or.  Familiar  Letters,  domestic  and  foreign,  divided  into 
sundry  sections,  partly  historical,  partly  political,  partly 
philosophical,"  1645.     Another  collection  was  published 
in  1647  ;.  and  both  these,  with  the  addition  of  a  third,  came 
out  in  1650.     A  few,  additional  letters  appeared  in  some 
subsequent  editions :  of  which  the  eleventh  was  printed  in 
1754,  8vo.     It  is  not,  indeed,  to  be  wondered  at,  that  these 
letters  have  run  through  so  many  editions  ;  since  they  not 
only  contain  much  of  the  history  of  his  own  times,  but  are 
also  interspersed  with  many  plei^ant  stories  properly  intro- 
duced and  applied.    It  cannot  be  denied,  that  be  has  given 
way  frequently  to  very  low  witticisms,  the  most  unpardon- 
able instance  of  which  is,  his  remark  upon  Charles  the  First's 
death,  where  'he  says,  ^^  I  will  attend  with  patience  how 
England  will  thrive,  now  that  she  is  let  blood  in  the  Ba* 
siUcal  veiui  and  cured  as  they  say  of  the  king's  evil ;"  and 

f6i  H  o  w  E  L  l; 


it  k  tio  great  czcute,  thai  he  wis  led  inte  diii  maatier  h^ 
tbe  bumoar  of  the  times.  Woed  relates,  it  does  not  ap- 
pear on  vrtiat  authoii^^  that  *'  many  of  these  lettteirs  were 
never  written  before  the  author  of  the«i  was  in  the  Fleet, 
as  he  pretends  they  were,  but  otfly  feigned  and  purposely 
published  to  gain  money  to  relieve  his  ne<:esMt)es  :^  be  .this 
as  it  willy  he  allows  that  they  **  give  a  tolerable  bistory  of 
those  times,"  which,  if  true,  is  sufficient  to  recommend 
tbem^.  There  are  also  some  of  his  letters  among  the 
Strafford  papers; 

These  letters  are  almost  the  only  work  of  Howell  that  is 
BOW  regarded ;  the  rest  are  very  obsoure.  1 1.  '^  A  Noe<^ 
turnal  Progress  :  or,  a  Perambulation  of  most  Countries  iil^ 
Christendom,  perfonned  in  one  night  by  strength  of  imal« 
^nation,"  1645.  13^  ^^  Lustra  Ludovici:  or  the  Life  of 
Lewis  XIII.  King  of  France,  &c.**  13.  <<  An  Aceoant  of 
the  deplorable  state  of  England  in  1647,  &c,'*  1647.  14. 
^'  Letter  to  Loi^d  Pembroke  concerning  the  Tiines,  and  the 
sad  condition  both  of  Prince  and  People,"  1647.  15. 
^<  Bella  Scot^Anglica:  A  Brief  of  all  die  Battles  betwixt' 
England  and  Scotland,  from  all  tinges  to  this  present," 
1646.  16.  *^  Corollary  declaring  the  Causes,  whereby  the 
Scot  is  come  of  late  years  to  be  so  beightened  in  his  Spi* 
riW  17.  <'  The  Instruments  of  a  King  :  or,  a  short  Dis- 
course of  the  Sword,  Crown,  and  Sceptre,  fcc.  1648.'*  18. 
"  Winter-Dream,"  1 649.  1 9.  **  A  Trance,  6r  News  from 
Hell^  brought  first  to  town  by  Mer^uiius  Acberonticus,*' 
1649.  20.  <<  Inquisition  after  Blood,  &c.''  1649.  31. 
'<  Vision,  or  Dialogae  between  Soul  and  Body,"  1651. 
S2.  «  Survey  of  the  Sigtiory  of  Venice,  &c."  1651.^  23. 
^'  Some  sober  Inspections  made  into  the  carriage  tad  con- 
sults of  the  late  Long  Parliaoient,  whereby  occasion  is 
taken  to  speadc  of  Parliaments  in  former  times,  and  of 
Magna  Charta :  with  some  Reflections  upon  Government 
in  general,.''  16li&.  Dedicated  to  Oliver  lord  protector^ 
whom  he  compares  to  Charies  Martel>  and  compliments  in 
language  much  beyond  tbe  truth  and  the  sentiments  of 
his  own  heart.    The  fourth  edition  of  this  book  came  out 

*  *  *'  I  believe  the  second  puhlitbed  friend  of  Jobsoq,  and  the  first  who  bom 

cdirespondeiice  of  this  hind  (after  As*  tbe  office  of  the  roy)iI  bistoHo^apher, 

^am),  and  in  o«r  own  lali^ini$e,  at  which  discowr  a  variety  of  literature* 

least  of  any  importatioe  after  (bishop)  and  abound  with  miM^  entertaiaiBg 

Hall,  wiH  be  found  in  the  «  Epistols  and  useful    informatfOA."     WartOn^a 

H«ieliai»;*'  or  th^.lmeili  of  Jtfmes  History  of  Poetry,  voT.  IV.  p.54. 
IfoweUy  a  great  traTeUer,  an  hiiiapate 

HOWELL.  fi6i 

JO  1660,  with  several  adflitiont.     24.  ^<  History  of  the 
Wars  of  Jerusalem  epitomised/'    25.  *^  Ah,  Ha;  Tumu*- 
las,  Thalamus :  two  Counter- Poems :  the  first  an  Elegy 
on  Edward  }ate  earl  of  Dorset :  the  second  an  Epithala- 
mium  to  the  Marquis  of  Dorohester,''  165$.     26.  **  The 
German  Diet:  or  Balance  of  Europe,  &c.**  1653,  folio^ 
with  the  author's  portrait,  at  whole  length.    27.  **  Parthe- 
nopeia:  or,  the  History  of  Naples^  jco."  1654.    28.  <^  Lon^ 
dinopolis,''  1657  :  a  short  discourse,  says  Wood,  mostly 
taken  from  Stowe's  *'  Survey  of  London,**  but  a  wow 
which  ia  our  time  bears  a  high  price,  and  is  worth  con* 
suiting,  as  containing  particulars  of  the  manners  of  Lou* 
don  ia  his  days.     29.  ^  Discourse  of  the  Empire,  and  of 
the  Election  of  the  King  of  the  Romans,^*  165S.     30. 
^  Lexicon  Tetraglotton :  an  English-French-Italian-8pa- 
nish  Dictionary,  &c."  1660.    31.  «  A  Cordial  for  the  Ca« 
valiers,*'  1661.     Answered  immediately  by  sir  Roger  L'Es** 
trange,  in  a  book  entitled  **  A  Caveat  for  the  Cavaliers  :** 
replied  to  by  Mr.  Howell,  in  the  next  article,  32.  ^<  Some 
sober  lospeerions  made  into  those  ingredients  that  went 
to  the  composition  of  a  late  Cordial  for  the  Cavaliers,** 
1661.     33.  '<  A  French  Grammar,  &c."     34.  <<  The  Par- 
ley of  Beasts,  &c.*'  1660.    35.  **  The  second  Plart  of  casual 
Discourses  and  Interlocutions  between  Patricius  and  Pe- 
regrin, &c.'*  1661.    36.  «<  Twelve  Treatises  of  the  late 
Rmolutions,'*  1661.    37.  ^<  New  English  Grammar  for 
Foreignees  to  learn  English  :  mth  a  Grammar  for  the  Spa^ 
nish  and  Castilian  Tongue,  with  special  Remarks  on  the 
Portuguese  Dialect,  for  the  service  of  her  Majesty,'*  1662. 
M.  **  Discourse  concerning  tile  Precedency  of  Kings,** 
1668%    3^.  *^  Bsems  :'*  coneoted  and  published  by  ser- 
jeaot-major  P.  F.  that  is,  Pig^ne  Fisiier>   who  had  been 
poet-launeat  to  CiomweH^    The  editor  telti  us,  that  his 
amthor  How«ll  ^'  may  be  called  the  pvodigy  of  tiie  ag^  for 
the  vairiety  of  his  volumes :  for  there  hath  passed  the  press 
above  feriy  of  bis  wovbs  on  various  subjects,  usefol  not 
oJity  to  the  praaent  times,  bat  to  all  posterity.    Audit  is 
«o  be  obserwd^"  say*  he,  ^  that  an  idl  his  wrinngs  tliere  is 
soBMthing  still  new,  either  in  thematter,  metiiod,  or  fcncy, 
and  IB  an  untrodden  tract.'*     Ik  is  quite  impouible,  how- 
ever, to  say  any  thing  infovour  of  his  poetry.     He  pub^ 
Ushed  next,  40.  <*  A  Treatise  concerning  Ambassadors,** 
1664.    41.  ^*  Concerning  the  surrender  of  Dunkisfc>  that  it 
was  done  upon  good  Grounds,**  1664. 

870  HOWELL. 

'  Besides  these  original  works,  he  translated  sevefstl  froni 
foreign  languages;  as,  1."  St.  PauPs  late  Progress  upon 
Earth  about  a  Divorce  betwixt  Christ  and  the  Church  of 
Rome,  by  reason  of  her  dissoluteness  and  excesses,  &c/' 
1644'.-  The  author  of  this  book  published  it  about  1642, 
and  was  forced  to  fly  from  Rome  on  that  account.  He 
withdrew  in.  the  company,  and  under  the  conduct  of  one^ 
wiio  pretended  friendship  for  him  ;  but  who  betrayed  him 
at  Avignon,  where  he  was  first  hanged  and  then  burnt. 
2.  "  A  Vedetian  Looking-glass  :  or,  a  Letter  written  very 
lately  from  London  to  Cardinal  Barberini  at  Rome,  by  a 
Venetian  Clariasimo,  touching  the  present  Distempers  in 
England,"  1648*  3.  "An  exact  History  of  the  late  Re* 
volutions  in  Naples,  &c."  1650.  4.  "  A  Letter  of  Advice 
from  the  prime  Statesman  of  Florence,  how  England  may 
come  to  herself  again,'*  1659.  All  these  were  translated 
from  the  Italian.  He  translated  also  from  the  French, 
<*  The  Nuptials  of  Peleus  and  Thetis,  &c."  1654 ;  and  from 
the  Spanish,  "  The  Process  and  Pleadings  in  the  Court  of 
Spain^  upon  the  death  of  Anthony  Ascham)^  resident  for 
the  Parliament  of  England,  &c.**  1651. 

Lastly,  he  published,  in  1649,  **  The  lat6  Kiog*s  Decla- 
ration in  Latin,  French,  and  English :"  and  in  1651,  "  Cot- 
ton! Posthuma,  or  divers  choice  Pieces  of  that  renowned 
antiquary  sir  Robert  Cotton,  knight  and  baronet,"  in  8vo. 
The  print  of  him  prefixed  to- some  of  his  works  was  taken 
from  a  painting  which  is  now. at  Landeilo  house,  in  Mon- 
mouthshire, the  seat  of  Richard  Lewis,  esq.^ 

HOWEL  (Laurence),  a  learned,  but  somewhat  unfor- 
tunate divine,  was  born  soon  after  the  restoration,  and  edu- 
cated at  Jesus  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  de- 
gree of  B.  A.  in  1684,  and  that  of  M.  A.  in  1688,  after 
which  it  is  not  improbable  that  he  left  the  university,  as  be 
not  only  scrupled  the  oaths  to  the  new  goTernment,  but; 
adhered  to  the  nonju ring  party  with  a  degree  of  firmness, 
zeal,  and. rashness,  which  no  considerations  of  personal  loss 
or  suffering  could  repress.  In  1712  he  was  ordained  and 
instituted  into  priest^s  orders  by  Dr.  Hickes,  the  celebrated 
nonjuror,  who  was  titled  Sui&agan  Bishop  of  Tbetford. 
Before  this,  in  1708,  he  published  ^^  Synopsis  Canonum 
JS.  S.  Apostolorum,  et  conciliorum  oecumenicorum  et  pro- 

1  Biog.  Brit. — Lloyd's  Memoirs,'  folio,  p.  529. — Atb.  Os«  vol.  11. — Censan 
Ltteraria,  toI.  III. 

H  O  W  E  L.  27t 

viQcUIiuaiy  ab  ecclesia  Graca  receptor  urn/'  17 10,  in  folio ; 
*^  Synopsis  canon um  ecclesi»  Latins/'  folio  ;  and  in  171 5, 
the  tliird  and  last  volume  was  announced  ^^  as  once,  more 
finisbed''  by  Mr.  Howely  the  manuscript  having  been  burnt 
at  the  fire  which  consumed  Mr.  Bowyer^s  printing-bouse. 
Soon  after  this  be  printed  a  pamphlet  entitled  ^^The  case 
of  Schism  in  the  Church  of  England  truly  stated/'  which 
was  intended  to  be  dispersed  or  sold  privately,  there  being 
no  name  of  any  author  or  printer.     Both,  however,  were 
soon  discovered^  andRedmayne,  the  printer,  was  sentenced 
to  pay  a  6ne  of  500/.  to  be  imprisoned  for  five  years,  and 
to  find  security  for  his  good  behaviour  for  life.     The  prin- 
ciples laid  ilown  in  Howel's  pamphlet  are  these:  1.  ^That 
the  subjects  of  England  could  not  transfer  their  allegiance 
from  king  James  II.  ;  and  thence  it  is  concluded,  that  all 
who  resisted  king  James,  or  have  since,  complied  with  such 
as  did,  are  excommunicated  by  the  second  canon  :  2.  That 
the  catholic  bishops  cannot  be  deprived  by  a  lay-power 
only ;  and  thence  it  is  inferred,  that  all  who  have  joined 
with  them  that  were  put  into  the  places  of  the  derived 
bishops,  are  schismatics.*'     As  such  assertions  seemed  to 
aim  at  the  vitals  of  .government,  both  civil  and  ecclesias- 
tical, it  was  thought  necessary  to  visit  Mr.  Howel's  crime 
with  a  more  severe  punishment  than  had  been  inflicted  on: 
the  prin^r.  Accordingly  he  was  indicted  at  the  Old  Bailey 
Feb.  18,  1717,  for  a  misdemeanour,  in  publishing  V  a  se- 
ditious libel,  wherein  are  cbntained  expressions  denying 
bis  majesty's  title  to  the  crown  of  this  realm,  and  asserting 
the*  pretender's  right  to  the  same ;  &c.  &c."  and  being 
found  guilty,  he  was  ordered  to  pay  a  fine  of  500/.  to  be 
imprisoned  for  three  years,  to  find  four  securities  of  500/. 
each,  himself  bound  in  1000/.  for  his  good  behaviour  during 
life,  and  tp  be  twice  whipped.     On  hearing  this  last  part  of 
the  sentence,  he  asked,  if  they  would  whip  a  clergyman  i 
and  was  answered  by  the  court^  that  they  paid  no  deference 
to  his  cloth,  because  he  was  a  disgrace  to  it,  add  had  no 
right  to  wear  it;  that  they  did  not  look  upon  him  as  a 
clergyman;  in  that  he  had  produced  no  proof  of  his  ordi- 
nation, but  from  Dr.  Hickes,  under  the  denomination  of 
the  bishop  of  Thetford,  which  was  illegal,  and  not  accord- 
ing to  the  constitution  of  this  kingdom,  which  knows  no 
such  bishop.     And  as  he  behaved  in  other  respects  haugh* 
tily,  on  receiving  his  sentence,  he  was  ordered  to  be  de- 
graded, and  stripped  of  the  gown  be  had  no  right  to  wear, 

274^  H  O  Z  I  E  R. 

of  the  French  nobility^  and  was  rewardea  M^itb  a  pensbir 
of  4000  iivres.  He  died  in  1732.  This  gentletodnV 
hepfaevf  succeeded  him  in  his  office,  and  dt^d  in  1767. 
He  compHed  the  "  L'Armoria},-  on  RegistFes  de  la  No-' 
blesse  de  France,'*  10  vols,  folio.  Such  works^  of  la^e 
years,  have  been  of  very  little  use  in  France.* 

HUARTE  (John),  a  native  of  French  Navarre*,  thougb 
he  is  usually  supposed  to  be  a  Spaniard,  lived  in  the  se- 
venteenth century.    He  gained  great  fame  by  a  work  whicb 
he  published  in  Spanish,  upon  a  very  curious  and  intiirest^ 
ing  subject.     The  title  of  it  runs  thus :  "  Examen  de  in- 
genios  para  las  Sciencias,  &c.  or,  sin  examination  of  such 
geniuses  as  are  fit  for  acquiring  the  sciences,  and  were? 
born  such :    wherein,  by  marvellous  and  useful  secrets, 
drawn  from  true  philosophy  both  natural  and  divine,  are 
shewn  the  gifts  and  different  abilities  found  in  men,  and 
for  what  kind  of  study  the  genius  of  every  man  is  ad^pted^ 
in  such  a  manner,  that  whoever  shall  read  this  book  atten- 
tively, will  .discover  the  properties  of  his  own  genius,  and 
be  able  to  make  choice  of  that  science  in  which  he  wilt 
make  the  greatest  improvement."     This  book  has  been' 
translated  into  several  languages,  and  gone  through  seve- 
ral impressions.     It  was  translated  into  Italian,   and  pub- 
lished at  Venice  in  1582;  at  least  the  dedication  of  that 
translation  bears  this  date.     It  was  translated  into  French 
by  Gabriel  Chappui«  in  1580;  but  there  is  a  better  French 
version  than  this,  by  Savinien  d'Alquie,  printed  at  Amster- 
dam in  1672.     He  has  taken  in  the  additions  inserted  by 
Huarte  in  the  last  edition  of  his  book,  which-  are  consider- 
able both  in  quality  and  quantity.     It  has  been  translatetl 
also  into  Latin,  and  lastly,  into  English,  by'Carew  and 
Bellamy.     This  very  admired  author  has  been  highly  ex- 
tolled for  acuteness  and  subtlety,  and  undoubtedly  had  a 
great  share  of  these  qualities  :  Bayle,  however,  thinks,  that 
"  it  would  not  be  prudent  for  any  person  to  rely  either  on 
his  maxims  or  authorities ;  for,"  says  he,  "he  is  not  to  be 
trusted  on  either  of  these  heads,  and  his  hypotheses  are 
frequently  chimerical,  especially  when  he  pretends  to  teach 
the  formalities  to  be  observed  by  those  who  would  beget 
children  of  a  virtuous  turn  of  mind.     'I'here  are,  in  this 
part  of  his  book,  a  great  many  particulars  repugnant  to 
modesty  (a  discovery  which  we  are  surprized  Bayle  should 

1  Moreri.-~Dict.  Hiit— Niceron,  rol.  XXXIL 

H  U  A  R  T  £  Q7^ 

ba^e  made) :  and  he  deserves  ^enimre  fi^^publishicigy  a^  Or 
genuine  aiKl  authentic  piece^  a.  pretended  lelter  of  Leon 
tutus  the  proconsul  from  Jeriisale(ii);1)0  ti^  Koinsin.&ei^itex 
wherein  a  portrait  is  giren  of  JeautriCbfi^t^  a  .di98(Gription  of 
his.  shape. afid  stature^  the  eototiirof  hts.ile^ry  the  q^alitie^ 
of  his  beard>  &c/'  The  work^  bQwe¥er^<  has:  now  akog^thl^i; 
lost  its  popularitjr, . afipd  de^^wediy.^       .,jo  !    .   >  v^.f 

HUBALD^  JivcjbAU>i  or  KyQ$ALi>,;a  mojok  of  S^t 
Amand,  in  Flanders^  who  pre^aeded  G^iiildo  idoretha^oiM^ 
bondred  years,  was  cofitetnporary  withr^Retwi,  and'  au^hoc 
of  Sk  treatise  on  music,  vrbicih  is  siijl  'Silbsistin^  in  the  kmg 
ot'  FraiKe^s  library,  unPder^  the. title  of  ^*  Eochiridion  Mti'^ 
siccBi/'^  No.  7202,  transcribed  in*  jQhe :deventh  o^nttiry.  la 
this  work  there  h  a  kind  of  gananiut^  or  expedient. for. d^-; 
lineatinig.  the  several  sounds  of  the  seale^  ^ni;a  way.  wholly 
different  from  his  predecessora;  but  tbef  nselhod  6f  Guido 
not  only  superseded  this,  but  by  deigrees  effaced  th^ 
knowledge  and  remembrance  of  eVery  other  that  had  been 
adopted-  in  the  diffieirent  courirtries  and  convents  of  £uriD|)e« 
However,  the  awkward  attempts  at  singiiig  in  consonance^ 
which  appear  in  this  tract,  are  cdrious,  and  clearly  prove 
that  Guido  neither  invented,  nor,  rude  asrit  wbs  before  Iris 
time,  much  contributed  to  the  improvement  of  this  art.  > 
•  Hmbald  was  not'  only  a  musician,  but  a  pGf6t ;  and  an 
idea  maybe  formed  of  his  patience  and  perseverance>  if 
not  of  his  genius,  from  a  circumstance  related  by  Sigebert, 
the  aoibor  of  ^  his  life,,  by  which  it  appears  tlmt  be  van* 
quisbied  a  moch  greater  difficulty  in  poetry  than  the  lippD^ 
grammists  of  antiquity  ever  attempted:  for  they  only  ex  «- 
cbmmtiiiicated'  a  single*  letter  of  the  alphabet  from  a  whole 
po^ensi;  btittbis  determiired  nionk  composed  three  hundred 
veyies  in  piuise  of  baldwess,  which  he  addressed  to  the  em* 
peror  Charles  the  Bald,  and  in  which  be  obliged  the  letter 
C  to  take  the  lead  in  every  word,,  as  the  initial  of  hiS'pa^" 
tron's- naiiie  and  infirmity,  as  thus:- 

■  ''  C^rmina  Qarisonse  Cakis  Cant^te  Camoefna." 
ffubald'died  in  the  year  930,  at  the  age  bf  ftinety.* 

,  QUBER  (Joi^N  JaM£s),  a  celebrated  anatomist,  was 
b6rn  at  Basle,,  in  1707.  He  was  a  pupif  of  Haller  at 
B^^rne,  iu  1.730,  after  which  be  studied^at  ptrasburgb,  and 
iq  1733  took  the  deg!^ee  of  M,  I),  at  bis  h?itive  place.  ^  He 
visited  Paris  in  i7i35,  and  in  the  same  year  was  appointed 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri.  *  Moreri.— tifees^s  CydopKciia,  by  Dr.  ^urney* 

T  ^ 


physici)an  to  the  ?  court  of  Baden  Dourlach.  At  the  request 
of-Haller,  be  examined  the  Grauband  mountains^  in  Swit- 
zerland, and  transtnivted  to  hiili  his  collection  of  plants 
found  in  that  district^^^i^vious  to  the  publication  of  HaU 
ler's  work  on  the  botanjr'of  Switzerland.  Haller  then  in-. 
▼ited  biq[i  to  Gotting'eh  in  1738,  to  be  dissector,  where, 
having  acquired  considerable  reputation,  he  was  made  ex- 
traordinary professor  of  anatomy  in  that  city  in  1739  ;  pro- 
fessor in  the  Caroline'  college  at  Cassel,  with  the  rank  of 
court- physician,  in  1742  ;•  and  counsellor  of  state  and 
body-physician  to  the  prince  in  1748.  Hejdied  in  1779, 
His  principal  works  are  entitled,  **  Coromentatio  de  Me- 
dulla Spinali,  speciatim  de  Nervis  ab  ea  provenientibas,'* 
cum  icon.  Goett.  1741,  4to.  <^  Commentatio  de  Vaginas 
Uteri  structura  rugbsa,  necnon  de  Hymene,"  1742,  4to. 
He  published  a  letter  in  the  Philos.  Transactions,  toL 
XLVI,  ^^  De  cadavere  aperto  in  quo  non  existit  vesica 
fellea,  et  de  Sterno  gibboso.*'  * 

HUBER  (Mary)^  a  voluminous  female  author,  was  bora 
at  Geneva  in  1710,  and  died  at  Lyons  in  1753.  Her 
principal  works  are,  1.  *^  Le  monde  fou,  pr^fere  au  monde 
sage,"  1731 — 1744,  in  8vo.  2.  "  Le  Systfeme  des  Tbeo- 
logiens  anciens  et  modernes,  sur  Uetat  des  Ames  s6par6e8 
des  corps,"  1731 — 1739,  12nio.  3,  "  Suite  du  m^me 
ouvrage,  servant  de  r^pouse  a  M.  Kuchat^"  1731 — 1739, 
12mo.  4.  ^*  Reduction  do  Spectateur  Anglois."  This 
was  an  abridgment,  of  the  Spectator,  and  appeared  in 
1758,  in  six  parts,  duodecimo;  but  did  not  succeed.  {• 
'^  Lettres  sur  la  Religion  essentielle  t^  l^bomme,"  .1739 — 
1754.  Mary  Huber  was  a  protestaot,  and  this  latter  work, 
in  particular,  was  attacked  by  the  divines  of  the  Qomish 
communion.  She  bad  wit  and  knowledge,  but  was  some* 
times  obscure,  from  wanting  the  taU^nt  to  develope  her 
own  ideas.' 

HUBER  (Ulric),  a  native  of  Dockum,  in  the  Dutch 
territories,  famous  as  a  lawyer,  an  historian,  and  a  philo- 
loger,  was  born  ip  1635,  and  became^  professor  at  Franeker^ 
and  afterwards  ^t  Lewarde.  He  published,  1.  in  1662~, 
seVen  dissertaitions,  <<  De  genuina  aetate  Assyriorum,  et 
regno  Medoruip.***  Also,  2.  A  treatise  "  De  Jure  civi- 
tatis."  3,  "  Jafisprudentia  Frisiaca;"  4,  "  Specimen 
PhilosophiaB  civilis.''     5.  "  Institutiones  Historise  ciyilis  ;** 

V.ReeB'i  Gjrclop»dia.  t  Diet.  Hist 

H  U  B  E  Ri  i27t 

•and  several  other  works.  From  1668^  he  was  engaged  ii^ 
violent  controversy  with  Perizoniu^,  on  some  points  qf 
jnrispradence,  and  on  his  work  last-mentioned,  the  <<  In* 
stitutiones  historise  civilis."  He  died  in  1694.  The  dis- 
pute with  Perizonius  was  carried  On  with  safficient  scur- 
rility on  both  sides.' 

HUBER  (Zacharias),  son  of  the  former,  was  born  at 
Franeker  in  16^9 ;  and  afterwards  advanced  to  the  same 
professorships.  He  published  in  1690,  I.  *^  A  disserta- 
tion **  De  vero  sensu  atque  interpretatione,  legis  IX  D. 
de  lege  Pompeia,  de  Parricidis,"  Franeker,  4to*  2.  Also^ 
''* Dissertation um  Irbri  tres,  quibus  explicantur,  &c.  selects 
joris  publici,  sacri,  privatique  capita/'  Franeker>  1702. 
He. died  in  1732." 

HUBERT  (Matthew),  a  celebrated  French  preacher; 
was  born  in  1640,  and  was  contemporary  with  Bourdaloue, 
whom,  indeed,  he  could  not  rival,  but  was  skilful  enough 
to  please;  being  esteemed  by  him  one  of  the  first  preacher^ 
of  the  time.  He  was  a  priest  of  the  congregation  of  the 
Oratory,  and  no  less  remarkable  for  his  gentle  piety  and 
profound  humility,  than  for  his  eloquence.  He  excelled 
Consequently  rather  in  the  touching  style  of  the  sacred, 
than  the  vivid  manner  of  the  temporal  orator.  He  was 
used  to  say,  that  his  brother  Massillon  was  fit  to  preach  to 
the  inaster^  and  himself  to  the  servants.  He  dic^d  in 
1717,  after  displaying  his  powers  in  the  provinces,  in  the 
eapital,  and  at  court.  Eight  years  after  his  death,  in  1725, 
bis  sermons  were  published  at  Paris,  in  6  vols.  l2mo,  and 
were  much  approved  by  all  persons  of  piety  and  taste* 
'^  His  manner  of  reasoning,*^  says  his  editor,  father  Mon- 
teuil,  <^  had  not  that  dryness  which  frequently  destroys  the 
effect  of  a  discourse ;  nor  did  he  employ  that  studied  elo- 
cution which  frequently  enervates  the  style  by  an  excess 
of  polish/'  The  best  composition  in  these  volumes  is  the 
funeral  oration  on  Mary  of  Austria.  As  a  trait  of  his  hu- 
mility, it  is  related,  that  on  being  told  by  a  person  in  a 
krge  company,  that  they  had  been  fellow- students ;  he 
replied,  <<  I  cannot  easily  forget  it,  since  you  not  only 
lent  me  books,  but  gave  me  clothes."' 

HUBNER  (JaHN),  a  native  of  Lusatia,  or,  according 
to  some  authorities,  of  Torgau,  in  Saxony,  highly  cele^ 

f  Ct^ufepie.— Diet.  Hiit  *  Diet.  Hist^Saxii  Ooomast. 

^  A^oirerk— >Dict,  Hist.  • 

f  7?  H:  U  B  N  E  R. 

kxU^d  for  his  skilt  iifliUtQry,  geograpfay,  tod  genealogy^ 
^a$  born  in  1668.  fii&  works  ivere  chjefly  written  m  tfae 
fprm  of  qqestioD  and  answer,  and  so  popular  in  GermaDy, 
thu  bis  introduction  to  geography  went  through  a  vast 
n'l^mber  of  editions  in  that  country^  and  has  bei^n  traaa^ 
lated  into  English,  French,  and  other  languages.  His 
M^orks,  theinefpre,  are  calculated  I'atber  for  the  instruction 
pf  the  ignorant,  than  the  satisfaction  of  the  learned ;  but 
are  wel^  executed  in  their  way.  Hubner  was  professor  of 
geography  at  Leipsic,  Si,nd  rector  of  the  school  at  Ham-r 
}>urgh,  in  which  city  he  died  in  1731.  His  questions  on 
modern  and  ancient  geography  were  published  at  Leipstc 
in  169?,  in  8vo,  under  the  title  of  ^*  Kurtse  Fragen  was 
der  newen  und  alten  Geographie."  He  published,  2.  in 
)697,  and  several  subsequent  years,  in  10  volumes,  similar 
questions  on  political  history,  entitled  <^  Kurtze  Fragen 
aas  der  Politischen  Historie,  bis  zum  Ausgang  des  8ie*» 
benzenden  saiculi."  S.  His  next  work  was  Genealogical 
Tables,  with  genealogical  questions  subjoined,  1708,  &g« 
4.  ^^  Supplements  to  the  prtoeding  works.  5.  Lexicons, 
yesembling  our  Gazetteers,  for  the  aid  of  common  life, 
entitled  ^*  Staats,  Zeitungs,  und :  Conversationa-Lexico.'^ 
6.  A  Genealogical  Lexicon.  7*  •  ^^  Bibliotheca  Historica 
Hamburgensis,^'  Leipsic,  1715.  And,  8.  **'  Museum  Geo*< 
graphicum.*'  The  two  last  were  more  esteemed  by  the 
learned  than  any  of  his  other  works.' 

HUDSON  (Captain  Henry),  was  an  eminent  English* 
navigator,  who  flourished  in  high  fanie  in  the  beginning  of 
the  seventeenth  centary.  Where  he  was  born  and  edu-i 
eated,  we  have  no  certain  account;  nor  have  we  of  any 
private  circumstances  of  his  life.  The  custom  of*  disco-' 
vering  foreign  countries  for  the  benefit  of  trade  not  dying 
with  queen  Elizabeth,  in  whose  reign  it  had  been  zealously) 
pursued,  Hudson,  among  others,  attempted  to  find  out  a 
passage  by  the  north  to  Japan  and  China.  His  first  voyag6 
was  in  1607,  at  the  charge  of  some  London  merchants ; 
and  his  first  attempt  was  for  the  nortfa-east  passage  to  the 
Ifidies.  He  departed  therefore  on  the  1st  of  May;  and 
after  various  adventures  through  icy  seas,  and  regions  in* 
tensely  ct>ld,  returned  to  England,  and  slrrived  in  the 
Thames  Sept.  15.  The  year  following  he  undertook  a  se*^* 
cond  voyage  for  discovering  the  same  passage,  and  ac-» 

1  Moreri«-^X>lcii  Hist — ^SiixU  Onomast. 

HUDSON.  279 

co^ingly  set  sail  with  fifteen  persons  only,  April  22  ;  but 
not  succetding,  returned  homewards,  and  arrived  at 
Gravesend  on  Aug.  26. 

Not  disheartened  by  his  former  unsuccessful  voyages^ 
he  andertook  ^ain,  in  1609|  a  third  voyage  to  the  same 
IMurts,  for  further  discoveries ;  and  was  fitted  out  by  the 
Dutch  East  India  company.  He  sailed  from  Amsterdam 
with  twenty  men  English  and  Dutch,  March  25;  and  on  April 
25,  doubled  the  North  Cape  of  Finmark,  in  Norway.  He 
kept  along  the  coasts  of  Lapland  towards  Nova  Zembia,  but 
found  the  sea  so  full  of  ice  that  he  could  not  proceed. 
Then  turoiog  about,  he  went  towards  America,  and  ar^ 
rived  at  the  coast  of  New  France  on  July  18.  He  sailed 
from  place  to  place,  without  any  hopes  of  succeeding  in 
their  grand  scheme ;  and  the  ship^s  crew  disagreeing,  and 
being  in  danger  of  mutinying,  /  he  pursued  his  way  home- 
wards, and  arrived  Nov.  7,  at  Dartmouth,  in  Devonshire; 
of  which  he  gave  advice  to  his  directors  in  Holland,  send?-' 
ing  them  also  a  journal  of  bis  voyage.  In  1610,  he  waa 
again. fitted  out  by  some  gentlepien,  with  a  commission  to 
try,  if  through  ^oy  of  those  American  inlets  which  cap.*- 
tain  Davis  saw,  but  dqrst  not  enter,  on  the  western  side 
of  Davis's  Streights,  any  passage  might  be  found  to  the 
South  Sea.  They  sailed  from  St.  Catharine's  April  17, 
and  on  June  4,  came  within  sight  of  Greenland.  On  the 
9th  they  were  off  Forbisher's  Streigb.ts,  and  on  the  15th 
eame  in  sight  of  Cape  Desolation.  Thence  they  proceeded 
norih«>westward,  among  great  quantities  of  ice»  until  they 
came  to  the  mouth  of  the  streights  that  bear  Hudson's 
name.  They  advanced  in  those  st^^ights  westerly,  as  the 
land  and  ice  would  permit,  till  tuey  got  into  the  bay, 
which  has  ever  ^since  been  called  by  the  bold  discoverer's 
name»  ^^  Hudson's  Bay."  He  gave  names  to  places  as  he 
went  along ;  and  called  the  country  itself  ^'  Nova  Britan- 
nia," or  New  Britain.  He  sailed  above  100  leagues  south 
into  this  bay,  being  confident  that  he  had  found  the  de- 
sired passage ;  but  perceiving  at  last  that  it  was  only  a  bay, 
he  resolved  to  winter  in  the  most  southern  point  of  it,  with 
an  intention  of  pursuing  his  discoveries  the  following 
spring.  Upon  this  he  was  so  intent,  that  he  did  not  con* 
sider  how  unprovided  he  was  with  necessaries  to  support 
himself  during  a  severe  winter  in  that  desolate  place.  On 
Nov*  3,  however,  they  drew  tlieir  ship  into  a  small  creel^, 
where  they  would  ail  infallibly  have  perished,  if  they  had 

i280  H  U  D  S  O  I<^. 

not  been  unexpectedly  and  providentially  supplied  with 
tincomaion  flights  of  wild  fowl,  which  served  them  for  pro* 
vision.  In  the  spring,  when  the  ice  began  to  waste,  Hud- 
son, in  order  to  compliete  his  discovery,  made  several  ef- 
forts of  various  kinds ;  but  notwithstanding  all  his  endea* 
TOurs,  he  found  it  necessary  to  abandon  his  enterprise,  and 
to  make  the  best  of  his  way  home  ;  and  therefore  distri-^ 
buted  to  his  men,  with  tears  in  his  eyes,  all  the  bread  be 
lad  left,  which  was  only  a  pound  to  each :  though  it  is 
said  other  provisions  were  afterwards  found  in  the  ship. 
In  bis  despair  and  uneasiness,  he  had  let  fall  some  threat- 
ening words,  of  setting  some  of  his  men  on  shore ;  upoa 
whicb,  a  few  of  the  sturdiest,  who  had  before  been  very 
mutinous,  entered  his  cabin  in  the  night,  tied  his  ariBS 
behind  him,  and  exposed  him  in  his  own  shallop  at  the 
west  end  of  the  streights,  with  his  son,  John  Hudson,  and 
seven  of  the  most  sick  and  inBrm  of  his  men.  There^  they 
turned  them  adrift,  and  it  is  supposed  that  they  all  perished, 
being  never  heard  of  more.  The  crew  proceeded  with  the 
ship  for  England ;  but  going  on  shore  near  the  streight's 
mouth,  four  of  them  were  killed  by  savages.  The  res^ 
after  enduring  the  greatest  hardships,  and  ready  to  die  for 
want,  arrived  at  Plymouth  Sept.  1611.* 

*  HUDSON  (Dr.  John),  a  learned  English  critic,  waa 
Tjorn  at  Widehope,  near  Cockerjmouth,  in  Cumberland, 
1662;  and,  after  having  been  educated  in  grammar  and 
classical  learning  by  Jerome  Hechstetter,  who  lived  in  that 
iieighbourhood,  was  entered  in  1676  of  Queen' s-coUege, 
Oxford.  Soon  after  he  had  taken  the  degree  of  M.  A.  in 
1684,  he  removed  to  University-college,  of  which  he  was 
unanimously  chosen  fellow  in  March  1686,  and  became  a 
most  considerable  and  esteemed  tutor.  Ip  April  1701,  on 
the  resignation  of  Dr.  Thomas  Hyde,  he  was  elected  prin- 
cipal keeper  of  the  Bodleian  library ;  and  in  June  fol- 
'lowing,  accumulated  the  degrees  of  B.  and  D.  D^     With 

^this  librarian's  place,  which  beheld  till  his  death,  he  kept 
his  fellowship  till  June  1711,  when,  according  to  the  sta- 
tutes of  the  college,  he  would  have  been  obliged  to  resign 
it;  but  he  had  just  before  disqualified  himself  for  holding 
it  at)y  longer,  by  marrying  Margaret,  daughter  of  sir  Ra- 

'  bert  Harrison,  knight,  an  alderman  of  Oxford,  and  a» 
mercer.     In  J7 12,  he  was  appointed  principal  of  St.  Mary-^. 

i^ali,   by  the   chancellor  of  the  university,    through  thj^ 

^.  *- . .  .  • 

\  Bio^.  Brit     • 

HUDSON.  281 

interest  of  Dr.  RadcIUFe ;  and  it  is  said,  t*iat  to  Hudson'^ 

interest  with  this  pbysiciaa,  the  university  of  Oxford  19 

obliged  for  the  very  ample  benefactions  she  afterwards  re«- 

xreived  from  him.     Hudson's  studious  and  sedentary  way  of 

life,  and  extreme  abstemiousness,  brought  him  at  lengtti 

into  a  bad  habit  of  body,  which  turning  to  a  dropsy,  kept 

iiim  about  a  year  in  a  very  languishing  condition.    He  died 

Nov,  27,  1719,  leaving  a  widow,  and  one  daughter, 

.    His   publicatiorvs   were,    1.  ^^  Introductio   ad    CbronOf> 

^raphiam ;   sive  ars  cbronologica  in  Epitomen  redacta>*' 

lg9i,  8vo.     Extracted  from  Beveridge's  treatise  on  that 

subject,  for  the  use  of  his  pupils.     2.  "  Velleius  Patercu- 

Jus,  cum  variis  lectionibus,    &  notis,    &   indice,'^   1693, 

8vo.     A  second  edition,  with  the  notes  enlarged,  in  1711. 

.3.  "  Thucydjdes,"    1696,  folio.      A  neat   and   beautiful 

edition,   but  somewhat  eclipsed  in  its  credit  by  that  of 

J^ttker  and  Wasse.     4.  "  Geographioe  Veteris  Scriptores 

Graeci  Minores:  cum  Dissertationibus   &  Annotationibus 

Henrici  Dodwelli,"  8vo.     The  first  published  in  1698,  the 

j^econd  in  1 703,  and  the  third  and  fourth  in  1 7 1 2.    5.  '^  Dio- 

nysii  Halicar.uassensis  opera  oipnia,^'   1704,  2  vols,  folio. 

A  beautiful  and  valuable  edition,  enriched  with  the  various 

readings  of  an  ancient  copy  in  the  Vatican  library,  and  of 

several  manuscripts  in  France.     The  learned  editor  hat 

subjoined  to  his  own  notes  several  of  Sylburgius,  Portu^^ 

Stephens,  Casaubon,  and  Valesius.     6.  ^^  Dionysius  Lon* 

ginus,"  1710,  4to,  and  1718,  8vo.     A  very  beautiful  edi*- 

tion,  and  the  notes,  like  all  the  rest  of  Hudson's,  very 

.short.     7.  "  Moeris   Atticista,  de  vpcibus  Atticis  &  Hel- 

lenicis.     Gregorius  Martinus  de  GrsBC^rani  llterarum  pro- 

j)Unciatione,''   1712,  8^.     8.  "Fabulse  iEsopicse,"  Greek 

and   Latin,   1718,  8vo.     9.  "  Flavii  Josephi  Opera,**   h^ 

bad  just  finished,  but  did  not  live  to  publish.     He  bad 

proceeded  as  far  as  the  third  index,  when,  finding  himself 

unable  to  go  quite  through,  he  recommended  the  work  tp 

his  intimate  friend  Mr.  Antony  Hall,  who  published  it  in 

1720,  in  2  vols,  folio.     Jt  is  a  correct  and  beautiful  editioq^ 

^nd  deserving  of  the  ample  commendation  bestowed  upoa 

it  by^Fabricius,  Harwood,   Jlarles,  and  Obertbur.     Th^ 

c^re  of  Mr.  Hall  extended  not  only  to  the  works  pf  bif 

deceased  friend,  but  to  his  family,  for  he  married  his  w\^ 

dow,  whom  he  also  left  a  widow. 

Dr.  Hudson  intended,  if  he  had  lived,  to  publish  a  ea^ 
tglogue  of  tUe  Bodleian  library,  wbicl^  be  had  cs^us>ed  Id 


be  fairly  transcribed  in  6  vols,   folio.     He  wa9  an  sMe 
assi^ant  to  several  editors  in  Oxford,  particularly  to  Dn 
Gregory  in  bis  *<  Euclid/*  and  to  the  industrious  Mr.  Hearoe 
in  bis  *'  Livy/'  &c.     He  corresponded  with  many  learned 
men  in   foreign   countries ;    with  Muratori,  8alvini,  and 
Bianchini,  in  Italy ;  with  Bbivin,  Kuster,  and  Lequien,  in 
France ;  with  Olearius,  Menckenius,  Christopher  Wol&nfly 
and,  whom  he  chiefly  esteemed,  John  Albert  Fabricius,  ia 
Germany ;  Eric  Benzel,  in  Sweden ;  Frederic  Rostgard, 
in  Denmark ;  witb  Pezron,  Reland,  Le  Clerc,  in  Holland; 
he.     He  used  to  complain  of  the  vast  expence  of  foreign 
letters  ;  for  he  was  far  from  being  rich,  never  having  been 
possessed  of  any  ecclesiastical  preferment;  of  which  he 
used  also  to  make  frequent  and  not  unjust  complaints.    He 
met,  sometimes,  however,  with  generous  patronage.  When 
employed  on  his  edition  of  Josephus,  the  carl  of  Caernap- 
Ton  (afterwards  duke  of  Chandos)  hearing  of  his  merit  and 
the  expensive  nature  of  his  undertaking,  sent  him  a  pre*- 
sent  of  two  hundred  guineas,  which  Dr.   Hudson  hand- 
somely acknowledges  in  the  dedication  to  the  earl's  son^ 
lord  Wilton,  of  his  edition  of  Esop's  Fables.     On  his  de» 
cease,  several  sets  of  his  Josephus  were  disposed  of  by  his 
widow,   at  twelve  shillings  per  set,    a  work  which  now 
TSinks  in  the  very  first  class  of  Variorum  editions  in  folio. 
Dr.  Hudson  had  been  long  conversant  with  Josephus,  bad 
irevised  sir  Roger  UEstrange's  translation,  and  added  some 
critical  notes.     He  also  digested  and  finished  Dr.  Willises 
two  discourses  prefixed  to  that  work.     Hearne  was  a  kind 
of  pupil  to  Dr.  Hudson,  and  directed  by  him  in  his  critical 

HUDSON  (Thomas),  a  portrait-painter  of  some  ce- 
lebrity, born  in  1701,  was  the  scholar  and  son-in-law  of 
Richardson,  and  enjoyed  for  many  years  the  chief  bu- 
siness of  portrait-painting  in  the  capital,  after  the  favourite 
artists,  his  master  and  Jervas^  were  gone  off  the  stage. 
Though  Vanloo  first,  and  Liotard  afterwards,  for  a  few 
years  divei^ted  the  torrent  of  fashion  from  the  established 
professor,  still  the  country  gentlemen  were  faithful  to  their 
compatriot,  and  were  content  witb  his  honest  similitudes, 
and  with  the  fair  tied  wigs,  blue  velvet  coats,  and  white 
satin  waistcoats,  which  he  bestowed  liberally^  on  his  cusr- 

'  .  ^  BJQg.  Brit.-^H9ll'3  preface  to  the  Jof ephus. — Atb,  Ox.  vol.  ll.-^Story  of 
^ie  daugbler's  marriage,  GeoU  Mag.  toI.  IV^.  p.  653. 


laoieiSy  and  which  with  complacence  they  beheld  tuviti^ 
plied  in  Faber*s  n^ezzotintos.  I'he  better  taste  intrpdnced 
by  ^r  Joshua  Reynolds,  who  had  been  for  sonie  tifue  hia 
pupil,  put  an  end  to  Hudson's  reigo,  who  had  the  good 
sense  to  resign  the  throne  soon  after  finishing  his  capital 
work,  the  family-piece  of  Charles  duke  of  Marlborough^ 
about  17S6.  He  retired  to  a  small  villa  he  had  built  ac 
Twickenham,  on  a  most  beautiful  point  of  the  river,  aurd 
where  be  furnished  the  best  rooms  with  a  welUchosen  col»- 
}ection  of  cabinet»pictures  aod  drawings  by  great  masters ; 
having  purchased  many  of  the  latter  from  his  father-iu'- 
Jaw's  capital  collection.  Towards  the  end  of  his  life  he 
married  to  his  second  wife,  Mrs.  Fiennes,  a  gentlewoman 
with  fL  good  fortune,  to  whom  he  bequeathed  his  villa*  He 
died  Jan.  26,  1779.^ 

HUDSON  (WiLLUM),  one  of  the  earliest  Linnsan  bo* 
iapists  in  England,  was  boru  in  Westmoreland,  about  the 
year  1730.  H«  served  his  apprenticeship  to  an  apothecary 
in  Panton<-street,  Haymarket,  to  whose  business  he  suc«- 
ceeded,  and  with  whose  widow  and  daughters  he  continued 
lo  reside.  His  acquaintance  with  the  amiable  and  learned 
Mr.  Benjamin  Stillingileet  greatly  advanced  his  taste  and 
information  in  natural  history.  This  gentleman  directed 
his  attention  to  the  writings  of  Linnseus,  and  gave  his  mind 
that  correct  and  scientific  turn,  which  caused  him  to  take 
the  lead  as  a  classical  English  botanist,  and  induced  him  te 
become  the  author  of  the*  ^^  Flora  Anglica,"  published  in 
1762,  in  one  volume  octavo.  The  plan  of  this  book  was^ 
taking  Ray^s  ^'  Synopsis''  as  a  ground*work,  to  dispose  hit 
plants  in  order,  according  to  the  Linnaean  system  and  no^ 
menclatiire,  with  such  additions  of  new  species,  or  of  new 
places  of  growth,  as  the  author  or  his  friends  were  able  to 
furnish*  The  particular  places  of  growth  of  the  rarer  spe« 
cies  were  given  in  Ray's  manner,  in  English,  though  the 
rest  of  the  book  was  Latin.  *  The  elegant  preface  was  writ<^ 
ten  by  Mr.  Stillingileet,  and  probably  the  concise,  but  not 
less  elegant,  dedication  to  the  late  duke  of  Nortbumber* 
land,  ^^  artiuriiy  turn  uiilium^  turn  elegantiorum,  jtuUci  et 

This  publication  gave  Mr.  Hudson  a  considerable  rank 
as  a  botanist,  not  only  in  his  own  country,  but  on  the  6on« 

1  Pi1ktDgton.---W4liioI«'8  ABecdotiw««i*MaIoQe'i  and  Nortlioote^ 
Sir  J.  Reynolds. 


"ttnenty  and  derived  no  small  advantage  JTrom  a  coitipiarisoh 
rwhh  Dr.  Hill's  attempt  of  the  same  kind.  He  had  indeed 
^pi^eviously^  in  the  course  of  his  medical  practice,  formed 
:some  valuable  connexions,  which  were  cemented  by  bota^ 
mical  taste;  and  his  correspondence  with  LiniiaBus,  Hallef^ 
jand  others,  as  well  as  amongst  his  countrymen,  was  fre^ 
quent^  and  very  useful  to  him  in  the  course  of  his  sti)die9» 
,wfaich  were  extended,  not  only  to  botany  in  all  its  crypto- 
'gamic  minutiae,  but  with  great  ardour  also,  to  insects^ 
shells,  and  other  branches  of  British  zoology.  He  wa9 
elected  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society  Nov.  5th,  and  ad^ 
initted  Nov.  12th,  1761.  He  took  the  lead  very  much  in 
rthe  affairs  of  the  Apothecaries'  company,  and  was  their 
botariical  demonstrator  in  the  Cbelsea^garden  for  many 

Mr.  Hudson,  having  never  married,  continued  to  reside 
in  Pantonrstreet  with  the  last  surviving  daughter  of  bis 
friefid  and  master,  an  amiable  and  valuable  woman,  tnar* 
ried  to  Mr.  Hole.  His  "  Flora"  being  grown  very  scarce^ 
he  published,  in  1778,  a  new  edition,  in  two  volumes,  with 
many  additions,  and  various  alterations,  which,  on  th^ 
whole,  was  worthy  of  the  advanced  state  of  the  science. 

Mr.  Hudson's  tranquillity  received  a  dreadful  &hock  in 
the  winter  of  1783,  v^ben  his  house,  and  the  greater  part 
lof  his  literary  treasures,  were  destroyed  by  a  sudden  fire^ 
caused,  as  it  was  believed,  by  the  villany  of  a  confidential 
%,  servant,  who  knew  of  a  considerable  sum  in  money'which 
his  master  had  received  a  day. or  two  before;  and  the  in- 
aurance  having  been  neglected,  although  for  a  short  tim^ 
only,  the  loss  wa^  considerable,  in  a  peciiniary  point  of 
view,,  to  a  man  whose  resources  tvere  not  extensive.  He 
bore  the  whole  like  a  philosopher  and  a  Christian,  giving 
"Dp  his  practice,  and  retiring,  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hole,  to 
ft  more  economical  residence  in  Jermyn-street,  where  he 
died  May  23d,  1793,  and  was  buried  in  St.  James's 

.  The  accident  of  the  iSre  entirely  defeated  a  project  Mr. 
Hudson  had  for  many  years  kept  in  view,  of  publishing  a 
**  Fauna  Britannica,"  on  the  plan  of  bis  "  Flora,"  for. 
which  he  had  long  been  collecting  materials.  His  taste  for 
bis  favourite  pursuit  remained  to  the  last,  unimpaired  and^ 
unembittered  by  these  disappointments.  He  became  a 
lelipw  of  the  pnnse^n  Society  early  in  1791,  libeirailv  con^ 

H  0  E  R  T:  a.  tss 

tfribuCing  to  its  infant  funds,  and  attending  the  meetings  atf 
often-  as  his  no^  declining  health  would  allow.  ^ 

HUERTA  (Vincent  Garica  de  la),  a  Spanish  poet 
and  critic,  and  a  member  of  the  Spanish  academy,  was  bomu 
at  Zaira  in  Estremadura,  about  the  year  173Q;  Among^ 
his  countrymen  he  acquired  considerable  feme  by  the  ex^v 
erdse  of  his  poetical  and  critical  talents,  and  was  at  leaisfr 
successful  in  one  of  his  dramas,  ^^  L^  Raquel,^'  a  tragedj^^. 
which,  to  many  stronger  recommendations,  adds  thatiof 
being  exempt  from  the  anachronisms  and  irregularities  so^ 
often  objected  to  the  productions  of  the  Spanish  stage.; 
He  published  "A  Military  library  ;'*  and  "  Poems"  im 
2  vols,  printed  at  Madrid  in  1778  :  but  his  principal!  work 
Is  bis  "  Teatro  Hespanbl,"  Madrid,  1785,  17  vols.  %ta,  ai 
collection  of  what  he  reckoned  the  best  Spanish  plays^  with 
prefaces,  in  which  he  endeavours  to  vindicate  the  honour 
of  Spanish  literature  from  the  strictures  of  Voltaire,  Lin-- 
guet,  Signorelli,  and  others  of  its  adversaries  ;  but  on  the: 
whole,  in  the  opinion  of  lord  Holland,  who  appears  well 
acquainted  with  this  work,  so  far  from  retrieving  the  lost 
honours  of  the  Spanish  theatre,  he  has  only  exposeil  it  to 
the  insults  and  ridicule  of  its  antagonists.  La  Huerta  died, 
abotit  the  close  of  the  last  century.  *  * 

HUET  (Peter  Danieu),  bishop  of  Avranches  in  France,, 
a  very  eminent  scholar,  was  born  of  a  good  family  at  Caea: 
in  Ndrmandy,  Feb.  8,  1630.  His  parents  dying  when  hie. 
was  scarcely  out  of  his  infancy,  Huet  fell  into  the  bands  j^^ 
of  guardians,  who  neglected  hint :  bis  own  itivincible  lo^ 
of  letters,  however,  made  him  amends  for  all  disadvantages ;, 
and  be  finished  his  studies  in  the  belles  lettres  before  be  wa«^ 
thirteen  years  of  age.  In  the  prosecution  of  his  philoso^ 
phical  studies,  he  met  with  an  excelle«it  pr^ofessor,  father. 
Mambrun,  a  Jesuit ;  who,  after  Plato^s  example,  directed 
him  to  begin  by  learning  a  little  geometry,  and  Huet  con- 
tracted such  a- relish  for  it,  that  fee  went  through  every/ 
branch  of  mathematics,  and  maintained  public  these3  at 
Caen,  a  thing  never  before  done  in  that  city.  Having 
passed  through  his  classes,  it  was  his  business  to. study  the 
law,  and  to  take  his  degrees  in  it;  but  two  books  thea 
published,  seduced  him  from  this  pursuit.  These  were,  - 
^^  The  Principles  of  Des  Cartes,"  and  **  Bpcbart's  Sacred 

>  Rees'*.  Cyclop,  by  sir  E.  Smith.— PuUeney»s  Sketches  of  Botany.—Geat.* 
^Ag,  vol.  LXJH. 
»  4)i^  airt.-'Lord  iioIUnd'i  Life  of  Lopa  de  Y«f »,  p.  ^%5,  f%e. 

SS6i  H  U  E  T. 

Geograipby."  He  was  a  great  admirer  of  Des  Cartel,  and 
adhered  to  hfs.  philosophy  for  many  years ;  but  afterwards 
saw  reason  to  abandon  it  as  a  visionary  fabrictr^  and  wrote 
against  it.  Bochart's  geography  made  a  mofe  lasting  ha^ 
pression  upon  him,  as  well  on  account  of  the  immense 
erudition  with  which  it  abounds,  as  by  his  acquaintance 
with  its  author,  who  was  minister  of  the  Protestant  church 
at  Caen.  This  book,  being  full  of  Greek  and  Hebrew 
learning,  inspired  Huet  with  an  ardent  desire  of  being* 
▼ersed  in  those  languages,  and,  to  assist  his  progress  itn 
these  studies,  he  contracted  a  friendship  with  fiocharty  aad 
put  himself  under  his  directions. 

At  the  age  of  twenty  years  and  one  day,  he  was  delivered 
by  the  custom  of  Noifmandy  from  the  tuition  of  his  guar- 
dians :  BXkd  soon  after  took  a  journey  to  Paris,  not  so  m^i^ck 
from  t^riosity  to  see  the  place,  as  for  the  sake  of  purchas-' 
mg  books,  and  making  himself  acquainted  with  the  learned 
flien  of  the  times.  He  soon  became  known  to  Sirmotidy 
iPletavius,  Vavassor,  Cossart,  Rapin,  Naiid^,  and,  in  .shorty 
to  almost  ali  the  scholars  ia  France.  With  Petavitia 
in  particular  he  passed  much  of  his  time :  he  was  a 
great  admirer  of  the  splendour  of  his  diction,  and  the 
variety  of  his  erudition  ;  but  he  confesses,  that  in  wetgb*^ 
iag  the  argnments  which  he  offered  in  support  of  his  dog- 
mas, be  perceived  in  them  a  degree  of  weakness  and  am*' 
biguity,  which  obliged  bim  to  suspend  his  assent,  and  in*' 
'-  dined  bim  towards  scepticism.  Naturally  excelling  rather 
in  genius, than  judgment,  atid  the  vigour  of  his  under^ 
ftanding  having  been  rather  repressed  than  improved  by 
M  immense  variety  of  reading,  Huet  found  bis  mind  too 
feeMeto  mastertbedifficuhies  of  metaphysical  and  tbeolo-' 
glcal  studies,  and  concluded  that  his  want  ,of  success  in 
die  search  after  truth  was  owing,  not  to  any  peculiar  infe- 
Ueity  in  his  owti  case,  but  to  the  general  imbecility  of  the 
human  mind.  ^  « 

'  With  this  bias  towards  scepticism  Huet  entered  upon  his 
travels,'  and  Christina  of  Sweden  having  invited  Bochart  to 
hier  court,  Huet  accompanied  him,  in  April  1652*  He 
saw  Salmasius  at  Leyden,  and  Isaac  Vossius  at  Anasterdam* 
H^  often  visited  the  queen,  who  would  have  engaged  him 
ifn  her  service;  hot  Bochart  not  having  been  very  grar* 
ciously  received,  through  the  intrigues  of  Bpurdel,  another 
physician,  who  was  jealous  of  him,  and  the  queen's  fickle 
temper  being  well  k^nowm^  Huet  di^tdiiued  alL  offers^  ancf 

H  U  E  T. 


after  a  stay  of  threie  mcmths  retnraed  to  Fnmce.  The  diief 
fnift  of  bis  journey  wa»  a  copy  of  a  inaniiscript<of  Origen's 
^^  Comtnentaries  upon  St  Matthew/*  whtcb  he  .transcribed 
at  Stoekbolm ;  and  the  acquaintance  he  contracted  with 
the  learned  men  in  Sweden  and  HoOand,  through  which  he 
fiassed.  Upon  bis  retorn  to  his  own  country,  Caen,  here^ 
sumed  bis  studies  with  more  vigour  than  ever,  in  order  to 
publish  bis  manuscript  of  Origen  *•  While  be  was  em- 
ployed in  translating  this  work,  he  was  led  to  consider  the 
rules  to  be  observed  in  translations,  as  well  as  the  different 
manners  of  the  most  celebrated  translators.  This  gave  oc-> 
^asion  to  his  first  performance,  which  came  out  at  Paris  in 
1661,  under  this  title,  ^^De  interpretatione  libri  duo:'* 
and  k  is  written  in  the  liorm  of  a  dialogue  between  Casau-* 
bon,  Fronto  Ducsbus,  and  Thuanus.  M.  de  Segrais  teib 
lis^  that  ^  nothing  can  be  added  to  this  treatise,  either 
wrch  respect  to  strength  of  critical  judgment,  variety  of 
learning,  or  elegance  of  style;"  "  which  last,"  saysabb601i« 
Vet,  ''  is  so  very  esttfaordinary,  that  it  might  have  done 
honour  to  the  age  of  Augustus."  This  book  was  first  pvinted 
in  a  thin  4to,  but  afterwards  in  12mo  and  8vo.  la  l&^% 
were  published*  at  Rouen,  in  2'  vols,  folio,  his  ''  Origenis 
Commentaria, '  &c.  em»  Latina  interpretatione^  Aotis  & 
observatioaibus  ^"  to  Winch  is  prefixed,  a  large  pretiniiuer|r 
diseourse,  iiv  which  is  collected  all  that  antiqui^  relates  o£ 
Origen;  The  internal  of  sixteen  years,  between  his  return 
from  Sweden  and  the  publication  of  this  work,  waa  spent 
entirely  in  study,  exeeptiiig  a  month  or  two  every  jreer, 
when  he  went  to  Paris ;  during  which  time  he  gaTe  the 
publie  a  speeimen  of  his  skill  in  polite  literatuce^  in  ae 
elegant  c^lectienef  poems,  entitled  ^^Carraina  Latina 4t 
Grasca;"  which  were  published  at  Utrecht  in  1664,  and 
afterwards  enlarged  in  several  successive  editions.  While 
he  was  employed  upon  his  *^  Commentaries  of  Origen,"  be 
had  the  misfortune  to  quarrel  with  his  friend  and  master 
Bochart ;  who  desiring  one  day  a  sight  of  his  manuscripti 

*  Here  be  also  instituted  a  society 
ibr  the  iraprovement  of  naluraljphilo- 
iopby  and  anatomy,  wbich^  through 
the  interest  of  Colbert^  was  liberally 
endowed  by  the  king,  for  the  purpose 
of  defraying  ttte  expences  of  philoso* 
phical  experiments  and  anatomtcal 
dissections.  About  this  time  Huet 
formed*  a  friendship  with*  Gormis»  pre-^ 
•ideatof  the  fenate  of  Aiz^  who  cams 

to  reside  at  Caen.  This  new  intimsKy- 
▼erymucb  contributed  to  cooarittHiMC 
in  his  propensity  towavdr  stq^eisiK 
For  Cormisaus,  who  waa.  well  nsad  m 
aiitient  philosophy,  was-  »  gneat  siib> 
mii^r  of  tfafe  Pyntiooic  sent,  and  eanw 
estly  i^oorameBded  to  bis  friend  the 
study  of  Pyrrhonism  in  the  instiWHea 
of  Sextos  Bmpiricos. 

sst  HUE  t; 

for  theBakeof  consuitiiig  some  passages  about  the  Eucharist^ 
which  bad  been,  greatly. coiitroverited  between  Papisu  and 
Protestants,  discovered. an  hiatus  gr defect,  which  seemed 
.  to  determine .  the  sense  in  favour  of  the  Papists,  and  rer. 
proached  fiuet  Orith  being  the  contriver  of  it.  Huet  at  fira^ 
thoaght  that  it  was  a  defect  in  the  original  MS.  but  upoa 
consulting  another  very  autient  MS.  in  the  king's 
>  Paris,  he  found  that  be  had.  omitted « some  words  in  th^ 
hurry  of  transcribing,  as  be  says,  and  that  the  mistake  waa 
bis  pwn.  fiocbat-t,  still  supposing  that  this  was  a  kind  of 
pious  fraud  in  Huet,  to  support  the  doctrine  of  the  eburqb 
of  Rome  in  regard  to  the  Eucharist,  warned  the  Protestants 
against  Huet's  edition  of  Origen's  "  Cpmmentari^,'*  an4 
dissolved  the  friendship  which  had  so  long  subsistted  be- 
tween Huet  and  himseU*. 

In  1659  Huet  was  invited  to  Rome  by  .Christina,  who 
bad  abdicated  her  crown,  and  retired  thither;  but,. re- 
membering the  cool  reception  which  Bochart  bad  expe-t 
rienced  from  her  majesty  after  as  warnt  an  invitation,  ho 
refused  to  go.  His  literary  reputation,  however^  when 
Bossuet  was' appointed  by  the  king  preceptor  to  the  Dau- 
phin, procured  him  to  be  chosen  for  bis  colleague^  with 
the  tide  of  sub-preceptor,  which  bonour  had  some  t^iine 
been  designed  him  by  the  duke  de.  Montausier^  goveijnojc: 
to  the.  Dauphin.  He  went  to  court  in  1670,  and  stayed 
tbere  till  16i30,  wben  the  Da^iphin  was  married.  Ybough 
his  employment  must  of  necessity  occupy  a  considerable 
part  of  his  time,  be  found  enough  to  complete  his  ^'  D^; 
monstratio  Evangelica,''  which,  though  a  great  and  labo^ 
jrious  work,  was  begun  and  ended  amidst  the  embarrass-^ 
xbents  of  ae^urt^.     It  was  .published  at  Paris  in.  1679,  in 

*  This  work,  says  Brucker,  in  which  vain  to  attempt  to  establisl)  by  argU' 

he  undertakes  to  exhibit  the  eridrnces  mentafton,  wtthont  the  ^race  of  Godi 

•of  Christianity  in  a  geometrical  fornm  AQCordiBg)y»  he  professes  to  write  Ipis 

indeed  discovers  great  erudition,  but  '*  Demonstration,'*   merely  as  an  ex- 

the  judicious  reader  will  perceive  tTiat'  traueous  and  adrentitions  support  to 

i  Ihe  writer  was  more  desirons  to  dis|>lay  ffutby  by.m«ao»of  wJbtck  the  mind  may 

his    learning,   than    to   establish   the  be  more  easily  inclined  to  submit  itself 

Cfaristian  faith  upon  rational  groundis.  to  the  auibority  of   Christ.      Bishop 

Inbispittfiscetotbitwork,  hemaiataios  Watson   thinks  that  a  very  Taluablt 

at  large  the  uncertainty  of  all  human  part  of  it  in  which  he  traces  t^e  heaUiea 

icnav ledge,  whether  derived  from  the  mythology  to  the  Scriptures,  for  thougli 

tenses  or  from  reason ;  and  declares  it  he  may  carry  his  hypothesis  too  far, 

as.  his  opinion,  ^hat  those  methods  of  of  Mo;»es  repres^Uog  under  different 

|>failosophising  which  lead  to  a  ^uspeur  names  most  of  the  gods  of  the  heathens^ 

aion  of  judgment  are  by  no  means  bps-  yet  the  deduction  of  the  heathen  my« 

tile  to  Christianity,  but  sery«  to  pr^?  thology  from^ sacred  history,  is  a  strong 

pare  the  mind  for  an  implicit  submis-  proof  of  jthe  tru^  of  the  latter^  ^ 

aion  to  divine  i^velation,  which  it  is  in  Watson's  Cat,  at  the  endof  &8  Tract* 

H  U  E  T,  2$9 

folio;  and  has  been  reprinted  since  in  folio,  4to,  and  8vo. 
Huet  owiis  tnat  this  work  was  better  received  by  foreigners 
than  by  his  own  countrymen ;  many  of  whom  considered  it 
as  a  work  foil  of  learning  indeed,  but  utterly  devoid  of  that 
demonstration  to  which  it  so  formally  and  pompously  pre* 
tends.  Others,  less  equitable,  borrowed  from  it,  and  at- 
tacked it  at  the  same  time,  to  cover  their  plagiarism ; 
which  fluet  complains  of.  Father  Simon  had  a  design  of 
making  an  abridgment  of  this  work ;  but  Huet  being  in* 
formed  that  his  purpose  was  likewise  to  alter  it  as  he 
thought  proper,  desired  him  to  excuse  himself  that  trouble. 
Huet  was  employed  on  the  editions  of  the  classics  *^  in 
usum  Delphini  :'*  for  though  the  first  idea  of  these  was 
startfed  by  the  duke  de  Montausier,  yet  Huet  formed  the 
plan,  and  directed  the  execution,  as  far  as  the  capacity 
of  the  persons  employed  iq  that  work  would  permit.  He 
undertook,  he  tells  us,  only  to  promote  and  conduct  the 
work,  but  at  last  came  in  for  a  share  of  it,  in  completing 
Faye's  edition  of  Manilius.  He  was  also  chosen  a  member 
of  the  French  academy ;  and  his  speech  pronounced  on  the 
occasion  before  that  illustrious  body  was  published  at  Paris 
in  1674. 

While  he  was  employed  in  composing  his  **  Demonstra- 
tie  Evangelica,**  the  sentiments  of  piety,  which  he  had 
cherished  from  his  earliest  youth,  moved  him  to  enter  into 
orders,  which  he  did  at  the  late  age  of  forty  •six ;  and  he 
tells  us,  that  previous  to  this  he  gradually  laid  aside  <  the 
lay  habit  and  outward  appearances.  In  1678,  he  was  pre- 
sented by  the  king  to  the  abbey  of  AuDay  in  Normandy, 
which  was  so  agreeable  to  him,  that  he  retired  there  every 
summer,  after  he  had  left  the  court.  In  1685,  he  was 
nominated  to  the  bishopric  'of  Soissons ;  but  before  the 
bulls  for  his  institution- were  expedited,  the  abbg  de  Sillery 
having  be^n  nominated  to  the  see  of  Avranches,  they  ex- 
changed bishoprics  with  the  consent  of  the  king  ;  though, 
owing  to  the  differences  between  the  court  of  France  and 
that  of  Rome,  they  could  not  be  consecrated  till  1692. 
In  1689,  he  published  his  *^  Censura  Philosophise  Carte- 
sianse,*^  and  addressed  it  to  the  duke  de  Montausier:  it 
appears  that  he  was  greatly  piqued  at  the  Cartesians,  when 
he  wrote  this  book ;  but  it  may  be  questioned  whether  he 
thoroughly  understood  the  system.  In  1690,  he  published 
in  Caen,  in  4to,  bis  '' Qusestiones  AInetanse  de  Concor- 
dia Hationis  &  Fidei :"  which  is  written  in  the  form  of  a 

Vol- XVIII.  tJ 

290  H  U  E  T. 

dkilogde>  after  the  manner  of  Cicero^s  Tttsenlan  Quastjohs. 
In  this  he  endeavours  to  dx  the  respective  liinits  of  reHtoh^ 
aiid  faith,  and  maintains,  that  the  dogmas  and  precepts^ 
of  each  have  no  alliance,  and  thdt  there  is  nothing,  bow-^^ 
ever  contradictory  to  common  sense,  or  to  good  morals, 
which  has  not  been  received,  and  which  we  may  not  be 
boond  to  receive,  as  a  dictate  of  fdith.  He  hdrie^tly  con- 
fesses that  he  wrote  this  work  to  establish  the  authority  of 
trtiditibn  against  the  empire  of  reason. 

In  1699,  he  resigned  his  bishopric  of  Avranches,  and 
was  presented  to  the  abbey  of  Fontenay,  near  the  gates  of 
Caen.  His  love  to  his  native  pidce  determined  him  tofiis 
there,  for  which  purpose  he  improved  the  house  and  gar- 
dens belonging  tp  the  abbot.  But  several  grievances  &ndr 
law -suits  obliged  him  to  remove  to  Paris,  where  he  lodged 
among  the  Jesuits  in  the  Maison  Profes^lS,  <i^hom  be*  had 
ihade  heirs  to  his  tibrdry,  reserving  tb  himsfelf  the  use  ofit 
while  he  lived.  Here  he  spei^t  the  last  twenty  years  of  his 
life,  dividing  his  tiifne  between  devotion  and  study v  He 
did  not  consider  the  Bible  as  the  only  book  to  be  read^ 
but  thought  that  all  other  books  must  be  read^  before  ife 
could  be  rightly  understood.  He  employed  himself  chiefly 
in  writing  notes  on  the  vulgate  translation  :  for  which  pur- 
pose he  read  over  the  Hebrew  text  twenty-four  times  ;  com- 
paring it,  as  he  went  along,  with  the  other  Oriental  texts,  and 
spent  every  day  two  or  three  hours  in  this  work  from  168^1 
to  1712.  He  was  then  seized  with  a  very  severe  distemper, 
which  confined  him  to  his  bed  for  near  six  months,  and 
brought  him  so  very  low,  that  he  was  given  up  by  his  phy- 
sicians, and  received  extreme  unction.  Recovering,  how-> 
ever,  by  degrees,  he  applied  himself  to  thfe  writing  of  bis 
life,  which  was  published  at  Amsterdam  in  1718,  in  12ii]0| 
under  the  title  of  "Pet.  Dan.  Huetii,  Episcopi  Abrilncen$i«y 
Commentarius  de  rebus  ad  eum  pertinentibus  :"  where  the 
critics  have  wondered,  that  so  great  a  master  of  Latin  as 
Huetius  was,  and  who  has  written  it,  perhaps, -as  weli  as 
any  of  the  moderns,  should  be  guilty  of  a  'solecism  in  the 
very  title  of  his  book ;  in  writing  "  eum,'*  when  be 
should  have  manifestly  written  "  se.  This  performance, 
though  drawn  up  in  a  very  amusing  and  entertaining  man- 
ner, and  with  great  elegance  of  sty  W,^  is  not  execate^d 
with  that  order  and  exactness  which  appear  in  bi^  other 
works:  his  memory^ being  then  decayed^  and  afterwards 
declining  more  and  more}  so.  that  he  was  no  longer  capable 

il  U  fi  t.  iH 


of  a  continued  work,  but  0nly  committed  dcstached  tbo'ughtfs 
tb  papet.  Olivet  ii^  the  m^ien  time  relates  a  rob^  f ettiarlr- 
^le  i^Dgalatity  Of  bitti,  tihrntty,  that,  ^'  for  two  or  three 
hours  before  hi^  death,  be  recovered  ail  the  vigour  of  his 
genius  atid  meitipry/'  He  died  January  26,  1721,  in  hv$ 
$lst  year. 

Besides  the  works  which  v^  have  mentioned  in  the  course 
of  this  metnoir,  be  pubHiihed  others  of  a  similar  nature, 
vit.  "  De  POri^infe  dfes  I{.omans,"  1670;    published   in 
Ehglisfa  1672,  l2mo.     **  De  la  situation  du  Faradis  Ter* 
restrev"  1^91.      **  Nouveaux    Memoii'es   pour    servir   k 
THistoire  dn  Cartesianisme,**  1692.     •*  St^tUts  Synodaa:^ 
pdurl^  diocese  d*Avtanches,  &c/*  1693;  to  which  were 
added  three  Supplements  in  the  years  i6d5,  1696,  1698, 
"De  Navigationibus  Salomonis,*'  Amst.  1698.     **Not^ih 
Anthologiam   Epigrammatttm  GrsBcoruto,**   Ultraj.  l7oo. 
^^  Origines  de  Caen,'*  Roan,    1702.     "  Lettres  k  Mon^. 
Perriiilt,  sur  le  Parallele  des  Ancients  &  des  Modernes,  din 
10  Oct.  1692,**  {>tinfted  without  the  ^uthor*Sf  knowledge  in 
the  thihJ  part  of  the  ^*  Pieces  JPdgitives,*'  Paris,  1704. 
*'  ExatHeh  du  sentiment  de  Lpngin  sur  ce  passage  de  la 
Genese,  £t  Dieu  dit,  que  la  lumiere  soit  fatte,  &  la  lumiere 
fut  feite,'*  inserted  ih  tome  X  of  Le  Clerc's  J*  Bibliotheque 
Cbtrisfe,**  Amst.  1706.    Huet,  in  his  **  Demonstf^tio  Evan- 
gel ica,'*  bad  assetted,  that  there  was  nothing  sublime  ii| 
this  passage,  as  Longtnus  had  observed,  bat  that  it  was 
perfectly  simple.     Messrs.  de  Pbrt  Royal  and   Boileau^ 
$iiio  gave  trai^siatiohs  of  Longinus,  asserted  its  sublimity 
oh  th&t  very  account ;  ahd  this  occasionetl  the  ^^  Examen*' 
just  mentioned.    <<  Lettre  I  M.  Foucault,  cohseilter  d*etat, 
sur  Porigine  de  la  Poesie  Fran9oise,  du  16  Mar.  1706,*^ 
iniierted  in  the  **  Memoires  de  Trevoux,"  in  1711.    **  Let- 
ti^e  de  M.  Moriii  (that  is;  of  M.  Huet,)  de  Tacademie  des 
itiscriptions  i,  M.  Huet,  touchant  le  livre  de  M.  Totandus 
Anglois,  intitule,  Adeidddemou,  &  Origines  Judaicss,*^  in- 
iert^d  in  thi"  Memoires  de  Trevoux'*  for  Sept.  1709,  an4 
in  the  cdltectron  which  the  abb6  Tilladet  published  of 
'Host's Vtrorks,  under  the  title  of  ^^Dissertations  sur  di verses 
ttikti^tes  dfe  la  Religion  &  de  Philologie,'*  1712.     "His- 
toite  de  Commerce  &  dei^  Navigation  des  Anciens,'*  1716. 
After  his  death  were  published,  **  Trait6  Philosophique  de 
laFoiblesse  de  Tesprit  humain,"  Amst.  1723 ;  in  which  the 
aceptical  spirit  which  followed  Huet  througii  every  change 
of  situation  appears  in  its  full  vigour.    Of  this  work^  which 

V  2  N 

i92  H  U  £  T.  . 

was  originally  written  in  French,  the  author  left  behind 
him  a  Latin  translation.    It  has  also  been  translated  into 
English.     ^^  Huetiana,  ou  pens6es  diverses  de  M.  Huet,*' 
1722.  These  contain  those  loose  thoughts  he  committed  to 
paper  after  his  last  illness,  when,  as  we  have  already  ob- 
served, he  was  incapable  of  producing  a  connected  work. 
'^  Diana  de  Castro,  ou  le  faux  Yncas/'   1728,  a  romance, 
written  when  he  was  very  young.    There  are  yet  in  being 
other  MSS.  of  his,  which,  as  far  we  know,  have  not  been 
published;  viz.  *^  A  Latin  translation  of  Longus's  Loves 
of  Daphnis  and  Chloe  f  ^    <^  An  Answer  to  Regis,    with 
regard  to  Des  Cartes^s  Metaphysics  ;'*  **  Notes  upon  the 
Vulgate  translation  of  the  Bible ;"  and  a  collection  of  be- 
tween 5  and  600  letters  in  Latin  and  French  written  to 
learned  men. 

On  the  whole,  though  it  canaot  be  questioned  that  Haet, 
on  account  of  his  great  learning  and  fertile  genius,  may  ^ 
justly  claim  to  have  his  name  preserved  with  honour  ia  the 
republic  of  letters,  several  circumstances  must  prevent  us 
from  ranking  him  among  the  first  philosophers  of  the  seven- 
teenth century.  Better  qualified  to  accumulate  testimonies 
than  to  investigate  truth,  and  more  disposed  to  raise  diffi*- 
culties  than  to  solve  them,  he  was  ah  injudicious  advoca^te 
for  a  good  cause.  If  we  are  not  very  much  mistaken,  Huet 
did  not  strictly  adhere  to  the  scholastic  art  of  reasoning 
which  he  had  learned  m  the  schools  of  the  Jesuits ;  other- 
wise he  must  have  seen  that  there  can  be  no  room  for  faith, 
or  for,  what  be  artfully  conceals  under  that  name,  the  au- 
thority of  the  clTurch,  if  evety  criterion  of  truth  be  re- 
jected, and  human  reason  be  pronounced  a  blind  and  fal- 
lacious guide^^ 

HUGH  (St.).  There  are  several  ecclesiastics  of  this 
name  in  French  history,  few  of  which  perhaps  will  be 
thought  now  very  interesting.  St  Hugh,  bishop  of  Gre- 
noble in  1080,  was  a  native  of  Chateau-neuf-sur-l'Isere, 
near  Valence  in  Daupbiny,  who  received  St^  Bruno  and 
his  companions,  and  fixed  them  in  the  Grande  Chartreuse. 
He  was  author  of  a  Cartulary,  some  fragments  of  which 
are  in  Mabilloo's  posthumous  works,  and  in  AUard's  Me- 
moirs of  Dauphiny,  1711  and  1727>  2  vols.  fol.  He  died 
April  1,  11 32.  He  must  be  distinguished  from  the  subject 
of  the  next  article.* 

1  G€n.  Dtct— Moreri.-«Bnicker.--StxH  OnonMtt. 
•  Moreri.— DupiD.-^Dict  Hitt. 

HUGH.  893 

HUGHof  Cluni,  a  saint  of  the  Romish  calendar,  was 
of  a  very  disdngaished  family  in  Burgundy,  and  was  born 
in  1023.  When  he  was^  only  fifteen,  be  rejected  all  worldly 
views,  and  entered  into  the  monastic  life  bt  Cluni^  under 
the  guidance  of  the  abbot  Odilon.  After  some  years,  he 
was  created  prior  of  the  order,  and  abbot  in  1048,  at  the 
death  of  Odilon.  In  this  situation  he  extended  the  reform 
of  Cluni  to  so  many  monasteries,  that,  according  to  an 
ancient  author,  he  had  under  his  jurisdiction  above  tea 
thousand  monks.  In  1058  he  attended  pope  Stephen  when 
dyitag,  at  Florence  ^  and  in  1074  he  made  a  religious  piU 
grimage  to  Rome^  Some  epistles  written  by  him  are  ex* 
tant  in  Dacheri  Spicilegium.  There  are  also  other  pieces 
by  him  in  the  **  Bibliotheque  de  Cluni.'*  He  died  in  1 108 
or  9.  He  is  said  to  have  united  moderation  with  his  ex« 
emplary  piety ;  and  was  embroiled,  at  one  time,  with  the 
biriiop  of  Lyons,  for  saying  the  prayer  for  the  emperor 
Henry  IV.  when  that  prince  was  under  excommunication** 

HUGH  DB  Fleury,  or  de  St.  Marie,  a  celebrated 
monk  of  the  abbey  of  Fleury  towards  the  end  of  the  1  tth 
century,  was  called  Hugh  de  St.  Marie  from  the  name  of  a 
village  which  belonged  to  his  father.  He  is  little  known 
but  by  his  works,  which  are  twb  books  :  **  De  la  Puissance 
Royale,  et  de  la  Dignity  Sacerdotale,''  dedicated  to  Henry 
king  of  England,  in  whicli  he  establishes  with  great  soli* 
dity  the  rights  and  bounds  of  the  priestly  and  royal  powers, 
in  opposition  to  the  prejudices  which  prevailed  at  that  time. 
This^work  may  be  found  in  torn.  IV.  of  the  *' Miscellanea'* 
of  Beluxe.  He  wrote  also  '^  A  Chronicle,^'  or  History, 
from  the  beginning  of  the  world  to  840,  and  a  small  Chro- 
nicle from  996  to  1109,  Munster,  1638,  4 to,  valuable  and 
scarce.     It  may  also  be  foiind  in  Troher's  collection.  * 

HUGH  DK  Flavigny,  born  in  1065,  was  a  monk  of 
St  Vannes  at  Verdun,  arid  afterwards  abbot  of  Flavigny  in 
the  12th  century,  but  was  dispossessed  of  that  dignity  by 
the  bishop  of  Anton,  who  caused  another  abbot  to  be  elected. 
Hugh,  however,  supplanted  St.  Laurentius,  abbot  of  Vannes, 
who  was  persecuted  by  the  bishop  of  Verdun  for  his  attach- 
ment to  the  pope,  and  ,kept  his  place  till  1115,  after  whiclt 
time  it  is  not  known  w^at  became  of  bim.  He  wrote  the 
^*  Chronicle  of  Verdun/'  which  is  esteemed,  and  may  be 
found  in  P.  Labbe*s  *^  Bibl.  Manuscript."' 

1  Morari.— DapiD.^Diet  Bitt  <  Ibid.  .    »  Ibid. 

^94  ii  U  G  tf . 

HUGH  cf?  AMmiiSy  also  onlkd  Hogh  oip  Rouen,. left 
Afui^n^y  his  native  pUce,  and  going  to  England  was  mad^^ 
fir&ty  abbot  of.  Roding^  and  afterwards  bishop  of  JKouen, 
1130,  and  died  1 164.  He  faas  the  tharaictef  in  his  cbupch 
of  bqing  one  of  the  greatest,  mOst  pions,  and  most  learned 
bishops  of.  his  age.  He  ivrote  three  books  for  the  instruc-f 
tiofi  of  his  clergy,  which  are  in  the  Ubmry  6f  the  fathers^ 
and  P.  d^Ajchery  has  printed  cbem  at  the  ertd  of  Guibert 
de  Nogen.t*s  works.  Some,  other  pieces  by  Hugh  may  bc^ 
found  in  the  collectioOs  by  Martenite  and  Dqrand.' 

IIUGH  DE  St.  Victor,  an  eminent  divtuife  in  the  i^tb 
century,  originally  of  Ftanders,  devoted  himself  to  reli-i 
gioQ  in  the  abbey  of  St.  Victor  at  Paris,  at  that  time  go^ 
vemed  by  its  first  abbot  Oilduin  ^n  i  1 15,  and  taogiit  tbeo* 
logy  with  so  much  reputation,  that  be  was  called^ a  second- 
Augustine.  He  dicid  in  1 14d,  aged  44,  after  having  been 
prior  to  St.  Victor,  leaying  several  works,  in  which  he 
imitates  St.  Augustine's  style,  and  follows  >hk  doctrine.. 
The  principal  among  these  is  a  large  treatise  **-  Oa  the  Sa- 
cramebts.'^  They  have  all  been  printed  at  Rouen,  1'648^ 
3  vols.  fol. ;  and  some  may  also  be  found  in  Martenne's' 
«  Thesaurus."  « 

HUGH  DE  St.  Chea,  a  <selebrated  cardinal  of  the  Do^ 
minican  order,  was  so  called  from  the  place  of  his  biitfa,^ 
at  the  gates  of  Vienne,  where  there  is  a  church  dedicated 
tp  St.  Cher.  He  acquired  great  reputation  in  th^  l3th 
century  by  iais  prudence,  learning,  and  genius  «  was  dpctor 
of  divinity  of  the  faculty  of  Paris,  appointed  provioMal  of 
His  orddr,  •  afterwards  cardinal  by  Innocent  IV.  Migr  28^ 
1244,  and  employed  by  this  pope  and  his  successor  Alex* 
aader  IV.  in  affairs  of  the  greatest  consequeiice.  Md  died 
March  19,  1263,  at  Oryieto.  His  principal  works  are  a 
collection  of  the  various  readings  of  Hebrew^  Greek,  and 
Latin  MSS.  of  the  bible,  entitled  <f  Cdrrectorium  Biblioe,'* 
which  is  in  the  Sorbonne  in  MS. ;  a  ^'  GoQCordance  of  tbd 
Bible,"  Cologn,  1684,  Svo;  the  earliest  work  of  this  kind. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  the  inventor  of  concordances. 
"  Commentaries  ort  the  Bible ;"  "  Speculum  Ecdesise/* 
Plaris,  1480,  4to,  &c.* 

HUGHES  (John),  an  English  poet,  was  son  of  a^citi^en 
of  London,  and  born  at  Marlborough  in  Wiltshire  July  29, 
1677.     He  was  educated  at  a  dissenting  academy,  under 

*  MoKfi.— Dupin.— Diet.  Hrat.  «  Ibid.  s  «^. 

H  U  G  H  E  a  894 


the!  cate.of  Mt.  Thom^  RowO)  yv^e,  at  the  tapA^  iim^f 
tbeia&ecHfards  celebrated  Dr.  Isaac.  Wattf  was  a  stadent^ 
whose  pi^ty.  and  friendship  foe  Mr.  .Hugbes  induce^l  faim  to 
nsgcet  tiiat  be  employed  any  part  of  his  talents  in  wriljing 
focltbe  stage.  Mr.  Hughes  had  a:  weak  ov  at  least  a  deK^ 
cate  constitution,  which  perhaps  rpstcained  him  fvem 
seyerer/studies,.  and  inclined  hiav;tq  pursue  the  softei^acts 
of  poetry,  oiusic,  and  draving.;  in  each  of  which  he  o^Ldo 
coBs^dfiiable  pr4>gress.  .  His  acquaintance  with. the  MuseS 
and  th^  Graces  did  net  render  him  awme  to  business; .  he 
bad  a  place  in  the  office  of  ordnanee,  and  was  secretary  lo 
sateial  comoiissions  underj  the  great  seal  for  purchasing 
lands,  in-order  to  the  better.secaring.oftbe  royal  dpcks 
and  yards  at  Portsmouth,  Chathao?,  and  Harwich.  Ha 
continued,  however,  to  cultivate  bis  taste,  for  letters,  and 
added  to  a  competent  knowl^flge  of  the  ancfent,  an  iiiti* 
mate  aequaintimdef  with  tli^e  modern  languages*  The'  first 
te&timgny  he  ga^e  the  public  of  his  poetic  vein,  was  in:^ 
po^m  ^'; on  the  peace  of  Ryswick,"  printed  in  1697,  ati4 
received  ivith  unctfasimon  approbation.  In^  169d,  *^  T^e 
Cpurtfof  Neptuiie^^  was  written  by  him  on  king  Wiiliaih>'$, 
return  from  Holland  ;  and^  the  same  year,  a  song  on  the 
duke  of  Gloucestey»?bftrth<^ay.  In  the  year  1702,  h6 
published,  on  the  death  -of  JiiAg  Will'^m,  a  Pindaric  ode, 
^^iiled'*^  Of  the  House  of  Na$$an,t'i.  which  he  dedicated 
tp  Charles  duke  of.  Somerset;  and  in  1703  his^^-Ode  in 
Praise  of  Music*'  was  performed  with  great  applause  at 
Stationers'-halL  ;    .;  : 

His  numerous  performances, 'for  he  had  all  along  em«r 
ployed  bis  leisure  hours  in  translations  and  imitations  from 
the  ancients,  had  by  this  tiitie  introduced  him,  not  only  to 
the  wits  of  the  age,  Addison^,  Congreve,  Pope,  Southerne, 
Rowe,  and  others,  but  also  to  some  men  of  rank  in  the 
kingdom,  and  among  these  to  the  earl  of  l^hartop,  who 
offered  to  carry  htm  over,  and  to  provide  for  him,' when 
appointed  lord-lijeutenant  of  Ireland ;  but,  ^bating  other 
otfaer  views  at  home,  he  declined  the  offer.     His  views, 

f  **  His  acquaiptfi^ce  with  the  j^reat^    was  desired  by  Addison  to  sapply.     If 

writers  of  his  time,^  says  Pr.  Johasoii,  the  request  was  sincere,  it  proceeded 

'<  appeara  to  have  been  very  general  $  -  from  an  opinion,  whatever  it  was)  that 

^ut  of  bis  intinift^y  witjl^  Addison  tb§re  ^  did  not  last  lopg ;   for  whed  Hughes 

is  a  remarkable  proof.     It  \p  told,  on  pame  in  a  week  to  shew  him  his  first 

^ood  authority,  that  *  Cato'  was  finish*  attempt,  he  found  half  the  act  wHtten 

ed  and  played  by  his  persuasion.     It  by  Addison  himself." 
had  long  wanted  the  last  agt,  which  be 

d96  H  U  G.  H  E  S. 


howevec,  were  not  vtty  proukismg^  until  id  1717  the  lord 
chancellor  Cowper  made  him  secretary  to  the  commia^m»B 
of  the  peace;  in  which  he  afterward),  by  a  parti(»il«it 
request,  tlesired  his  successor,  lord  Parker,  to  continue  biiQ« 
Kehad  now  affluence;  but  such  is  human  life,  that  be  had 
it  when  his  declining  health  could  neither  allow  him  king 
possessiou  nor  full  enjoyment.  His  last  work  was  hk 
tragedy,  **  The  Siege  of  Damascus  ;^'  after  which  aSiegtt 
became  a  popular  title.  This  play  was  limg  popular,  and 
is  still  occasionally  produced ;  but  is  not  acted  or  printed 
according  to  the  author's  original  draught,  or  bis  settled 
intention.  He  had  made  Pbocyas  apostatize  from  bia 
religion ;  after  which  the  abhorrence  of  Eudocia  would 
have  been  reasonable,  his  misery  would  have  been  just, 
and  the  borrora  of  his  repentance  exemplary^  Tbe  player% 
howerer,  required  that  the  guilt  of  Phocyas  should  terw 
minate  in  desertion  to  the  enemy ;  and  Hughes,  unwilling 
that  his  relations  should  lose  the  benefit  <rf  his  work,  com^: 
plied  with  the  alteration.  He  was  now  weak  witli  a  linger^ 
ing  consumption,  and  not  able  to  attend  tbe  rehearsal ; 
yet  was » so  vigorous  in  his  faculties,  that  only  ten. days 
before  bis  death  he  wrote  the  dedkation  to  his  patron  .lo^d 
Cowper.  On  Feb.  17,  1720,  the  play  w9s  represented,, 
and  the  author  died.  He  Itiled  to  hear  that  it  was  well 
received;  but  paid  m^  regard  to  the  intelligence,  being^^ 
then  wholly  employed  in  tbe  meditations  of  a  departing 

A  few  weeks  before  be  died,  he  sent,  as  a  testimony  of 
gratitude,  to  his  noble  friend  earl  Cowper,  his  own  picture 
drawn  by  sir  Godfrey  Kneller,.  which  he  had  received  as  a 
present  from  that  painter  :  upon  which  the  earl  wrote  bim 
the  following  letter.  *^  24  January  171^*20.-  Sir,  1  thank 
you  for  tbe  most  acceptable  present  of  your  picture^  and 
assure  you,  that  none  of  this  s^.  can  ^et  ao  higher  v^liie* 
on  it  thail  I  do,  and  shall  while  I  Jive ;  though  I  am  aen* 
siblejtbat  posterity  will  outdo  me  in  that  particular.'* 

A  man  of  his  amiable  character  was  undoubtedly  re*, 
'gretted^  and  Steele  devoted  an  essay  in  the  paper  called 
**  The  Theatre,"  to  tlie  memory  of  his  virtues.  In  1735 
his  poems  were  collected  and  published  in  d  vols-  12mo,' 
under  tbe  following  title :  ^*  Poeois  on  several  occasions, 
with  some  select  &says  in  prose."  Hughes  was  also  the 
author  of  other  wnr4s  Ju  prose.  *^  The  Advices  from 
Parnassus/'  and  "T%e 'Political  Touchstone;  pf  Boccailini,** 

H  U  G  H  £  a  291 

Miwlsied  by  several  bands,  i^d  pimted  m  firito,  17^, 
f»ere  revised,  corrected^  and  had  a  preface  prefixed  to 
fhetn,  by^htm.    He  translated  bimsetf  <'  FonteneUeV  Dia» 
logue»of  the  Dead,  and  Discoarsexonceriihig  the  AitcienUi 
and  Moderns  ;*'  «^  the  Abb6  Vestot's  History  of  the  Be- 
Tototions  in  Portugal  j*'  and  ^<  Letters  .of  Abelard  and  He^   * 
hMSa,^'      He  wrote  the  preface  to  the  collection  of  Ae 
^  History  of  England*^   by  various  hactis,  called  ^<  The' 
Complete  Htslory  irf  England,*'  pnnted  in  1706,  in  3  Tola;/ 
Mio ;  in  which  he  gives  a  clear,  satbfactory,  and  impartial^ 
aeeoilnft  of  the  historians  there  collected.    :  Sevei^l  papers 
in  the  ^  Tatters,*' ^  Spectators,"  and  '<  Guardians,''  were 
mitten  by  hies.    He  is  supposed  to  have  written  the  whdb^: 
or  at  least  a  considerable  part,  of  the  *^  Lay  Monastery ^^ 
eooaistingof  Essays,  Discourses,  &c.  published  singly  tiiMler'. 
die  title  of  die  «'  Lay  Monk,''   being  the  sequel  of  the 
^  Spectators."    The  second  edition  of  this  was  printed  in' 
If  14,  12iiio.     Lastly,  he  published,  in  .17 15,  an  accurate 
edition  of  the  works  of  Spenser,  in  6  vols.  1 2010 ;  to  which! 
are  prefixed  the><  Life  of  Spenser,"  ^^  An  £ssay  on  Alle- 
gorical Poetry,*"  '^  RennMrks  on  the  Fairy  Queen,  and  others 
writings  of  Spenser^"  and  a  glossary,  explaining  old  words  ; 
aU  by  Mr.  Hughes.  'ThiH  was  a  work  for  which  he  was  v^ell 
qualified,  as  a  judge  of  the  beaMes  of  writit^,but  be  wanted 
an  aURtquary's  knowledge  of  the  oMblete  words.     He  did 
not  omch  revive  the  curiosily  of  the  public,  for  4)ear  thirty 
years  elapsed  before  his  edition  was  reprinted.     The  cha- 
racter bf  his  genius  is  not  unfairly  given  in' the  correspond- 
ence of  Swift  and.  Pope,     **A  month  ago,"  says  Swift/ 
<f  was  sent  me  over,  by  a  friend  of  mine,  the  works  of  John 
Hughes,  esq.   They  are  in  prose  and  verse.     I  never  heard 
of  the  man  in  my  life,  yet  I  find  your  name  as  a  subscriber. 
He  is  too  grave  a  poet  for  me ;  and  I  think  among  the' 
mediocrists,  in  prose  as  well  as  verse."      To  this  Pope 
returns:  "To  answer, your  question  as' to  Mr. -Hughes; 
what  he  wanted  in  genius,  he  made  up  as  an  honest  man ; 
but  he  was  of  the  class  you  think  him."  ^ 

HUGHES  (Jabez),  was  the  younger  brother  of  Mr.  John 
Hughes,  and,  like  him,  a  votary  of  the  Muses,  and  an 
excellent  scholar.  He  was  born  in  1685.'  He  published, 
in  1714,  in  8vo,  a  translation  of  "  The  Rape  of  Proser- 

1  Qipf.  Brit,— JohBtoo  an^  Chalmers's  EngK^hPocti,  16l0.«.-«6riti^  Essay- 
isls,  PrdTace  to  the  Spectator^  voL  Vi.— Gent.  Mag.  &ep  inAax, 

2M  St  It  G  H>  £  S. 

piMjV  firotn  Claudian^  and . '^  TlMii  Story  of  SesUis.aini! 
Ertciho,'*  from  Lncan'si^^  PlMrsalia^"  ibook  .vi.  «  Theae' 
traofilationsi  with  notei^  mere  reprfoted  iixil728)!  i2ino,;.He! 
also  fmblished^iii  !7inr,  a  traiMiiation  of  Suctonisis's  ^MaisiBsI 
of  ilie  Twelve  Cttsars,'^  aod  trobalatad.  sevieral  ^<  Novek'!; 
from  the  Spanish  of  Gervaales,'URfaicb  arp  ia^eited  in  the 
^^•Sielect  Collection  of  Novels  and  Historiesi"  printed' fon 
Waits,  1723.  He. died  Jan.  17^  lt3L  A  ipoathunbhi^ 
volume  of  his  ^^  Miscellanies  in  Verse  aiid  <  Brose?'  iKas^ 
fiubliihed  in  1737.  His  vridow  aeconipaoied  .lhe«ladjr:af. 
governor  Byng^to  Barbadoes,  and  daed.  there  in.  12740i\;  j  jn 
'  HUGHES  (John),  of  a^iffermit  family  f|;oai  the  (6takBr^ 
wais  born  in  I6S2)  end  became  9,  felW  of  Jeatu^  coUef e^' 
Cambridge.  He  was  called  by  bishop  Atteibiiry  ^^^.leiamed 
band^^'Mftnd  is  known  tp  die  republic,  of  letter^  a8.edtta»:<tf' 
St  Chrysos^ra's  treatise  ^<  Oh  the  Pnestbood*'':  Two  letL^ 
tfsr^  of  his  to  Mr.  Bonwicke  are  pmted  in  ^' The  Gentle'-' 
man*^s  Magazine,^'  in  oqe  of  whic|i  he  says,  f*  I.iuma  ajt  kffil 
been  prevailed  on  to  undertake  ap  edition  >of  .St*  ChrjrsbM 
stem's  mBpt  (ip^;,*  arid  I  would  beg.  the  favour  of  you  toi 
send  me  your  octavo  edition*  I  want  a  small  volume'to«iay: 
bv  me^  and  the  L^tin  version  may  be  of  seme  service. toi 
me,  if  I  cancel  the  inteipretation  of  Fronto  Ducsaus.'-  .  A 
second  edition  of  this  treatise  was  printed  at  paml^ridge  in> 
Greek  and  Latin,  with  notes,  and  a  pceliminary/dioiutatioa 
against  the  pretended  ^^  Rights  of  .the  CharchjV  &o.  iir 
1712.  A  good  English  translation  of  St;  ChrysoalxuD  ^  Qa 
the  Ptries«hood/*  a  pouhumons^  work  by.ti^  Rev^  John 
Bunce,  M.  A.  was  published  by  bta  son  (vicar  of  'St.  Ste-. 
phen-s  near  Canterbury)  in  1760.  Mr.  Hngbes  died  Nov. 
18,  1710,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Nicholas^ 
Dep^ford,  where  there  is  a  long  Latin  inscription  to  his 

HUGO  (Herman),  a  learned  Jesuit,  was  born  at  Bnis^ 
sels  in  15S8  ;  and'died  of  the  plague  at  Rhinberg  in  1639. 
He  published  his  first  work  in  1617,  which  was  *^  De  prima 
scribendi  origine,  et  universdB  ret  literarise  antiquitate,? 
Antwerp,  8vo.  This  book  was  republished  by  Trotzius  in 
}738,  with  many  notes.  2.  **  Obsidio  Bredana,  sub  Am- 
brosio  Spinola,^'  Antwerp,  1629,  folio.  3.  **  Militia  eques** 
tris,  antiqua  et  nova,''  Antwerp,  1630,  folio.     4.  His  ^  Pia 

*  Nicbols'g  Select  Oolletftioii  of  Poems. 

*  Nichols's  Aiterboiy.  — >Gent.  Msg.   ▼ol.  XLVUI.  •.- Lysoas's  Environs, 
▼oU  IV. 

Il  IT  G  O.  S«# 

HesiAe^"**  i^e^vmk  bjr  #iiich  be  i%  best  kho«rii^  wfts  first 
published  in  1632-,  Svo^eiiidrepYinted  in  S2fB0^  with  all  the 
deafness  of  Elze^r,  and  adorned  v^ith  rather  fahcifel  en-* 
gratings.  These-  <^  Pia  DeMderia^'  are  in  Latin,  and  coin 
sist  of  three  books,  the  ^ubjeets  of  which  are  thus  arranged. 
B.  r.  ^Gemiins  Anitnm  penitentis.''  2.  ^  Vota  aniiiies 
sanctse/'  8.  ^^  M^piria  animo^  amantia.'^  They  consist  df 
lemg  p^aphmses'iti: 'elegiac  verse,  on  various  passages  of 
scripture.  His  Vev^ifiidikion  is  bsiially  good^  'but  be  want» 
^iaiplicity  •  and  sub)»nliity ; ' yet  he  is  eometii^es  p  oeti^at,  • 
tbi^ugh  his  muse  isriot'litce  that  ef  David  J 

HUGO  (ChaIiles  LoiirfS),  a  voiuminous  author  in  La-* 
ti«f  dnd  i^reneh,  whbse  works,  frotn  their  subjects,  are  Httle 
known  herd,  Wa^  a  •canon- ^  of  the  PremonstratensiaYi  order, 
a4oe«o)?  of  divinity,'  &bb&  of  Etiva!,  and  titular  bis^hop  oif 
Ptotemais.  He  died  M^afrt  advanced  a^e,  in  17S5.  HiS' 
worics  are,  h  "♦*  Annaie^  PreeiiAonstr&tensium,*'  a  history  i>f 
bis  own  order,  and  a  vei^y  laborious  work,  iii  two  volumes, 
folio  ;  illustrated  with  plans  of  the  monasteries,  and  other 
curious  particltlars ;  but  accused' of  some  remarkable  ^r-' 
rorsi  a,  **  Vie  d^  St.  Nofbert  ffondateurdes  Premontr^s,*^' 
1704,  4to.  3.  «Sacr8B  antiquitatts  monumenta  historica,' 
dogmatica,  dipicimatica/^  1725,  2  vols,  folio.  4.^*Triiit6 
historique  et  critique  de  la  Maison  die  Lorraine,^*  1711^* 
Svo.  This  being  a  work  of  some  boldness,  not  6n)y  the 
name  of  tlie  author,  but  that  of  the  -place  where  it  wits' 
printed,  wis  c4>Ticealed  :  the  former  beihg  prbfessedly  Bal- 
cicdurt^  the  latter  Berlin,  instead  of  Naftci.  Yet  the  au- 
thor was  traced  otit,  and  fell  under  the  censure  of  the  par- 
liament, in  1712.  In  1715,  be  published  another  work,  5. 
entitled  ^^  Reflexions  sur  les  deux  Ouvrages  concernant 
la  Maison  de  Lorraine,^*  where  he  defends  his  former 

HULDRICH  (John  James),  a  protestant  divine,  of  a 
considerable  family,  was  born  at  Zurich  in  1683,  and  was 
educated  partfly  at  home,  and  partly  at  Bremen,  devoting 
his  chief  attention  to  the  study  of  the  Hebrew  language 
and  the  writings  of  the  Rabbins.  From  Bremen  he  went 
to  Holland,  where  he  published  at  Leyden  a  very  curious 
bodk,  not  in  4to,  as  Moreri  says,  but  in  8vo,  entitled 
"  Sepher  Toledot  Jescho,"  or  the  history  of  Jesus  Christ, 
written  by  a  Jew,  full  of  atrocioiis  calumnies,  which  Hul- 

1  Moreri.—Dict.  Hist.  t  IhjA. 

300  H  U  L  B  S  I:  C  li. 

drich  refutes  in  his  notes.  Tim  work  is  io  Hebrew  and 
Latin.  On  his  return  to  Zurieh  in  1706,  he  was  made 
chaplain  of  the  house  of  orphans,  and  four  years  after  pi^o* 
fiessor  of  Christian  morals,  in  the  lesser  college,  to  which 
was  afterwards  added  the  professorship  of  the  law  of  nature. 
This  led  him  to  write  a  commentary  on  Puffendorff  <*  on 
the  duties  of  men  and  citizens.**  His  other  works  are  the 
^  Miscellanea  Tigurina,".  3  vols.  8vo,  and  some  sermons  in 
German.  He  died  May  25, 173  i«  Zimmerman,  who  wrote 
his  life,  publbhed  also  a  Sermon  of  bis  on  the  last  words 
of  St.  Stephen.  He  was  a  man  of  considerable  leamii^, 
and  of  great  piety,  sincerity,  and  humility.^ 

HULL  (Thomas),  a  late  dramatic  and  misceUaneous 
writer,  and  an  actor,  was  bom  in  the  Strand,  London^  in 
1728,  where  his  father  was  in  considerable  practice  as  aa 
apothecary.  He  was  educated  at  the  Cbarter*house,  with 
a  view  to  the  church,  but  afterwards  embraced  his  father*s 
profession,  which,  however,  he  was  obliged  to  relinquish 
after  an  unsuccessful  trial.  What  induced  him  to  go  on 
the  stage  we  know  not,  as' nature. had  npt  been  very  boun* 
tiful  to  him  in  essential  requisites*  He  performed,  how* 
ever,  for  some  time  in  the  provincial  theatres,  and  in  1759 
obt^ned  an  engagement  at  Covent-garden  theatre,  which 
he  never  quitted,  unless  for  summer  engagements,  tn 
one  of  these  he  became  aequainted  with  Shenstone  th^ 
poet,  who,  observing  his  irreproachable  moral  conduct,  so 
different  from  that  of  bis  brethren  on  the  stage,  patronized 
him  as  far  as  he  was  able,  and  assisted  him  in  writing  his 
tragedy  of  "  Henry  H."  and  **  Rosamunjl.^'  It  was  in- 
deed Mr.  Hull's  moral  character  whicb  did  every  thing  for 
him.  No  man  could  speak  seriously  of  him  as  an  actor, 
but  all  spoke  affectionately  of  his  amiable  manners  and  un- 
deviating  integrity.  He  was  also  a  man  of  some«iearning, 
critically  skilled  in  the  dramatic  art,  and  the  correspondent 
of  ^ome  of  the  more  eminent  literary  men  of  his  time*  His 
poetical  talents  were  often  employed,  and  always  in  the 
cause  of  humanity  and  virtue,  but  he  seldom  soared  above 
the  level  of  easy  and  correct  versification.  In  prose^  per- 
haps, he  is  entitled  to  higher  praise,  but  none  of  his  works- 
have  bad  more  than  temporary  success.  He  died  at  his 
house  at  Westminster,  April  22,  1808.  For  the  stage  he 
altered,  or  wrote  entirely,  nineteen  pieces,  of  which  a  list 

>  Bib).  GermaQique,  voK  XXIV. 

H  t  L  L.  301 

may  be  seen  in  ouraudicMty.  His  other  works  were,  1^ 
*'  The  History  of  sir  William  Harrington,''  a  novel,  1771, 
4  vols.  2.  '^.Genuine  Letters  from  a  gentleman  to  a  young 
lady  his  pupil,''  1772,  2  vols.  3.  ^<  Richard  Plantagenet,'* 
a,  legendary  tale,  1774,  4to.  4.  ^  Select  Letters  betweeii 
the  late  duchess  of  Somerset,  lady  Luxborough,;  miss  Dol- 
man, Mr.  Whistler,  Mr.  Dodsley,  Shenstone,  and  others,** 
1778,  2  vols.  This  is  now  the  most  interesting, of  bis  pubr 
lications,  and  contains  many  curious  particulars  of  literary 
history  and  opinions.  The  letters  were  given  to  him  by 
Shenstone.    5.  "  Moral  Tales  in  verse,"  1797,  2  vols.  8vo.' 

HULME  (Nathaniel),  an  English  physician,  was  born 
at  Holme  Torp  in  Yorkshire,  June  17,  17829  and  was 
taught  the  rudiments  of  medical  science  by  his  brother, 
Br.  Joseph  Hulme,  an  eminent  physician  at  Halifax,  and 
afterwards  was  a  pupil  at  Guy's  hospital.  In  1755,  h^ 
served  in  the  capacity  of  surgeon  in  the  navy,  and  being 
stationed  at  Leith  after  the  peace  of  1 763,  he  embraced  t^e 
favourable  opportunity  of  prosecuting  his  medical  studies 
at  Edinburgh,  where  he  took  bis  degree  of  doctor  in  1765. 
His  inaugural  thesis  was  entitled  '^  Dissertatio  Medica 
Ihauguralis  de  Scprbuto."  Soon  after  his  graduation;  he 
'settled  in  London  as  a  physician,  intending  to  devote  his 
attention  particularly  to  the  practice  of  midwifery.  This^ 
however,  he  soon  relinquished:  and,  on  the  establishment 
of  the  general  dispensary  (the  6rst  institution  of  the  kind 
in  London),  be  was  appointed  its  first  physician.  He  was 
also  some  time  physician  to  the  City  of  London  Lying-i^ 
hospital.  About  .1774,  he  was,  through  the  influence  of 
lord  Sandwich,  then  first  lord  of  the  admiralty,  elected 
physician  to  the  Charter-house.  His  other  of&cial  situa-^ 
tions  he  resigned  many  years  before  bis  death,  and  with- 
drew himself  at  the  same  time  in  a  great  measure  from  the 
active  exercise  of  his  profession ;  but  continued  in  the 
Charter-house  during  the  remainder  of  his  life.  In  March 
1807,  he  was  bruised  by  a  fall,  of  which  he  died  on  the 
28th  of  that  month,  and  was  buried  at  his  own  desire  in 
the  pensioners*  buriaUground,  followed  by  twenty-four 
physicians  '^d  surgeons,  who  highly  respected  his  cha- 

Dr. Hulme  was  the  author  of  several  dissertations;  viz. 
a  republication  of  his  thesis,  with  additions,  1768.     ^^  A 

^  Biog.  Dram.— Greaves's   RecoHectioas  of  Shenstone.  —  Preface  to   the 
•*  Select  Letters.'* 

80i2  H  U  L  M  E. 

treatise  on  Puferperal  Fever/'  1772.  Art  oriitiDh  **.De  Re 
'Medica  e<ignoscendi  et  fjronioveiida,"^  delivered  at  the  an- 
Hiv^ersary  of  the  fneditat  society  in  1*777,  to  which  a  smatl 
tract  was  annexed,  entitled  "  Via  tnta  et  jucuntitl  Cafeulum 
solvendi  in  vesica  urinaria  ifihaerfentem.'*  Ah  enlarged 
i^dition  of  this  trftct,  in  English,  appeared  in  the  following 
year,  tinder  tlie  title  c>f  ^*  A  safe  and  easy  Remedy  for  the 
relief  of  the  Storie  and  Gravel,  the  Scurvy,  Gout,  &c.'; 
and  for  the  destruction  of  Worms  in  the  humaii  body^ 
illu^tmt^  by  cases ;  together  with  an  extemporaneous 
Bfietiiod  of  impregnating  water  and  other  liquids  with  fixed 
air,  by  simple' mixture  only,  &c."  1778.  In  17B7^  he  Was 
presented  with  a  gold  medal  by  the  royal  society  of  mtedi- 
cine  at  Paris,  for  his  treatise  on  the  following  prize  ques- 
tion, "Rechercher  qudles  sont  les  causes  de  rendurcissier- 
ifient  de  tissu  celiulaire  auquel  plusieurs  enfans  nouTfeaur- 
ii6s  sont  sujets."  In  1800,  Dr.  Hulme  instituted  a  series 
of  experiments  "  on  the  light  spontaneously  emitted  frbm 
various  bodieis,''  an  account  of  which  was  published  iti  thh 
Philosophical  Transactions  of  that  and  the  following  year. 
He  had  been  chosen  a  fellow  of  that  society  id  1794,  and 
of  the  society  of  antiquaries  in  1795.  To  the  Archaeolo^ia 
ht  coutrrbuted  an  account  of  a  brick  brought  ffoito  the  sitfe 
of  ancient  Babylon.  Dr.  Hulme  was  also  one  of  the  edi- 
tors of  the  "  London  Practice  of  Physic." — In  17^1,  a  Mr. 
ObaDiah  HuLme  died  in  Charter-house  square,  author  df 
an  **  Historical  Essay  on  the  English  Constitution/'  ^hd 
other  tracts,  probably  a  relation  of  Dr.  Hulme.' 

HUME  (David),  a  celebrated  philosopher  and  histo- 
rian, was  descended  from  a  good  fanlily'in  Scotland,  and 
born  at  Edinburgh  April  26,  1711.  His  fathei*  was  a  de- 
scendant of  the  family  of  the  earl  of  Hume  or  Home,  and 
his  mother,  whose  name  was  Falconer,  was  descended  frbm 
that  of  lord  Halkerton,  whose  title  came  by  succession  to 
her  brother.  This  double  alliance  with  nobility  was  a 
source  of  great  self-complacency  to  Hume,  v^ho  was  a  phi- 
losopher only  in  his  writings.  In  his  infancy  he  does  not 
appear  to  have  been  impressed  with  those  sentiments  of 
religion,  which  parents  so  generally,  ^^e  may  almost  add 
universally,  at  the  time  of  his  birth,  thought  it  their  duty 
to  inculcate.  He  once  owned  that  he  had  never  read  the 
New  Testament  with  attention.     However  this  nlay  be,  a's 

»  Atlirnxuni,  vol.  II.— Rees'sCycloi^xdia.— Gci»t,  Maj:.  vol,  tXI.  and  LXXVII. 

HUME.  zm 

be  was  a  yoanger  brother  with  a  very  slender  patrihionj, 
aod  of  a  studious,  sober^  industrioas  tnrn^  he  veas  desdned 
by  his  family  tQ  the  law:  but^  being  seiaed  with  an  e4rly. 
passion  for  letters^  he  found  an  insurmountdbleaverstoti 
to  any  thing  else ;  and,,  as  he  relates,^  while  they  fanoied 
him  to  be  poring  upon  Voet  and  Vinnius,  he  was  occu^ 
pied  with  Cicero  and  Virgil*  His  fortune,  however,  beiug 
very  small,  and  his  health  a  little  broken  by  ardent  appli* 
4:ation  to  books,  be  was  tempted,  or  rather  foinced,  to  make 
a  fedble  trial  at  business;  and^  in  1734,  went  to  Bristol, 
with  recommendatious  to  some  eminent  mercfaanis :  but,  iii 
a  few  months,  found  that  scene  totally  unfit  for  him.  He 
seems,  alsp,  to  hav6  conbeived  somb  personial  disgust  against 
the  men  of  business  in  that  place :  for,  though  he  was  by 
no  means  addicted  to  satire,  yet  we  can  scarcely  interpret 
him  otherwise  than  ironically,  When,  speaking  in  bis  Hbr 
tory.  (antio  i660)  of  James  Naylor's  entrance  iiitoBrisrtol 
upon  a  horse,  in  imitation  of  Christ,  he  presumes  it  tb  bci 
^^  from  the  difficulty  in  that  place  of  finding  an  ass  !*' 

Immediately  on  leaving  Bristol,  he  went  over  to  France, 
with  a  view  of  prosecuting  his  studies  in  privacy ;  and  prad- 
tised  a  very  rigid  frugi)lity,  for  the  sake  of  maintaining  his 
independency  unimpaired.  During  his  retreat  thei^  firsi 
at  Rheims,  but  chiefly  at  La  Fleche,  in  Anjou,  he  composed 
his  ^f  Treatise  of  Human  Nature;'*  and,  eomitig  over  to 
London  in  1737,  he  published  it  the  year  after.  This 
work,  he  informs  us^  he  meditated  even  while  at  the  uni- 
versity; a  circumstance  which,  it  has  been  observed^  proved 
the  self-sufficiency  of  Hume  in  a  very  striking  manner.  For 
a  youth,  in  the  full  tide  of  blood  and  generous  syAipathy^ 
to  meditate  the  diffusion  of  a  system  of  universal  scepticism^ 
in  which  it  is  endeavoured  to  prove,  not  only  that  all  the 
speculations  of  the  philosopher  or  the  divine,  but  every 
virtuous  feeling  of  the  heart,  every  endearing  tie  by  which 
^an  is  bound  to  man,  are  no  better  than  ridiculous  pveju* 
dices  and  empty  dreams,  is  the  most  singular  deviation  from 
the  natural  and  laudable  propensities  of  a  mind  unhacknied 
in  the  ways  of  the  world,  that  has  yet  octtrrred  in  the  ano- 
malous history  of  man.  The  scepticism  and  i^religion  of 
Voltaire,  Diderot,  and  Rousseau,  "grew  with  their  growth, 
and  strengthened  with  their  strength,"  but  Hume  started 
as  if  from  the  nursery,  a  perfect  and  full-grown  infidel. 

Never,  however,  according  to  the  avowal  of  the  author 
himself,  was  any  literary  attempt 'more  unsuccessful.     "  It 

304  HUME: 

felly"  be  says,  <^  dead  ham  from  the  press,  without  reach-* 
ing  such  distinction  as  even  to  excite  a  munnur  among  the 
zediots.''  He  adds,  however,  that  <<  being  naturally  of  a 
cheerful  and  sanguine  temper,  he  soon  recovered  the 
blow.''  But  this  .equanimity,  we  shall  afterwj^rds  find  was 
mere  affectation,  nor  was  the  work  quite  unnoticed.  It 
was  criticised  with  great  ability  in  the  only  review  of  that 
period,  "  The  Works  of  the  Learned ;"  and  from  a  peru- 
sal of  the  article,  we  have  no  hesitation  in  ascribing  it  to 
Warburton.  Whether  it  be  true,  that  Hume  called  on 
Jacob  Robinson,  the  publisher,  and  demanded  satisfaction^ 
we  will  not  affirm.  One  remark  of  the  Reviewer  seems 
somewhat  singular,  and  it  may  be  thought  prophetic. 
*^  This  work  abounds  throughout  with  egotisms.  The  au- 
thor would  scarcely  use  that  form  of  speech  more  f re- \ 
quently,  if  he  had  written  "his  c/wn  memmrsJ** 

In  1742,  he- printed,  with  more  success,  the  first  part  of 
bis  ^'Essays.''  In  1745,  he  lived  with  the  marquis  of 
Annandale,  the  state  of  that  nobleman's  mind  and  health 
requiring  such  an  attendant :  the  emoluments  of  the  aitua- 
tion  must  have  been  his  motive  for  undertaking  such  a 
charge.  He  then  received  an  invitation  from  general  St. 
Clair,  to  attend  him  as  a  secretary  to  his  expedition ;  which 
was  at  first  meant  against  Canada,  but  ended  in  an  incur-^ 
sion  upon  the  coast  of  France.  Next  Jrear,  1747,  he  at- 
tended the  general  in  th<rsame  station,  in  his  military  em- 
bassy to  the  courts  of  Vienna  and  Turin :  he  then  wore  " 
the  uniform  of  an  officer,  and  was  introduced  to  these 
courts  as  aid-de-camp  to  the  general.  These  two  years 
were  i^ost  the  only  interruptions  which  his  studies  re- 
ceived during  the  bourse  of  his  life:  his  appointments^ 
however,  had  made  him  in  his  own  opniion  «<  independent; 
for  he  was  now  master  of  near  1000/.^' 

Having  always  imagined,  that  his  Want  of  success,'  in* 
publishing  tb«  *'  Treatise  of  Human  Nature,"  proceeded  " 
more  from  the  manner  than  the  matter,  he  cast  the  fir^ 
part  of  that  work  anew,  in  the  *^  Inquiry  concerning  Hu- 
man Understanding,''  which  was  published  while  he  was  at 
Turin;  but  with  little  more  success.     He  perceived,  how-, 
ever,  some  symptoms  of  a  rising  reputation  :  bis  books  ^ 
grew  more  and  more  the  subject  of  conversation ;  and  ^I 
found,"  says  he,  "by  Dr»  Warburton's  'railing,  diat  they  : 
were  beginning  to  be  esteemed  in  good  company/*  '  In 
1752>  w^re  published  at  Edinburgh,  where  he  then  lived/ 

HUME*  lOf 

hk  ^<  jPoUUcal  IKjieQttfBes ;''  and  tbe  same  year,  at  London^ 
his  '<  loquiiy  coDeerning  the  Principles  of  Morals/'  Of 
the  former  be  says,  **  that  it  was  tbe  only  work  of  his 
which  was  successful  on  the  first  publication,  being  well 
received  abroad  and  at  home:''  and  he  pronounces  the 
latter  to  be,  *^  in  his  own  opinion,  of  all  his  writings,  buh 
torical,  philosophical,  or  literary,  incomparably  tbe  best ; 
althojugb  it  came  unnoticed  and  unobserred  into  the  world*** 

In  1 754,  he  published  the  first  volume,  in  4to,  of  '^  A 
Portion  of  Engush  History,  from  the  Accession  of  James  L 
to  the  Bevolution/'  He  strongly  promised  himself  sue- 
odss  from  this  work,  thinking  himself  the  first  English  his-* 
torian  -that  was  free  from  bias  in  his  principles :  but  he  says, 
**  that  he  was  herein  miserably  disappointed ;  and  that,  in« 
stead  of  pleasing  all  parties,  he  had  made  himsdf  obnoxious 
to  all.''  He  was,  as  he  relates,  **  so  discouraged  with  this, 
that,  had  not  the  war  at  that  time  been  breaking  out  be« 
tween  France  and  England,  he  had  certainly  retired  to' 
soiue  provincial  town  of  the  former  kingdom,  changed  bis 
name,  and  never  more  have  returned  to  bis  native  country." 
The  '<  cheerful  and  sanguine  temper''  of  which  he  formerly 
boasted,  had  now  forsaken  him,  and  the  philosopher  bad 
dwixkdied  to  a  mere  irritable  author.  He  recovered  him« 
sd[^  iiowevers  so  far,  as  to  publish,  in  1756,  his  second  to« 
lump  of  the  same  history;  and  this  was  better  received* 
*'  It  not  only  rose  itself,"  he  says,  **  but  helped  to  buoy 
up  its  unfortunate  brother,"  Between  these  publications 
came  out,  along  with  some  other  small  pieces, .  his  **  Natu*^ 
ra|  History  of  Religion  :"  which,  though  but  indifferently 
received,  was  in  the  end  the  cause  of  some  consolation  to 
him  ;  because,  as  be  expresses  himself,  *^  Dr.  Hurd  wrote 
a  pamphlet  against  it,  with  all  the  illiberal  petulfti>ce,  arro* 
gance,  and  scurrility,  which  distinguish  tbe  WarburtonlaH 
school ;"  so  well  aware  was  he,  that,  to  an  author,  atuek  of 
any  kind  is  much  more  favourable  than  neglect.  Dr.  Hurd, 
hoffever,  was  only  the  ostensible  author ;  he  has  since  de« 
dared  expressly,  that  it  proceeded  from  Warburton  him** 
self«  hf  1759,  be  published  bis  <<  History  of  the  House  of 
Tudor;"  and,  in  1761,  the  more  early  part  of  the  English 
History :  each  in  2  vols.  4to«  The  -clamour  against  tfab 
fbmier  of  these  was  almost  equal  to  that  against  the  history 
of  the  two  first  Stuarts}  and  the  latter  was  attended  with 
but  tolerable  success :  but  he  was  now,  he  tells  us,  grown 
ciulous  against  the  impressions  of  public  censure.    He  had> 

VouXVlIL  X 

io6  a  U  M  K 

indeed)  what  he  vroxAd  think  goo4  reason  t^hesa;  fi^r  tbe 
copy-money  given  by  the  booksellers  for  his  histary,  exi- 
ceptionable  as  it  was  deemedy  had  made  him  not  only  in* 
dependent,  but  opulent. 

Being  now  about  fifty,  he  retired  to  Scotland,  deter- 
mined never  more  to  set  his  foot  out  of  it;  and  carried 
with  him  ^'  the  satbfaction  of  never  having  preferred  a 
request  to  one  great  man,   or  even  making  advances  of 
friendship   to   any   of  them/'     But,  while  meditating  to 
spend  the  rest  of  his  life  in  a  philosophical  manner,  he 
received,  in  1763,  an  invitation  from  the  earl  of  Hertford 
to  attend  him  on  his  embassy  to  Paris  ;  which  at  length  be 
accepted,  and  was  left  thepe  charg6  d'affaires  in  the  som- 
.  mer  of  1765.     Tn  Paris,  vyhere  his  peculiar  philosophical 
opinions  were  then  the  mode,  he  met  with  the  most  flatter- 
ing and  unbounded  attentions.     He  was  panegyrised  by 
the  literati,  courted  by  the  ladies,  and  complimented  by 
grandees,  and  even  princes  of  the  bh)od.     In  the  beg^n- 
ning  of  1766  he  quitted  Paris;  and  in  the  summer  of  that 
year  weiit  to.  Edinburgh,  with  the  same  view  as  before,  of 
burying  himself  in  a  philosophical  retreat;  -but,  in  1767, 
he  received   from   Mr.  Conway  a  new  invitation   to   be 
under-secretary  of  state,  which,  like  the  former,  he  did 
not  think  it  expedient  to  decline.     He  returned  to  Editi- 
burgh  in  1769,  "  very  opulent,"  he  says,  **  for  he  pos- 
sessed a  revenue  of  1000^  a  year,  healthy,  and,  though 
somewhat  stricken  in  years,  with  the  prospect  of  enjoying 
long  his  ease«"     In  the  spring  of  1775,  be  was  struck  with 
a  disorder  in  his  bowels ;  which,  though  it  gave  him  no 
alarm  at  first,  proved  incurable,  and  at  length  mortal.     It 
appears,  however^  that  it  was  not  painful,  nor  even  trouble- 
some or  fatiguing :  for  be  declares,  that  <^  notwithstanding 
the  great  decline  of  his  person,,  be  bad  never  suffered  ^ 
moment's  abatement  of  bis  spirits ;  that  he  possessed  tbi& 
same  ardour  as  ever  in. study,  and  the  same  gaiety  in  coob> 
pany  :  insomuch,"  says  he,  *^  that,  were  I  to  name  a  pe- 
riod of  my  life  which  I  should  most  choose  to  pass  over 
^gain,  I  might  be  tempted  to  point  to  this  latter  period..^' 
He  died  August  25,  1776 ;  and  bis  account  of  his  own  life, 
from  which  we  have  borrowed  many  of  the  above  particu'^ 
lacs,  is  dated  only  four  months  p4*evious  tx>  hisdecaaRse. 
As  the  author  was  then  aware  of  the  impossibility  of  a-  re^- 
covery,  this  may  be  considered  as  the  testiipony  of  aTdyiiig 
man  respecting  bis  own  character  and  conduct.     But  vb 

H  U  M  K.  4#r 

lisaplKiiiited  those  who^xpected  to  find  iniit  sdtfife  a^ixkr^ 
ledgment  of  error,  and  some  reiiKn^e  <oji;' r«f)^cftih^-ott* 
the  many  whom  he  had  led  astray  by  his  wrki^.  H'ume, 
however,  was  not  the  man  from  whom-  this  was  to  tte^ex'' 
pected.  He  had  no  religious  principles  Which  he  had  vio^ 
lated,  and  which  his  consdience  mi^ht  now  recath  He 
had  none  of  the  stamina  of  repentance;  From  a  mere  fond^ 
ness  for  speculation,  or  a  love  of  philtf^ophicsd  applause, 
the  least  harmful  motives  we  can  attribute  to  Hume,  it  was 
the  business  of  bis  life,  not  only  to  extirpate  from  the 
human  mind  all*  that  the  good  and  wise  among  mankind 
have  concurred  in  venerating,  the  authority  and  obligations 
of  revealed  religion ;  biit  he  treats  that  authority  and  the 
believers  in,  and  defenders  of  revealed  religion,  with  a 
contempt  bordering  on  abhorrence;  or,  as  has  been  said' 
of  another  modern  infidel,  **  as  if  he  had  been  revenging  a 
personal  injury.''  Hume  early  imbibed  the  principles  of  a 
gloomy  philosophy,  the  direct  tendency  of  which  was  to 
distract  tile  mind  with  doubts  on  subjects  the  most  serious 
and  important,  and,  in  fact,  to  undermine  the  best  in<« 
torests,  and  dissolve  the  strongest  ties  of  society.  Such  is 
ttie  character  of  Hume's  philosophy,  by  one  who  knew  him 
as  intiihat^ly  as  Dr.  Smith  ^,  who  respected  his  talents  and 
his  manners,  but  would  haVe  disdained  to  instilt  wisdom 
and-  Virtue  by  bestowing  the  perfection  of  them  on  the 
studies,  the  conversation,  and  the  correspondence  that  were 
constantly  employed  in  ridiculing  religion.  An6ther  rea- 
son, perhaps,  why  Hume  died  in  the  s»tne  i^tate  of  mind 
in  which  be  had  lived,  gibing  and  jesting,  as  Dr.  Smith 
infertiH  us,  with  the  prospect  of  eternity,  may  be  this, 
that  he  was  -at  the  last  surrounded  by  men  who,  being  of 
nearly  the  same  way  of  thinking,  contemplated  his  end 
with  a  degree  of  satisfaction  ;  or  as  the  triumph  of  pbilp- 
sophy  over  what  he  and  they  deemed  superstition.  Even 
his  clerical  friends,  the  Blairs  and  Robertsons,  who  pro- 
leased  to  know,  to  feel,  and  to  teach  what  Christianity  is, 
appear  to  have  withheld  the  solemn  duties  of  their  office, 
and  by  their  silence  at  least,  acquiesced  in  his  obduracy. 
Bis  social  qualities,  his  wit,  his  acuteness,  and  we  may 

*t^s  Sniith'^  absurd  language  19,  '*  I  perftctif  wise  and  virtnons  mail  *• 

liave  always  eoDsidered  him  both  in  his  perhaps  the  naiare  gf  hinnan  frailtf 

Hfe-time,  and  since  his  death,  as  ap-  will  permit." 
pffMohinf .  M  nc«rly  to  the  idea  of  a 

X  2 


R  U  M  R 

a44y  hi*  ^fuii99  .preserved  to  km  tbe  regavd  of  hds  lemeA 
<;Q|iHjtf|»i|i0mi  i^Hp  foBg^  the  iiifidd  in  tbi»  hUtoiiaft.  ( 

,  it^iuH  ir^^fti^  .Its  »p  MstorHMH  M  peib»|>s  ocdtfliffMUy  M 
ap9lkic»l  writ^fr,  tbAt..Haine.wiU4)rab9My  be  lie«t  Isttownl 
to  poft^rUy;  md  i>.  is  iti  thf»e  capaeui^^  Uuit  he  tuk  be 
r^  wUb  the  gr^test  pbniiMi^  tod.  adVaotage  by  ihe 
frijopds  pf  MHind  ii)oniU  and  religion*  Yet  even  aa  aQ.hi 
toriap,  bi^  has  many  fauHa;.he  does  not  serupk  to  di 
gvUe  ^acts  from  party  leouves^  and  be  never  loses  an  opr 
pcH-jtunity  of  throwing.  oui  bis  eool  iKiepucal  siie«r  at.Gliiis^ 
tiaoiiy»  under  the  names  of  ianatieism  .and  supemiiliaer 
**  When.  Mr.  Hume  rears  the  standard,  ef  infidelity/'  saya 
Gilpipt^^'  be  acts  openly  andboni^stly;  bat  wbenbescatteia 
bis  c^rel^s  insinuations,  as  be  tsaverses^  the  paths  of  his^ 
tory,  we  chamcterize  bim  as  a  dank^  iosidioua  enemy«"  ^ 

HUMPHREY  (LauR£NCB>,  alefiroed  Gngbsb  writer^  was. 
born  at  Newport  PagneU  in  Buekiogbaeishire,  about  li^S7i 
and  bad  bis  school  education  at  Cambridge ;  after  which 
be  became  first  a  demy,  then  a  fellow,  of  Magdalen*college 
in  Oxford.     He  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  in  I552|  and 
about  that  time  was  made  Greek  reader  of  bis  college,  aed 
entered  into  orders.    In  June  1555  be  bad  leave  from  bis 
college  to  travel  into  foreign  countries ;  >  be  wentto  ^ttctcb^; 
apd  associated  himself  with  the  Ebglish  there,  wibo  bad 
fled  from  their  country  on  account  of  their  religion.    After, 
the  death  of  queen  Mary  he  returned  to  England,  and  waa 
restored  to  bis  feUowsbip  in  Magdalen  college^  firom  iriiiob 
be  had  been  expelled  )>ecause  he  did  not  return  within  tbe 
space  of  a  year,  which  was  one  condition  on  'wUcb  he  was 
permitted  to  travd;  another  was,  that  he  should  refrain^ 
from  all  heretical  company.     In  1560  he  was  appointed* 
the  queen's  professor  of  divinity  at  Oxford ;  and  the  year, 
after  elected  president  of  his  college.    In  1562  he  took 
both  the  degrees  in  divinity;  and,  in  1570f  was  madet 
dean  of  Gloucester.     In   1580  he  was  removed  to  the. 
deanery  of  Winchester ;  and  had  probably  been  promoted^ 
to  a  bishopric  if  he  had  not  been  disaffected  to  the  cburob: 
of  England.     For  Wood  tells  us,  that  from  the  city  of^ 
Zurich,  where  the  preaching  of  Zuingiius  had  fashioned 

I  Life  by  bimielf,  prefixed  to  hn  History,  stid  Dr.  SmiUi'f  Letter  onvMs 
deatb*?— Ritcliie't  Life  of  Hniiie.—- Botwell*t  Life  of  JohnsoD,  end  Toor.— i 
Beattie's  Disiertations,  4to,  p.  37.-rLeIand>s  Detstfcal  Writ^i.— >Forbes't  Life  of 
Bevttie.— Tytler't  Life  ef  Kames.— WarbiMrtoa*8  Letters  to  Hardi^-Briti  C»iti%  • 
vol.  JCKXIV.— W«ri(«  of  the  LcWMd  for  1739»  kc  Ice.         \ 

/    t 

HUMPH  R  E  t.  3f<>^ 

plioplif  8  iicMons,  and  fi'om  tbie  cbifrespbnAebi^  bc(  H&d  «rt 
Oenevia,  he*  brought  b^ck  With  him  s6  niueli  df  the  GaK 
Tkiist  both  in  doctrine  and  discipline,  thatr  the  best  ^h!bb 
ctaldfsfe  ^aid  of  him  was,  th^  he  uras  sL  moderate  and  con^ 
seientious  noncotiformnt.    This  was  at  leaist  tbe  opinion 
of  several  divines,  who  used  to  call. him  and  Dr.  Euike  of 
CambHdge,  standard-bearers  among  die  nofftsOnforMfsts ; 
though  othein  thdnght  they  ^rew  more  cofnformkl^te  ii!^  the 
ehd.     Be  this  as  it  will/ « sure  it  is,'»  says  Wodd,  that 
^  Htimphrey  was  a  great  and  genetul  schblar,   an  able^ 
Imgnist,  a  deep  divine ;  and  for  his  exceliency  of  style^' 
exactness  of  niethod,  a(nd  silbstance  of  matter  id' his  writ-' 
itigs,  wenft  beyond  most  of  our  theologists  ♦.**     He  died  in 
Feb.  1590,  N.  S.  leaving  a  wife,  by  whom  he  bad  twelve* 
cfaildiren.     His  writings  are,  1.  *  Epistola  d^Gra^cis  Uteris^ 
et  Honaeti ^ectione  et  imitatione  ;**  printed  before  ii  book' 
oTHadrian  Junius,  entitled  <^  Cornucopias,"  at  Baisil,  1556; 
2;^  De  Religionis  (donservatione  et  reformatione,  dequ^^ 
pYimiatu  regum,  Bas;  1:559.**    S.  *VDe  ratione  interpre-^ 
taiidi  aiictores,  Bas.  1559.**    4.  "Optimattes:  sive  de  nd-/ 
bititate,   ^usqtie  antiqtia  Origine,   &c.**  Bas.   1560.      5. 
^^Jbannis  Juelli  Angli,    Episcopi   Sarisburierisis,  vita  et^ 
mbrs,  ejusque  verfe  doctrinae  defensio,  &e.  Lbnd.1573."' 
6i  '^'Twa  Latin  orations  spoken  before  queen  Eii2abetli ;  1 
one  in  1572,  another  in  1575.**     7.  "Sermons;*'  and  8. 
'^Some  Latin  pieces  against  the  Papists,  Campian  in  par- 
ticular.**    Wood  quotes  Tobias  Matthew,  an  eminent  ar<5hi ' 
bishop,  who  knew  him   welt,   as  declaring,    that    **  Dt/ 
Humphrey  had  read  more  fathers  than  Campian  the  Jesuit; 
ever  saw ;  devoured  more  than  he  ever  tasted  ;  and  taiigbt 
more  in  the  university  of  Oxford,  than  he   had  either' 
Jeafned  or  heard.." ' 

HUNAULD  (Francis  Joseph),  an  eminent  anatomist 
and  physician,  was  born  at  Chateau -Briant,  in  February' 
1701.  His  father  was  a  physician,  and  practised  at  St. 
Malo.  He  studied  first  at  Rennes,  and  afterwards  at  An- 
gers and  Paris,  and  received  the  degree  of  M .  D.  at  Rheims 
in  1722.     On  His  return  to  Paris  he  studied  anatomy  and 

*  Warton  saya  that  about  the  year  -  Christ  Cfaureb»  who  were  capable  of 
1563,  there  were  only  two  divines,  and  preaching  the  puMic^sermont  befinre 
those  or  higher  rank,  the  President  of  the  University  of  Oxford. -*>Hi8tory  of 
Magdaten  eoltese,    and  the  Dean  of    Poetry,  vol.  II.  p.  460. 

\  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Faller's  Abel  Redivivos.— Strype's  Cjranmer»  p.  e|S4, 35S, 
393.— Strype'i  Parker,  pi  11^,  162—165,  IS*,  217. 

*!0  H  UN  A  U  L  D. 

surgery  mthgrpa^  as»tdqity»  under  the  celebrated  teacb^s 
Winiiloif  and'Oq  Vi^ra^y,  ^pd  w^s  sjidniitted  into  the  aca« 
dea^  of  ^penc^s  ip  1724.  Having  been  boooqred  wijtb 
the  appoiptineQit  of  pfiytfician  .to  |:he.du^e  of  JlicbeUeu,  be 
appompi^nijeK)  tt^^t  nojbleri>ai:>  in  his  f^mbassy  to  tbecQ^^^of 
the  emper^CharlesVL.  at  Vienna,  and  ever  aftervmrds 
retained  bia  ^tire  confidence,  and  bad  apartmentn  in  bis 
house.  Qn  .tt)f9^4^ath  of  Qu  Verney,  ip  |.7$0,  ]H[unauld 
waa  appoipfe^  bis-  siiccessor,  as  prqfessor  of  apatqiny  in 
the  )^ij9g's  gard^n^  .^here  be  soon  acquired  a^  reput^ion 
littl^^hort  of .  A^  of  bis  predecessor,  and  found  tb§  ^pa- 
ciaifs  tbes^tjre.overflowipg  with  pupils.  Having  beeii  |Ld- 
n^tted  ^  ,{]iember  of  the  faculty  of  medicine  of  Paris,  be 
piractised  with  great  success,  and  attracted  the  notice  of 
the  court  He  took  a  journfiy  iqto  HolUnd,  where  he 
became  acquainted  with  the  c^lebrat^d  Boerhaave,  with 
wbon^  he  ever  afterwards  maintained  ^friendly  correspond- 
ence; and,  in  n35,  be  visited  London,  where  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  royal  society,  at  one  of  the  meet- 
ings of  which  be  read  some  ^  Reflections  on  the  operation 
for  Fistula  Lacrymalis,*'  which  were  printed  in  the  Trans- 
actions.. He^  ^^9  cut  off  in  the  vigour  of  life  by  a  p9« 
trid  fipver,  in  December  1742,  being  in  bis  forty -second 
year^  The  greater  part  of  his  writings  consist  of  papers, 
wbicb  were  published  in  various  volumes  of  the  memoirs 
of.  the  academy  of  sciences,  between  1729  and  1742  in- 
clusive. Osteology  was  a  favourite  subject  of  bis  enquiry, 
aq^  some  of  the  most  curious  of  his  observations  relate  to 
tbie  .fofrn)atio|i  aqd  growth  of  the  bones  of  the  skull.  He 
likewise  traced  with  great  accuracy  the  lymphatics  of  the 
"lungs  to  the  thoracic  puct,  and  the  progress  of  some  of  (be 
nerves  of  the  thoracic  viscera.  He  published  anonyipou&ly, 
in  1726,  a  critique,  in  the  form  of  a  letter,  on  the  book  pf 
Petit,  relative  to  the  diseases  of  the  bones,  which  occa^ 
sioned  some  coutrqversy,  and  received  the  formal  disap- 
proval pf  the  academy.  H^nauld  had  collected  a  consi- 
derable anatomical  museum,  whjph  ^yas  especially  rich  in 
preparations  illustrative  of  osteplogy  and  the  diseases  of 
the  bones,  and  which  came  into  the  possession  of  the  aca- 
demy after  bis  death.  * 

HUNIADES  (John  Corvinus),  waiwode  of  Transyl- 
▼ania,  and  general  of  the  armies  of  Ladislas,  king  of  HuQ- 


*  Diet.  IIiit.-*Itee8'8  Cyclopadiii. 




l^y^  wts  ^m€  6f  tbfe  jgreatest  comtnanders  6f  bis  tioie.  He 
fought  against  the  Turks  like  a  herd,  and,  in  1442  and 
1443,  gained  important  battles  against  the  generals  of 
Aoittrath ;  and  obliged  that  prince  to  retire  from  Belgrade, 
after  besieging  it  seven  months.  In  the  battle  of  Varnes, 
sofs^  lo  the  Christian  caasre,  and  in  which  Ladislas  fell, 
Corvinus  was  not  less  distinguished  than  in  his  more  for^^ 
tunater  contests;  and,  being  appointed  governor  of  Hun- 
gary, became  proverbially  formidable  to  the  Turks,  In 
1 448,  however,  -  he  suflfered  a  defeat  from  them.  He  was 
more  fortunate  afterwards,  and  in  1456,  obliged  Ma* 
h^ntee  11.  alto  to  relinquish  the  siege  of  Belgrade;  and  died 
Uie  iOAi  of  September  in  the  same  year.  Mahomet, 
though  an  enemy,  had  generosity  enough  to  lament  the 
'  death  ef  so  great  a  man ;  and  pride  enough  to  allege  as 
one  c4use  for  his  regret,  that  the  world  did  nc^t  now  con-^ 
tain  «L  man  against  whom  he  could  deign  to  turn  his  arms, 
'  or  from  whom  he  could  regain  the  glory  he  bad  so  lately 
}o6t  before  Belgrade.  The  pope  is  6aid  to  have  shed  tears 
on  the  news  of  his  death ;  and  Christians  in  general  la-' 
mented  Huniades  as  their  best  defender  against  the  infidels.  ^ 
\  HUNNIUS  (Gli^Es),  a  celebrated  Lutheran  divine,  was 
born  at  Winende,  a  village  in  the  duchy  of  Wirtemburg, 
in  1550.  He  was  educated  at  the  schools  in  that  vitinicy, 
an<l  took  his  degree  tn  arts  at  Tubingen,  in  1567C  Me 
then  applied  himself  earnestly  to  the  study  of  theology, 
and  was  so  remarkable  for  bis  progress  in  it,  that  in  1576 
he  was  made  professor  of  divinity  at  Marpurg.  About  the 
same  period  be  married.  He  was  particularly  zealous 
against  the  Calvinists,  and  not  long  after  this  time  began 
to  write  against  them,  by  which  he  gained  so  much  repu- 
tation, that  in  1592  he  was  sent  for  into  Saxony  to  reform 
that  electorate,  was  made  divinity -professor  at  Wittemburg, 
and  a  member  of  the  ecclesiastical  consistory.  In  these 
offices  he  proved  very  vigilant  in  discovering  those  who 
had  departed  from  the  Lutheran  communion ;  and,  from 
the  accounts  of  the  severities  practised  against  those  who 
would  not  eonform  to  that  rule,  it  appears  that  nothing  less 
tlnwi  a  strong  persecution  was  carried  on  by  him  and  his 
colleagues.  In  1595  he  was  appointed  pastor  of  the  church 
at  Wittemburg,  and  in  the  same  year  published  his  most 
celebrated  polemical  work,  entitled  ^'  Calvious  Judaizans,'* 

1  MorerL— Universal  History. 

nt  HUNI^LU  s,. 

in  ivebicb  ke  job^go*  that  reformer  wkb  ^1  ppmUe^b^^re^lcMU 
At  tbe  sume  time  be  carried  on  a  coatroversy  witb  Hul^ei9M| 
about  predestination  and  election.  Against  CaLvip  be 
wrute  with  tbe  most  intemperate  acrimony.  HunoftiiAiwM 
bresent  at  tbe  conference  at  Ratisbon  in  ISOl,  bj^ween 
the  I^utberans  and  Roman  catbolics.  He  died  of  an. icK 
flammation  broi]^bt  on  by  tbe  stone^  in  April  16103^  His 
wprkf  bave  been  coUeoted  in  five  volumes  s  and  contain^ 
funeral  orations, .  a  calechism,  prayers,  colloquies^  notes 
on  some  of  the  evangelists,  &c.  &c.  HU  acrimony  in 
writing  went  beyond  bis  judgment,  ^ 

HUNT  (J£HBMIAH),  a  dissenting  divine,  was  born  ia 
London  in  167S,  and  was  the  son  of  Benjamin  f Hunt,,  a 
member  of  the.  mercers'  company  in  London.  He  was 
educated  voder  Mn  Tbomas  Rowe,and after  he  bad  fioisbed 
his.  course  with  him,  be  went  first  to  Edinburgh,  and  then 
to  L^yden ;  at  the  latter  place  be  applied  himself  most 
diligently  to  tbe  study  of  the  Hebrew  lakigui^e  and  the 
Jewish  antiquities*  In  Holland  he  preached  to  a  small 
English  congregation,  and  upon  his  return  Jae.  officiated 
some  time  at  Tunstead,  in  Norfolk,*  from  whence  he  re- 
moved to  London  about  1710,  and  was  apfK>inted  |Mstor  of 
the  congregation  at  Pinners*  hall.  In  1729  the  university 
of  Edinbu^rgh  conferred  on  him  the  deforce  of  O.  D.  He 
died  in  1744.  He  was  author  of  several  single  sermons; 
ajid  likewise  of  ^^  An  Essay  towards  explaining  the  History; 
and  Revelations,  of  Scripture  in  their  several  periods;  to 
which  is  annexed  a  dissertation  on  the  Fall  of  Maa*"  After 
his  death  four  volumes  of  bis  *^  Sermons,"  with  tracts, 
were  published,  to  which  was  prefixed  Dr.  LardneeS  Fu<«. 
neral  Sermon  for  him.' 

HUNT  (Stephen),  of  Canterbury,  the  son  of  Mr.  Ni. 
cholas  Hunt  of  that  city  (an  intimate  and  worthy  friend  of 
Arch.  Tillotson,  and  to  whom,  whilst  labouring  under  a. 
cancer,  be  addressed  that  most  excellent  letter  of  consola* 
tion,  printed  in  bis  life  by  Birch,  p«  133),  was  admitted  a 
scholar  of  C.  C.  C.  Cambridge,  Jan.  29,  1693.  Aft«r  ;taki-^ 
ing  the  degree  pf  M.  B.  in  169^,  he  practised  physic  at 
Canterbury,  and  became  a  collector  of  Eoman  coin%  ves?*' 
sels,  and  utensils,  particularly  of  those  about  Recolver  and . 
Ricbborougb,  afber  the  manner  of  archdeacon  Batteley,  in. 

•  Geo.  Diet — Melchior  Adam.— -Freheri  Tbeatrum.— -Saxii  Onomatt. 

*  Lardner's  Funeral  Sermon.— Kijypia's  Life  of  Lar^ner,  p,  11^  33.— Prote9« 
tant  Dissenters'  Magazme,  vol.  If. 

B  U  NT.  31S 

Ms  ^  AMiquitates  Ratopinv;**  all  whicb,  togetherr  wMk 
his  book«  and  maiiusoriptSy  be  bequeathed  to  the  library  of 
that  cathedral.  He  was  eateemed  a  learned  avitiquaiy. 
The  time  of  his  death  is  uncertain  ^ 

'HUNT  (Thomas),  a  learned  Hebraist,  and  Regius  pro* 
feasor  of  Hebitew,  Oxford,  was  born  in  l#96,  but  where 
or  of  what  parents  we  have  noi  been  able  to  learn,  or  in*- 
deed  to  recover  any  particulars  of  his  early  life.  He  was 
educated  at  Hart-hall,  Oxford^  where  he  proceeded  M.  A; 
in  Oct.  26,  1721)  and  was  one  of  the  first  four  senior  fel- 
lows or  tntorS)  when  the  society  was  made  a  body  corporate 
and  politic* under  the  name  of  Hertford  college;  and  he 
took  hki  degree  of  B.  D.  in  (743,  and  that  of  D,  D.  in 
1744.  His  first  literary  publication,  which  indicates  the 
betit'Of  his  studies,  was  **  A  Fragment  of  Hippolytus, 
taken  out  of  two  Arabic  MSS.  in  the  Bodleian  library,'* 
printed  in  the  fourth  volume  of  *^  Parker's  Btbliotheca 
BibHca^'*  1728,  4to.  In  1738:  he  was  elected  Laudian 
pTofiassor  of  Arabic,  which  he  r^ained  the  whole  of  his 
life,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  late  Dr.  Joseph  White. 
In  tbe  following  year  be  delivered  in  the  schools,  a  Latin 
speech  **  De  antiquitate,  elegantia,  utilitate.  Linguae  Ara«* 
bicse,"  published  the  same*  year ;  and  another  *^De  usu 
Dialectorum  Orientalium,  ac  prsBcipue  Arabics,  in  He- 
braicocodioe  interpretando,*'  which  waspublished  in  1748. 
In  1746  he  issued  proposals  for  printing  '<  Abdollatiphi 
Historise  ^gypti  compendium,"  with  a  full  account  of  that 
worky  which,  however,  he  never  published.  The  sub-^ 
scribers  were  recompensed  by  receiving  in  lieu  of  it  his 
posthumous  *^  Observations  on  tbe  Book  of  Proverb^,^* 
edited  by  Dr.  Kenni6ott  after  his  death. 

In  1747,  Dr.  Hunt  was  appointed  regius  professor  of 
Hebrew,  and  consequently  canon  of  the  sixth  stall  in  Christ 
church.  He  had  in  1740  been  elected  a  fellow  of  the  royal 
society,  and  was  also  a  fellow  of  that  of  antiquaries.  In 
J  757,  as  we  have  noticed  in  tbe  life  of  bishop  Hooper,  he 
puMtshed  the  works  of  that  prelate,  in  the  preface  to  which 
he  represents  himself  as  ^*  one  who  had  received  many  ob- 
ligstioiis  from  his  lordship,  was  acquainted  with  bis  fa;nily, 
atid  had  been  fbrmerly  intrnsted  by  him  with  the  care  of 
publishing  one  of  his  learned  works,"  viz.  ^^  De  Benedic- 
tione  patriarchal  Jacobi,  conjecturae,*'  Oxon.    1728^  4to; 

>  Muiere's  Hist,  of  Corpui  Chritti  Coliege,  Cambridgtw 

S14  HUN  T. 

by  the  preface  to  which  it  appears  that  biibop  Hoopei^  was 
one  of  his  early  patrons.  Of  this  only  100  copies  were 
printed  as  presents  to  friends^  but  it,  is  included  in  the 
bishop's  works.  .  ' 

.  Dr.  Hunt's  epistolary  correspondence  both  at  home  and 
abroad,  was  considerable.  Some  of  his  letters  are  to  be 
found  in  <<  Doddridge's  Letters,"  published  by  StedmaQ. 
He  frequently  mentions  his  <^  Egyptian  History i^'  and  his 
**  attendance  on  Abdoliatiph/'  as  engrossing  much  of  his 
time.  He  also  highly  praises  Dr.  Doddridge's  ^'  Rise  and 
Progress  of  Religion,"  and  his  ^^  Life  of  colonel  Gardiner/* 
In  1759  Dr.  Kennicott  dedicated  his  secoad  volume  on  the 
**  State  of  the  printed  Hebrew  text  of  the  Old  Testament^* 
to  his  much  respected  friend  Dr.  Hunt,  to  whom  he  stood 
**  indebted  for  bis  knowledge  of  the  very  elements  of  the 
Hebrew  language."  Aniquetil  du  Perron,  the  French  orien* 
talist,  having  made  some  unhandsome  reflections  on  Dr. 
Hunt,  the  celebrated  sir  William  Jones,  then  a  student  at 
Oxford,  repelled  these  by  a  shrewd  pamphlet,  publiiheid 
iq  177 1,  entited  ^^  Lettre  a  monsieur  A[nquetil  du  P(erron) 
4ans  laquelle  est  compris  I'examen  de  sa  traduction  dea 
livres  attribues  a  Zoroastre." 

Among  Dr.  Hunt's  intimate  friends  was  Dr.  Gregoiy 
Sbarpe,  who  sought  his  acquaintance  and  highly  prized  it, 
and  their  correspondence  was  frequent  and  affectionate. 
Dr.  Hunt  not  only  promoted  Dr.  Sharpe's  election  into  the 
royal  society,  but  was  a  liberal  and  able  assistant  to  him  in 
bis  literary  undertakings.  When,  however.  Dr.  Sbarpe 
published  his  edition  of  Dr.  Hyde's  Dissertations  in  176.7, 
no  notice  was  taken  of  these  obligations ;  and  the  reason 
assigned  is  Dr.  Hunt's  having  declined  a  very  unreasonable 
request  made  by  Dr.  Sharpe,  to  translate  into  Latin  a  long 
English  detail  of  introductory  matter.  Such  treatment 
Dr.  Hunt  is  said  to  have  mentioned  ^  to  his  friends,  with 
as  much  resentment  as  his  genuine  good-nature  would*  per* 
mit."  This  very  learned  scholar,  who  had  long  been 
afflicted  with  the  graVel,  died  Oct.  31,  1774,  aged  seventy* 
eight,  and  was  buried  in  the  north  ailejoining  to  the  body 
of  the  cathedral  of  Chrisr-cburch,  with  an  inscription  ex«> 
pressing  only  his  name,  offices,  and  time  of  his  death. 
His  library  was  sold  the  following  year  by  honest  Daniel 
Prince  of  Oxford..  In  that  same  year  Dr.  Kennicott  pub* 
lished  a  valuable  posthumous  work  of  his  friend,  entitled 
*^  Observations  on  several  passages  in  the  Book  of  Proverbs, 

with  two  Sec mpnt.  •  By  Tbpnaas  Hutu,"  &c,  4lo.  A  con*- 
siderable  part  of  jthis ,  work  was  printed  before  bis  death  ; 
4od  the  only  i^eason^iy^a.wby  he  bim^f  did  not  finish  it, 
was,  that  he  wa^.r^niAK-Jiably  ti[n,or9^,  and  distrustful  of 
his  own  judgment;;  ^nd  tjiat^  in  his  declining  yeacs,  he 
grew  more  and  i^opvp  fearful  of  the  severity  of  public  criti- 
cism, for  whicji  he.cei^taiiily  had  littk  cause,  bad  this  been 
his  only  publicatiof)..  His.  character,  i^.  an  Orientalist,  had 
been  fully  estabKshed  4>y,his  fprmer  works ;  and  be  justly 
retained  it  to  the^  clof e  of  his- .  lite,  leaving  tbe  learned 
world  only  to  regret  that  be  did  not  engage  in  some  grand 
and  critical  work,  or  that  he  did  not  complete  an  edition 
of  Job  which  he  had  long  intended.' 

HUNTER  (Christopher),  an  eminent  physician  and 
antiquary  of  Durham,  was  the  son  of  Thomas  Hunter, 
gent,  of  Medomsley,  in  tbe  county  of  Durham,  where  he 
was  born  in  1675  :  he  was  educated  at  the  free-school  of 
Houghton- le-Spring,  founded  by  tbe  celebrated  Bernard 
Gilpin,  and  was  admitted  of  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge, 
where  he  continued  until  he  had  taken  bis^  bachelor's  degree 
in  1698..  In  1701  be  received  a  faculty  orJicence  from 
Dr.  John  Brookbank,  spiritual  chanc<E;llor  at  Durham,  to 
practice  physic  through^ the  whole  diocese  of  Durham. 
After  some  years  he  removed  to  the  city  of  Durbam ;  and 
though  he  pubhshed  little,  was  always  ready  to  assist  in  any 
literary  undertaking.  He  is  acknowledged  by  Mr.  Horsley 
and  Mr.  Gordon  to  be  very  exact  and  masterly  in  the  know- 
ledge o(  antiquities.  Dr.  Wilkins  mentions  him  with  re- 
spect in  the  preface  to  the  first  volume  of  bis  *^  Councils," 
to  which  he  furnished  some  materials;  and  Mr.  Bourne  was 
much  indebted,  to  him  in  compiling  his  **  History  of  New<- 
castle''  He  published, a  new  edition  of  <^  The  Ancient 
Hites  and  Monuments  of  tb^  chiirch  of  Durbam,"  1733, 
without  his  name ;  and  a  xurious,  and  now  very  scarce' 
work,  entitled  '*  An  Illustration  of  Mr.  Daniel  Neale's 
History  of  tbe  Puritans,  in  tbe  article  of  Peter  Smart,  M.  A. 
from  original  papers,  with  remarks."  1736,  8vo.  In  April 
1743,  be  published  proposals  for  printing  by  subscription, 
in  .:;  vols.  4to.  ^' Antiquitates  Parochiales  Dioc.  Dunelm. 
hucusque  ineditse,*'  but  no  further  progress  appears  to  have 
been  made.     Perhaps  this  might  be  owing  to  an  unfortu- 

1  Gent.  Mag.  LXXI. — Doddridge's  Letter^ .--^Nichols*!  Bowyer.<^MS  eor- 
respondence  with  Dr.  Sharpe,  in  the  possession  of  the  Editor. 

3^16  H  U  l^T'E  IL 

>  » 

Date  accidMt  he  met  wiA,  hi  ^estrehing  tte  arehireii  x^  tihe! 
ciLtbedml,  where  b6  spilt  ft  bottlifc  of  ink  ait  'the  eelebmed 
copy  of  Magna  Charta,  ami  was  ftdvet  afterivsfdft  jNinntttJeU 
to  come  there.  In  1757  be  retired  ftom^Dufl^ain)  with 
bis  family^  to  Untbank,  an  estate  belonging  to  his  \i^ife^  iti^ 
Shotley  parish,  Nonhaniberland,  where  be  died  Jiilfy  IS; 
of  that  year,  and  was  buried  in  iSfaotley  church.' 

HUNTER  (Henry),  a  popular  preacher  and  writer,  was^ 
born  at  Culross,  in  Perthshire,  in  174t.    'Re  hdd  the  best' 
education  that  the  circumstances  of  his  parents  would  per- 
mit, and  at  the  age  of  thirteen  was  sent  to  the  uniVerBity 
of  Edinburgh,  where,  by  his  taints  and  profidencjr,  he 
attracted  the  notice  of  the  professors,  and  when  he  left 
Edinburgh  he  accepted  the  office  of  tutor  to  lord  Dtm« 
donald's  sons  at  Culross  abbey.    In  \764  he  was  lic6tk^d 
to  preach,  having  passed  the  several  trials  with  great  ap* 
plause :  and  very  quickly  became  muth  followed  on  ac- ' 
count  of  his  popular  talents.    He  was  ordained  in  1766, 
and  was  appointed  minister  of  South  Leith.    On  a  visit  to 
London  in  1769,  he  preached  in  most  of  the  iScotch  meet- 
ing-houses with  great  acceptance,  and  soon  alter  his  re- 
turn he  received  an  invitation  to  become  pastor  of  the  Scotch 
church  in  Swallow-iftreet,  which  he  declined;  but  in  1771 
he  removed  to  London,  and  undertook  the  pastoral  office 
in  the  Scotch  church  at  London-wall.     He  appeared  first 
as  an  author  id  1783,  by  the  commencement  of  his  <'  Sa- 
cred Biography,**  which  was  at  length  extended  to  seven 
volumes  octavo.    While  this  work  was  in  the  course  of  pub-  * 
Iication,he  engaged  in  the  translation' of  Lavater*s  ''Essays 
on  Physiognomy,^'  and  in  order  to  render  his  work  as  com- 
plete as  possible,  be  took  a  journey  into  Swisserland>  for  ' 
the  purpose  of  procuring  information  from  Lavater  himself. 
He  attained,  in  some  measure,  his  object,  though  the  au- 
thor did  not  receive  him  with  the  cordiality  which  he  ex- 
pected, suspecting  that  the  English  version  must  injure  the 
sale  of  the  French  translation.    The  first  number  of  this 
w<Mrk  was  published  in  1789,  and  it  watf  finished  in  a  style 
worthy  the  improved  state  of  the  arts.    From  diis  period 
Dr.  Hunter  sp^nt  much  of  his  time  in  translating  different 
works  from  the  French  language.     In  1790  he  was  elected 
secretary  to  the  corresponding  board  of  the '^^  Society  for 
propagating  Christian  Knowledge  in  the  Highlands  ana 

'  Nicbola's  Bowyor. 

B  ir  N  T  B  ft 


Uimi^  qI,  Scc^VkiHl.'*  Hftn^  likairiae  cbsijdaiii  Vfk  i^ 
<<  ;SifoM^  QjoirppratmA;'*  m4  )botb  ulieiie.  iDpiUiaiQiyi  nrone 
omqb  bw^&ted  )>7 .  Us  sfalaus  ;emKftUHM  «»  their  behalft 
ta  Ii79<s;y  bei.publiib^  iwaivs^liHMs  of  fSe^^^  md  ia 
1799  be  g^vfe  tb«  ivoffld  4ighl  ^'  lieefturoftion  tbe.  &ridMcfi$ 
of  |CbKi«ti«<^il]r»V  b#iog  tib#  oQwpiisti0n4il  a  p\m  begun  by 
Air;  fi'fBll.  Tb^  wbol^  (PQot»i^  a  poi^liHr  <  ao4  U9efi>l  qIik^^ 
dikf;MH>:.of  tbf  prw&.ia  famur  of  ibe  CbriMian  jreligion^ 
mmg  «^Kn  i^  iDjtermd  evidence^  it%  beiiefifii«Ji  iniaenoe^ 
ajlid  tbe  eiiqfifdpr.i^iie  of  tb^  infonnfitian  wbicb  it  ooDviejfi 
yiilk  f^9fi^i%Q  itmAty*  During  die  latter  years  of  Ub 
Uff^  Qr»  ilivMer^Ji  ^eooslifeaitiQii  jNiflfared  t]fte  jeverest  abecks 
kgm  4i?  Wv  Aif  tJuree  ehitdrent  nvbiGb^  wUb  other  eauifiv^ 
cootrifrttlfd  to. reader  bim  uoable  to  nrithstaiid.tbe  aAtacka 
of,4W^Me^  He  died  at  tbe  Hot^^Welk,  Bristol^  on  thd 
27tb  of  Qetober>  )902>  in  tbe'<>i3d  y»ar.  of  1»m  age.  Br; 
limiter  .waa  a^nan  of  iearoiag :  bia  .vittngs  are  doquenty 
ai»d  :^w  boMf  well  he  bad  studied  huuian  nature.  In  the 
pu)pi(.  bia  flaaaner  waa  unaffected,  aolemn»  and  impresatro; 
He  indulged  bis  liberal  and  frieedly  he;^rt  in  the  exercise 
of  bospitali^,  ^barity>  and  tbe  pleasoresof  scicial  intet'4 
oomae^  b«t  tbe  latter  freqiieatly  beyond  tbe  liiaits  wbicb  a 
regard  to  prudeece  and  economy  should  have  prescribed^ 
He  was  tbe  translator  of  ^^  Letters  of  Eiiler  to  a  Geipnian 
Priecess,;Qn  diffiereot  subjects  in  Physic^  and  Philosophy;'' 
''  The  Studies  of  Nature  by  St  Pierre;'*  <'  Saurin's  Ser-» 
mens;''  <*  Sonaioi's  Tra;rds."  Miscellaneous  pieces  and 
sermona  of  bis  own  have  been  published  since  his  deaths  to 
which  are  prefixed  memoira:  from  the»  the  foregoing  par*> 
tiqiuUurs  bo^ve  been  taken.  Dr.  Hunter^  about  1196  or  7»! 
bi^an  **  A  History  of  luoitdon  and  its  Environs,"  whieh^ 
came. out  in  parts,  but  did  little  credit  to  him,,  as  he  evi- 
dently had  no  taleiits  or  reseajrob  for  a  work  of  this  de-^ 

HUNTER  (WiLliUM>  M.  D.)»  an  eminent  anatomist  and: 
physician,  was  bora  May  23,  1718,  at  Kilbride  in  the- 
county  of  Lanark.    He  was  the  seventh  of  ten  ebildren  e 

*  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LXXII.— Reel's  Cyclopedia. 

^  These  were,  John,  Elizabeth,  An-  to  London  in  1743,  with  an.  inteatioii 
drew,  Janet,  James,  Agnes,  William,  to  study  anatomy  under  bis  brother 
0on>thea,  Isabella,  and  John.  Of  the  William,  but  was  prevented  from  pur- 
sons,  John  the  eldest,  and  Andrew*  died  soing  thi«  plan  by  ill  bealtb,  which  in- 
young;  James,  horn  in  1715,  was  a  duced  him  to  return  to  Long  Cald^r* 
writer  to  the  signet  at  Edinburgh,  who,  wood«  where  he  died  soon  ^fter,  aged 
dislikingthe profession ofthe law, came  28 years;  John,  the  yoiingeft»  is  tha 


318  11  tl  JJ  f  B 

bf  Jdhn  and  Agnes  Hunter^  whd  resided  on  a  small  es^e 
in  that  parish,  called  Long  Oatderwood,  which  had  long^ 
been  in  the  posseswion  of  his  family.  His  grreat  grand^^ 
father,  byfais  fiither^s  side,  was  a  younger  son  of r  Hunter 
of  Hunterston,  chief  of  the  family  of  that  name.  Atth^ 
age  of  fourteen,  his  father  sent  him  to  the  c<dlege  of  Qhats^^ 
gow ;  where  he  passed  five  years,  and  by  bis  prudent  be«- 
haviour  and  diligence  acquired  the  esteem  of  the  profesaors^' 
and  the  reputation  of  being  a  good  scholar.  Kh  HAer 
had  designed  him  for  the  church,  -but  «be  necessity  of  sub- 
scribing to  articles  of  &ith  was  to  him  a  strong  objection. 
In  this  state  of  mind  he  happened  to  become  acquainted' 
with  Dr.  Cullen,  who  was  then  just  established  in  practice 
at  Hamilton,  nnder  the  patronage  of  the  duke  of  Hamilton: 
By  the  conversation  of  Dr.  Culi^n,- he  was  soon  determined 
to  devote  himself  to  tlie  profession  of  physic.  His  father's^ 
consent  having  been  previously  obtained,  he  went,  in  17S7. 
to  reside  with  Dr.  GuUen.  In  the  &mily  of  this  excellent 
friend  and  preceptor  he  passed  nearly  three  years,  and 
these,  as  he  has  been  often  heard  ^to  acknowledge,  were 
the  happiest  years  of  his  life.  It  was  then  agreed,  that  be 
•hould  prosecute  his  medical  studies  at  Edinburgh  and 
London,  and  afterwards  return  to  settle  at  Hamilton,  in 
partnership  with  Dr.  Cullen. 

Mr.  Hunter  set  out  for  Edinburgli  in  N6v.  -1740,  and 
continued  there  till  the  following  spring,  attending  the 
lectures  of  the  medical  professors,  and  amongst  Others  thos6 
of  the  late  Dr.  Alexander  Monro.  Hearrivedin  London  iif 
the  summer  of  1741,  and  took*  op  his  •  residenci^  at  Mr. 
(afterwards  Dr.)  Smellie's,  who  was  at  that  time  an  apothe^^ 
cary  in  Pall-mall.  He  brought  wiA  him  a  letter  of  recorn-^ 
mendation  to  his  countryman  Dr.  James  Douglas,  from  Mr. 
Fotdis,  printer  at  Glasgow,,  who  had  Ueen  useful  to  the 
doctor  in  collecting  for  him  different  editions  of  Horace. 
Dr.  Douglas  was  then-  intent  on  a  great  anatomical  work*  on 
the  bones,  which  he  did  not  live  to  complete,  and  was 
looking  out  for  a  young  man  of  abilities  and  industry  whom 
he  might  employ  as  a  dissecter.  This  induced  him  to  pay 
particular  attention  to  Mi:.  Hunter;  and  finding  him  acute 

subject  of  the  ensuing  article. — Of  the  James  Baillie,  D.  D.  professor  ofdlrU 

daughters,  Elizabeth,  Agnes,  and  Isa-  niiy  in  the  university  of  Glasgow,  l^y 

bdia,  died  young;  Janet  married  Mr.  whom  she  had  a  son  Matthew  Baitlie, 

Buchanan  of  Glasgow,   and   died   in  now  a  very  eminent  physician,   ati4 

1749;  Dorothea  married  the  late  ver.  two  daujjhtrrs. 

H  U  N  T  £  IL  9t# 

md  sensible^  he  after  a  short  time  iitvited  htm  itito  his  h^* 
mily,  to  assist  in  his  dissections,  and  to  superintend  the 
education  of  bis  son.  Mr.  Hunter  barring  commnaiGaited 
this  offer  to  his  father  and  Dr.  CuUen,  the  latter  nsltdily 
and  heartily  gave  bis  concurrence  to^^it^  but  his  father, 
who  was  very  old  and  infirm,  and  expected  his  return  with 
impatience,  consented  with  reluctance.  His  father  did  ndl 
long  survive,  dying  Oct.  30  following,  aged  7S.> 
' '  Mr.  Hunter,,  having  accepted  ^  Dr.  Douglas's  invitatioO| 
was  by  hisfriendly  assistance  enabled  to  enter  himself  asa 
surgeon^s  pupil  at  St.  George's  hospital  under  Mr.  James 
Wilkie,  and  as  a  dissecting- pupil  under  Dr.  Frank- Nichols, 
who  at  that  time  taught  anatomy  with  considerable  reputa* 
tkm.  He  likewise  attended  a  course  of  lectures  on  expe« 
rimental  philosophy  by  Dr.  Desaguliers.  Of  these*  means 
of  improvement  he  did  not  fail  to  make  a  proper  use.  He 
soon  became  expert  in  disseetton,  and  Dr.  Douglas  was  at 
tbe  ex  pence  of  having  several  of  his  preparations  engraved. 
But  before  many  months  had  elapsed,  he  bad  the  hiisfor* 
tune  to  lose  this  excellent  friend.  Dr..  Douglas  died  April 
1,  \74Qf  in  his  67th  year,  leaving  a  widow  and  two  chiU 
dren.  The  death  of  Dr.  Douglas,  however,  made  no 
^ange  in  his  situation.  He  continued  (o  reside  with  the 
doctor's  family,  and  to  pursue  his  studies  with  the  same 
diligence  as  before.  In  1743  he  communkwced  to  the 
royal  society  <<  An  Essay  on  the  StructcHre  and  Diseases  of 
articulating  Cartilages."  This  ingenious  paper,  on  a  sub^ 
ject  which  till  then  had:  not  been  sufficiently  investigated^ 
affords  a  striking  .testimony  of .  the  rapid  progress  he  had 
made  in  his  anatomical  inquiries.  As  he  had  it  in  contem-* 
plation  to  teach  anatomy,  his  attention  was  directed  prin< 
cipally  to  this  object ;-  and  it  deserves  to  be  mentioned  as 
an  additional  mark  of  his  prudence,  that  he  did  not  pre- 
cipitately engage  in  this  attempt,  biit  passed  several  years 
in  acquiring  such  a  degree  of  knowledge,  and  such  a  col- 
lection of  preparations,  as  might  insure  himsuccess*  After 
waiting  some  time  for  a  favourable  opening,  he  succeeded 
Mr.  Samuel  Sharpe  as  lecturer  to  a  private  society  of  sur« 
geons  in  Covent-garden,  began  his  lectures  in  their  rooms, 
and  soon  extended  his  plan  from  surgery  to  anatomy.  This 
undertaking  commenced  in  the  winter  of  1746.  He  is  said 
to  have  experienced  much  solicitude  when  he  began  to 
speak  in  public,  but  applause  soon  inspired  him  with  cou- 
rage ;  and  by  degrees  he  became  so  fond  of  teaching,  that 


H  y  If  T  £  R« 

£or  many  y^Ars  \mfyre  bis  dfntb  he  was  nevscr  h^j^pmr  tbM 
wiien  employed  in  deliYeriag  a  lecture. 

The  .pro&ta  of  bis  two  firtt  cotHTses  were  considerables 
but  by  contributing  to  the  wants  of  different  friends,  be 
found  himself  at  the  return  of  the  next  season^ 
d^r  his  lectures  for  a  fortnight,  merely  because  he  had 
not  money  to  ddray  the  necesaaiy  espenoe  of  advertisi^ 
ments.  This  circumstance  taught  turn  to  be  moi)e  «eaenred 
in  this  respect  In  1747  he  was  admitted,  a  mraiber.  of 
the  corporation  of  surgeons,  and  in  the  spciug  (tf  the  Uk^ 
lowinfg  year,  soon  after  the  close  of  his  leotures,  he  set 
out  in  company  with  his  pupil,  Mr*  James  Douglas,  on- a 
tour  through  Holland  to  Paris.  His  lectures  sufiered  no 
interruption  by  thk  journey,  as  he  returned  to  England 
soon  enough  to  prepajre  for  his  winter  course,  whidi  began, 
about  the  usual  time.  At  first  he  practised  both  surgery 
and  midwifery,  but  the  former  he  always  disliked ;  and, 
being  elected  one  of  the  surg^on-men-midwiYes  first  to  the 
Middlesex,  and  aoon  afterwards  to  the  British  lying-in 
hoapital,  and  recommended  by  se?eral  of  the  most  emi-^ 
neot  ftttcgeoos  of  that  time,  his  line  was.  thus  determined. 
Over  his  countryman,  Dr.  SaseUie,  notwithstanding  his 
great  experience,  and  the  reputation  he  had  jostly  ac* 
quired,  he  had  a  great  advantage  in  person  and  address. 
The  most  lucrative  part  of  the  practice  of  midwifery  was 
at  that  time  in  the  hands  of  sir  Rachard  Manningham  and 
Dr.  Sandys.  The  fi>rmer  of  these  died,  and  the  latter  re« 
tired  into  the  country  a  few  years  after  Mr.  Hunter  began 
to  be  known  in  midwifery.  AUboUgb  by  these  incidents 
he  was  established  in  the  practice  of  OMdwiferyy .  it  is  well 
known  that  in  proportion  as  his  reputation  increased,  his 
ofiinion  was  eagerly  sought  in  all  cases  where  any  light 
concerning  the  seat  or  nature  of  any  disease,  could  be  ex* 
pected  from  an  intimate  knowledge  of  anatomy.  In  17^0 
he  obtained  the  degree  of  M.  D.  from  the  university  of 
Glasgow,  and  began  to  practise  as  a  physician.    About 

*  Mr.  Wation,  F.  R.  S.  who  was 
one  of  Mr.  Hanter't  earliMt  pupils, 
a^ponptnied  him  boiiM  after  hit  ia- 
trodoctory  lacture.  Mr.  Uuoter»  who 
bad  receired  about  seventy  (uinead 
from  hit  pupils,  and  bad  got  tbe  nO- 
ney  ii|  a  bag  under  bia  cloak*  obterved 
to  Mr.  Walton*  tbat  it  was  a  latger 
«um  Uian  be  had  ever  been  master  of 
before.    Dr.  Pulteoef ,<  **  Life  ot 

Linoaui,"  baa  not  tbougbt  it.  supeiw 
flttous  to  reooid  the  slander  begioninf 
ftom  which  that  graalaataralist  rote  tt 
ease  and  aSioeoce  in  life.  "  Exivi 
patria  triginti  sex  nummis  aiireisdives»" 
are  •  Linn«us's  own  words.  Anecdotea 
of  this  sort  deserTe  to  bo  ffooorded»  m 
an  encouragemeat  to  young  men,  who, 
«ith  great  merit,  happen  to  possesA 
but  tilde  advantages  (2  fortune. 

HUNTER.  iai 


Ak  lime  he  quitted  the  family  of  Mrs,  Douglas,  and  went 
to  reside  in  Jermyn-street.  In  the  summer  of  1751  he 
revisited  his  native  country,  for  which  he  always  retained 
a  cordial  affection.  His  mother  was  still  living  at  Long 
Oalderwood>  which  was  now  become  his  property  by  the 
doath  of  bis  brother  James.  Dr.  CuUen,  for  whoni  he  always 
entertained  a  sincere  regard,  wais'then  established  at  Glasgow. 
During  this  visit,  he  shewed  his  attachment  to  his  little 
piateroal  inheritance,  by  giving  many  instructions  for  re-* 
pairiDg  and  improving  it,  and  for  purchasing  any  adjoining 
laada  thatmight  be  oflered  for  sale.  As  he  and  Dr.  Cullen 
were  riding  one  day  in  a  low  part  of  the  country,  the  lat- 
ter poiYiting  out  to  him  Long  Calderwood  at  a  considerable " 
cfistatdce,  reoiarked  how  conspicuous  it  appeared.  ^'Weli,''' 
fakl  he,  with  some  degree  of  energy,  ^*  if  I  live,  I  shall 
make  it  still  more  conspicuous.*'  After  his  journey  to 
Scotland,  *  to  which  he  devoted  only  a  few  weeks,  he  was 
never  absent  from  London,  unless  his  professional  en4 
gagements,  as  sometimes  happened,  required  his  attend* 
ance  at  a  distance  from  the  capitaL 

In  1762  we  find  him  warmly  engaged  in  controversy^ 
supporting  his  claim  to  different  anatomical  discoveries,  in 
a  work  entitled  *<  Medical  Commentaries,'*  the  style  of 
whieh  it  corr^t  and  spirited*.  As  an  excuse 'for  the  tar- 
diness with  which  he.  brought  forth  this  work,  be  observes 
in  his  introduction,  that  it  requited  a  good  dealof  time.' 

*  In  hit  **llediearCoiDiiieii(8riefy'  ^  Mr.  Mbgnezi  in  the  iBeimd  tditioo  of 

to  which  8  *'  Sappl«meotV  was  after-  a  work.entitled  **  L'Ana^inie  du  Corpi 

wanlfl  added,  he  ;iapported  the  pr\or\tf  der  I'Homme  eh  abr^f  ^,^*  printed  at 

of  hii  diacoterjet:  over  thoie  of  >  Or*  Patia.    Who  may  have  first  sncceeded 

ifimvo,  jon.  proifeaior  of  anatomy  at  in  a  lacky  iDJection»  wen^  a  niatter 

£dinhorgh,  in  respect  to  the  duets  of  scarcely  worthy  of  contest;  bat  Dr. 

the  Inebrymal-  s)ands»  i^jectiops  of  the  Hunter  was  extremely  tenacious  of  any 

taaMe,  the  erigtn  and  use  o^tbe  ly m-  elaima  of  this  kindt  and  would  not  anf» 

phatic  Tessela*  and  absorption  by  veins,  fer  the  interference  eren  of  his  own 

There  is,  however,  sOme  difficulty  in  brother.    Some   papers;    in    which  a 

adjintiag  the  claims  of  contemporary  claim  of  Mr^  John  Hunter,  relative  to 

anatondists.    The  great  doctrine  of  the  tbe  connection  between  the  placenta, 

absorbent  action  of  the  lymphatic  sys*  and  nterus,  was  dfsputed  by  ihe  doc* 

tern,  which  is  now  fully  received,  at  tor  in   1*780,  are  preserved  in  the  ar* 
least  by  the  anatomists  of  Oreat  Bri->    'chtves  of  the  royal  society,     la  the 

taittf  was  taught  and  illnitrated  at  the  *'  Commentaries"  there  are  alsO  some 

same  time  in'  the  fthools  of  London  observations  on  the  in»ensibi!ity  of  the 

and'offSdinborgh,  and'exeveijiedthein*  dura  mater,  periosienm/ tendons,  and 

genolty  of  Hunter,  >  Monro,  Hewson,  ligaments,  ar  taught  with  some  slight 

Cmikshaakr   and     other   anatomists.  '  difference   by  '  Ualler ;    and    ijikewise 

But  Dr«  SiiiSmOna  baa  shewn,  that  the  «<  Observations  on  the  Sfat^  of  the  1*estfs 

prinoipal  points  of  tHiis  s]|i|^ni  had  inthePtetni,  and  on  the  Hernia  Con- 

heen  itated  no  long  ago  as  tT^,  by  genita,  by  Mr.  John  Hunter.'* 

vou  xvni.  .    Y 

9^  h^  h^4  UttU  lo  9par»e ;  that  tb#  sul]|^t  wis  unpies* 
fi^t,  aqd  theref^e  be  wa^  very  9iiJdQni  in  tii»e  buiooar 
^>  uli^  it  iup.  In  17«29  ffrhea  Q«f  preseoi  e^^^lent  ^em 
became  p^egnaQjt,  Dr.  Hunter  was  cojoi^uliisAt  And  Iwo 
year$  after  be  bad  the  bai>ptNr  U9  be  appointed  {ri^yaiciao* 
extraordinary  to  ber  q^ajesty.  Abput  tbia  tiioe  bis  aFQcta- 
tiQQs  were  so  t^um^PW,  tbat  be  becwie  desiooiM  of  lea** 
p^niqg  bis  fadgue^  «iid  baTiog  noticed  tbe  ingenuity  and 
asaidwu;^  appTicaliofi  ^f  ^  Is^e  Mr»  WilUam  Kewa^iii; 
F.  K.  S.  who  was  tbeo  one  of  bi«  pupils,  be  engaged  hiiOy 
fir^t.  a_9  ain  a$ai3ta]94t,  and  afteniards  as  a  partner  in  bis  lee* 
t^^s.  This  eoAne<Qtioii  continued  tiH  1770,  wbeosooie 
disputes  happened)  wbi^b  termiaated  in  a  separation^  (See 
Hewson].  Mr«  ^ewaoo  was  succeeded  in  the  partnei^p 
by  Mr.  Ci'pikahank,  whoee  anatomical  abilities  were  de- 
aervedly  respeicted. 

Ap^l  30)  17^7,  Dr.  Hunter  was  elected  F.  R«  S.  and  the 
year  folio wifig  Goa)Knupicated  to  that  leaned  body  ^  ^^  Ohr 
aervationsom  tbe  Bones  commonly  supposed  to  be  Ele^ 
phants'  bpneS)  which  hare  been  found  near  the  river  Ohio 
in  AmerM^a^i^'  This  was  not  the  only  subject  of  natural 
history  on  whicb  Dr.  Hunter  employed  his  pen ;  for  in  a 
aubs^qiient  froluipe  of  the  ^^  Philosophical  Transactions)^ 
we  find  bi^A  offering  his  ^*  Remarks  on  isome  Bones  foiamd 
m  the  BocfL  of  Gibraltar,''  which  he  proves  to  have  be- 
longed to  some  quadruped.  In  the  same  work|  likewise^ 
he  published  an  account  of  the  NyUghau,  an  Indian  ani- 
mal not  described  before,  and  which,  from  its  strength 
and  swiftness,  promised,  he  thought,  to  be  an  useful  ac- 
quUition  to  this  country. 

In  1768,  Dr.  Hunter  became  F«  S.  A.  and  the  sam^ 
year,  at  the  institution  of. a  royal  academy  of  arts,,  he  was 
appointed  by  bis  majesty  to  the  office  of  professor  of  ana- 
tomy. This  appointmeat  opened  a  new  field  for  his  abl- 
lities  ;  and  he  engaged  in  it,  as  he  did  in  every  other  pur- 
suit of  his  life,  with  unabating  zeal.  He  now  adapted  his 
anatomical  knowledge  to  the  objects  of  painting  and  sculp- 
ture; and  the  novelty  and  justness  of  hi^s  observations 
proved  at  once  the  readiness  and  tb^  extegil  of  his  genius. 

In  January  1781,  be  was  unani&ously  elected  to  sue* 
ceed  the  late  J^r.  John  Fothergill  as  president  of  tbe  so- 
cietjr  of  physicians  of  London.  ^^  He  was  one  of  those,'* 
says  Dr.  8immons»  ^  to  #hom  we  are  indebted  for  iis^ 

H  U  N  T  E  |L  319 

-^aUitboieiiti  «nd  our  gral^fM  4<»fcnow)<^gmeBlf  wm  dfae 
lobittfor  bU  zealous  en^eay^^urs  to  ffromote  the  Viberpl 
views  of  tUfl  institution,  hy^rend^rtng  it  a  source  of  matuaV 
inproveiiaidntjy  and  thus  making  it  ultimately  useful  to  tbe 
jpiiblie.**  As  bis  came  and  t^ilents  were  knovm  and  re- 
peeled  ia  eirery  part  of  Europe,  so  the  honours  conferred 
etf  fain  were  not  limited  to  his  own  country.  In  1790  tbe 
fc^fal  m^Kcal  society  at  Paris  elected  him  one. of  their  fb- 
weiga  asseeiates;  and  in  1782  he  received  a  similar  mark 
of  distinction  from  the  royal  academy  of  sciences  in  itbat 
eiigr«  We  coose  now  to  the  most  splendid  of  Dr.  Hunter^s 
'iMdksal  publications,  ^^  The  Anatomy  of  tbe  Human  Gra- 
Vid  Uterus.'^  The  appearance  of/ this  work,  which  bad 
been  begun  so  early  as  1751  (at  which  time  ten  of  the 
thirty*four  plates  it  contains  were  completed),  was  re- 
tarded till  1775,  only  by  the  autlior's  desire  of  sending  it 
into  the  world  with  fewer  imperfections.  This  greli^  work 
ii  dedicated  to  the  king.  In  his  preface  to  it  we  find  the 
antbor  very  candidly  acknowledging,  that  in  most  of  tbe 
dissections  be  had  been  assisted  by  his  brothet,  Mr.  John' 
Hunter.  This  anatomical  description  of  tbe  gravid  nterns, 
wes  not  the  only  work  which  Dr.  Hunter  had  in  contem- 
pktton  te  give  to  tbe  public.  He  had  long  been  em* 
l^egred  in  oellecting  and  arranging  materials  for  a  biS" 
tery  ei  the  rarions  ooneretions  that  are  formed  in  tbe  hu^ 
mta  body^  He  seems  to  have  advanced  no  further  in  tbe 
execution  of  this  design,  than  to  have  nearly  completed 
that  |»art  of  it  which  relates  to  urinary  and  biliary  concre- 
jddna.  Among  Dr.  Hunter's  papers  have  likewise  been 
fbund  two  introductory  lectures,  which  are  written  out  so 
lUrly,  and  with  soch  accuracy,  that  he  probably  intended 
no  further  correction  of  tbem>  before  they  should  be 
^en  to  tbe  world.  In.  these  lectures  Dr.  Hunter  traces 
the  history  of  anatomy  from  the  earliest  to  the  present 
limes,  along  with  the  general  progress  of  science  and  the 
artSb  He  eonsiders  the  great  utility  of  anatomy  in  the 
practice  of  pfaj^ic  and  surgery ;  gives  the  ancient  divisions 
of  tbe  different  substances  composing  the  human  body, 
iwbich  for  a  long  time  prevailed  in  anatomy  ;  points  on| 
the  most  advantageous  mode  of  cultivating  this  branch  of 
natural  knowledge;  and  concludes  with  explaining^  the 
particular  plan  of  his  own  lectures.  Besides  these  MSS,.  he 
bis  also  left  behind  hkn  a  considerable  number  of  cases-  of 

Y   2 


dbseotiolor^.  *rbe  same  year  in  which  th«  tablet  1  of  tb^ 
gravid  uterus  made  their  appearance/  Dr.  Hunter  coannti* 
nicated  to  the  royal  society  <<  An  essay  on  the  Origin  of 
the  Venereal  Disease.'*  After  this  paper  had  been  read 
to  the  royal  society,  Dr.  Hunter^  in  a  conversation  with 
the  late  Dr.  Musgrave,  was  convinced  that  the  testimony 
on  which  he  placed  his  chief  dependence  was  of  less 
weight  than  he  had  at  first  imagined ;  he  therefore  ^ery 
properly  lud  aside  his  intention  of  giving  his  essay  to  the 

In  1777,  Dr.  Hunter  joined  with  Mr.  Watson  in  prei^ 
sentiug  to  the  royal  society  <<  A  short  account  of  the  latiqj 
Dr.  Maty's  iUness,  and  of  the  appearances  on  dissection  ;'* 
and  the  year  following  be  published  his  **  Reflections  on 
^e  Section  of  the  Symphysis  Pubis.'' 
'  We  must  now  go  back  a  little  in  the  order  of  time,  to 
descrihe  the  origin  and  progress  of  Dn  Hunter's  Museum, 
without  some  account  of  which  these  memoirs  would  b» 
very  incomplete.  When  be  began  to  practise  midwifery, 
he  was  desirous  of  acquiring  a  fortune  sufficient  to  place 
him  in  easy  -and  independent  circumstances.  Before  many 
years  had  elapsed,  he  found  himself  in  possession  of  a  sum 
adequate  to  his  wishes  in  this  respect ;  and  this  he  set  apart 
as  a  resource  of  which  he  might  avail  himself  whenever- 
age  -or  infirmities  should  oblige  him  to  retire  from  business. 
'  He  has  been  heard  to  say,  that  he  once  took  a  considerable 
sum  from  this  fond  for  the  purposes  of  his  museum,  bjit 
thiit  he  did  not  fed  himself  perfectly  at  «ase  till  he  had 
restored  it  again.  After  he  had  obtained  this  competency»^ 
as  his  wealth  continued  to  accumulate,  he  .formed  a  laud* 
able  design  of  engaging  in  some  scheme  of  public  utility,* 
and  at  first  had  it  in  contemplation  to  found  an  anatomical 
school  in  this  metropolis.  For  this  purpose,  about  1765. 
during  the  administration  of  Mr.  Grenville,  he  presented' 
&  memorial  to  that -minister,  in  which  he  requested  the 
grant  of  a  piece  of  ground  in  the  Mews  for  the  site  of  an 
anatomical  theatre.  Dr.  Hunter  undertook  to  expend  7000/. 
on  the  building,  and  to  endow  a  professorship  of  anatomy  in 
perpetuity.    This  schenie  did  not  meet  with  the  reception 


*  The  work  on  the  Gravid  Utcrni  tended  to  supply  thif  defect.     It  it  eii» 

•  vai  pnbliihed  without  a  descriplire  ac-  titled  **  Ad  Aoatomical  Description  of 

ceuqt.     lu  1795,  Dr.  Bail  lie  publiBbed  the  Human  Gravid  Uterus,  and  its  Con- « 

from  Dr.  {lunter'a.  pftpera,  improved  tenti.    By  theJate  W.  Htto]beri.M*D.^ 

by  his  own  obfervationfy  «  book  in«  k,Ok  and  forms  a  Chin  4to. 

M  U  N  T  E  H.  325 

{(  deserved.  In  a  conversation  on  this  subject  soon  after- 
wards with  the  earl  of  Shelburne^  his  lordship  expressed  a. 
wish  that  the  plan  might  be  carried  into  execution  by  sub« 
scription,  and  very  generously  requested  to  have  bis  name . 
set  down  for  1 000  guineas.  Dr.  Hunter's  delicacy  would 
not  allow  him  to  adopt  this  proposal.  He  chose  rather  to 
execute  it  at  his  own  expence,  and  accordingly  purchased 
•8  spot  of  ground  in  Great  Windmill-street,  where  he  erected 
a  spacious  house,  to  which  he  removed  from  Jermyn-street 
in  1770.  In  this  building,  besides  a  handsome  amphi- 
theatre and  other  convenient  apartments  for  his  lectures 
itod  dissections,  there  was. one  magnificent  room,  fitted  up 
with  great  elegance  and  propriety  as  a  museum. 

.Of  the  magnitude  and  value  of  bis  anatomical  collection, 
some  idea  may  be  formed,  when  we  consider  the  grea^ 
length  of  years  he  employed  in  making  anatomical  prepa-. 
nations,  and  in  the  dissection  of  morbid  bodies  ;  added  to 
the  eagerness  with  which  he  procured  additions,  from  the 
Qollections  that  were  at  different  times  offered  for  sale  in 
London.  His  specimens  of  rare  diseases  ,were  likewise, 
frequently  increased  by  presents  from  his  medical  friends 
and  pupils,  who,  when  any  thing  of  this  sort  occurred  to. 
them,  very  justly  thought  they  could  not  dispose  of  it 
more  properly  than  by  placing  it  in  Dr.  Hunter's  museum. 
Before  his  removal  to  Windmill-street,  he  had  confined. 
bis  collection  chiefly  to  speci(nens  of  human  and  ppmpa- 
rative  anatomy,  and  of  diseases ;  but  now  h^  extended  his 
views  to  fossils,  and  likewise  to  the  branches  of  polite  li-* 
terature  and  erudition.  In  a  short  space  of  time  he  be- 
came possessed  of  ^^  the  most  magnificent  treasure  of  Greek 
and  Latin  books  that  has  been  accumulated  by  any  person 
now  living,  since  the  days  of  Mead.''  A  cabinet  of  an* 
cient .  medals  contributed  likewise  greatly  to  the  richness 
of  his  museum.  A  description  of  part  of  the  coins  in  this 
cdllection,  struck  by  the  GTreek  free  cities,  has  been  pub- 
lished by  the  doctor's  learned  friend  Mr.  Combe,  under  the 
title  of  "  NuDnfmorum  veterum  populorum  &  urbium  qui 
in  museo  Gulielmi  Hunter  asservantur  descriptio  figuris 
illustrata.  Opera  &  studio  Caroli  Combe,  S.  R.  ^  S.  A. 
8oc.  Londini,"  1783,  4to.  In  a  classical  dedication  of 
this  elegant  volume  to  .the  queen,  Dr.  Hunter  acknpw« 
ledges  his  obligations  to  her  majesty.  In  the  preface, 
some  account  is  given  of  the  progress  of  the  collection, 
which  bad  been  brought  together  since  1 770,  with  sin« 


gukr  taste^  and  at  the  expence  of  upwards  of  SO^o6o/t^' 
In  1761,  the  museum  received  a  valuable  addition  of  shells^ 
corals,  and  other  curious  subjects  of  natural  bistorj,  which 
bad  been  collected,  by  the  late  Dr.  Fothergiil,  who  gave 
directions  by  his  will,  that  his  collection  should  be  ap* 
praised  after  his  death,  and  that  Dr.  Hunter  should  have 
the  refusal  of  it  at  500/.  under  the  valuation.  This  wM 
accordingly  done,-  and  Dr.  Hunter  purchased  it  for  the 
sunsi  of  1200/. 

Dr*  Hunter,  at  the  head  of  his  profession,  honoured  with 
the  esteem  of  his  sovereign,  and  in  the  possession  of  every 
thing  that  his  reputation  and  wealth  could  confer,  seemed 
now  to  have  attained  the  i^ummit  of  his  wishes.  But  these 
sc^urces  of  gratification  were  embittered  by  a  diq>08ition 
to  thq  gout,  which  harassed  him  frequently  during  the 
latter  p^rt  of  his  life,  notwithstanding  his  very  abstemious 
manner  of  Jiving.  About  ten  years  before  his  death  his 
health  was  so  much  impaired,  that,  fearing  he  might  soon 
become  unfit  for  the  fatigues  of  his  profession,  he  began 
to  think  of  retiring  to  Scotland.  With  this  view  he  re- 
quested his  friends  Dr.  CuUen  and  Dr.  Baillie,  to  look  out 
for  a  pleasant  estate  for  him.  A  considerable  one,  and 
such  as  they  thought  would  be  agreeable  to  him,  was  of<* 
fered  for  sale  about  that  time  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Alloa.  A  description  of  it  was  sent  to  him,  and  met  with 
his  approbation  :  the  price  was  agreed  on,  and  the  bargain 
supposed  to  be  concluded.  But  when  the  title-deeds  of 
the  estate  came  to  'be  examined  by  Dr.  Hunter's  counsel 
Jn  London,  they  were  found  defective,  and  he  was  advised 
not  to  complete  the  purchase.  After  this  he  found  the 
expences  of  his  museum  increase  so  fast,  that  he  laid  aside 
ail  thoughts  of  retiring  from  practice. 

This  alteration  in  his  plan  did  not  tend  to  improve  his 
health.  In  the  course  of  a  few  years  the  returns  of  his 
gout  became  by  degrees  more  frequent,  sometimiss  af« 
fecting  his  limbs,  and  sometimes  his  stomach,  but  seldoin 
remaining  many  hours  in  one  part.  Notwithstanding  this 
valetudinary  state,  his  ardour  seemed  to  be  unabated.  In 
the  last  year  of  his  life  he  was  as  eager  to  acquire  new 
credit,  and  to  secure  the  advantage  of  what  he  had  before 
gained,  as  he  could  have  been  at  the  most  enterprising 
part  of  his  life.  At  length,  on  Saturday,  March  15,  17S3, 
after  having  for  several  days  experienced  a  return  of  wwx^ 
derlng  gout,  he  complained  df  great  l^d-ache  and  naused« 


Iii'diis  8tMe  be  went  to  bed,  and  for  sereral  days  fUt  more 
p&in  than  usual,  bdfh  in  his  flt^ommch  and  limbs.  On  xM 
Thursday  foUov^ing  he  found  himself  so  much  recon^red, 
that  he  determined  to  give  the  introductory  lecture  to  th# 
operations  of  surgery.  It  was  to  no  purpose  that  his 
friends  urged  to .  him  the  imprbpriety  of  such  aw  ^ttempt^ 
He  was  determined  to  make  the  experiment,  and  accord* 
ingly  delivered  the  lecture;  but  towards  the  condosiort,  his 
strength  was  so  eashausted  that  he  fainted  away^  and  was 
obliged  to  be  carried  to  bed  by  two  servants.  The  fo}* 
lowing  night  and  day  his  symptoms  were  such'  as  indicated 
danger ;  and  on  Saturday  morning  Mr.  Combe,  who  ittadiik 
bim  an  early  visit,  was  alarmed  on  being  told  by  Br.  Hun- 
ter himself,  that  during  the  night  he  had  certainly  had  il 
^uraly  tic  stroke.  As  neither  his  speech  nor  his  pulse  were 
affected,  and  he  was  able  to. raise  himself  in  bed,  Mr; 
Combe  encouraged  him  to  hope  that  he  was  mi^takem 
But  the  event  proved  the  doctor's  idea  of  his  Qdmplmnt  to 
be  but  too  well  founded ;  for  from  that  time  till  his  death, 
which  happened  on  Sunday  March  30,  he  voided  no  urine 
without  the  assistance  of  the  catheter,  which  was  occa- 
sionally introduced  by  his  brother ;  and  purgative  medi- 
cines were  administered  repeatedly,  without  procuring  a 
passage  by  stool.  These  circumstances,  and  the  absence 
of  pain,  seemed  \o  shew  that  the  intestines  and  bladder 
had  lost  their  sensibility  and  power  of  co'ntractton ;  aYld  it 
was  reasonable  to  presume,  that  a  partial  palsy  had  affected 
the  nerves  distributed  to  those  parts.  The  tatter  moment!^ 
of  his  life  exhibited  a  remarkabm  instance  of  calniness  and 
fortitude.  Turning  to  his  friend  Mr.  Coihbe,  ^'  If  I  had 
streiigth  enough  to  hold  a  pen,*'  said  he,  ^'  I  would  write 
how  easy  and  pleasant  a  thing  it  is  to  die.'' 

By  bis  will,  the  use  of  his  museum,  utider  the  direction 
of  trustees^  devolved  to  his  nephew  Matthew  Baillie,  and 
in  case  of  his  death,  to  Mr.  Cruikshank,  for  the  term  of 
thirty  years,  at  the  end  of  which  period  the  whole  collec- 
tion was  bequeathed  to  the  university  of  Glasgow,  but  Dr. 
Baillie  removed  it  to  its  destination  some  years  before  the 
completion  of  that  term.  The  sum  of  BOOO/.  steriiog  was 
left  as  a  fund  for  the  support  and  augmentation  of  the  col- 
lection. The  trustees  were.  Dr.  George  Fbrdyce,  Dr.  Da- 
tid  Pitcairne,  and  Mr.  Charles  (since  Dr.)  Combe,  to  each 
of  whom  Dr.  Hunter  bequeathed  an  annuity  of  30/.  for 
thirty  years,   that  is,    during  the  period  in  which  they 


would  be  executing  the  purposes  of  the  will.  Dr«  Hmit^ 
likewise  bequeathed  an  annuity  of  100/.  to  bis  sister  Mrs^ 
Baillie,  during  her  life,  and  the  sum  of  2000/L  to  each  of 
her  two  daughters.  The  residue  of  his  estate  and  effects 
went  to  his  nephew.  On  Saturday  April  5,  his  remaius 
were  interred  in  the  rector's  vault  of  St^  James's  church, 

Of  the  person  of  Dr.  Hunter  it  may  be  observed  that  he 
was  regularly  shaped,  but  of  a  slender  make,  and  rather 
below  a  middle  stature.     There  are  several  good  portraits 
of  him  extant.     One  of  these  is  an  unfinished  paiiitiog  by 
Zoifany,  who  has  represented  him  in  the  attitude  of  giving 
a  lecture  on  the  muscles  at  the  royal  academy,  surrounded 
by  a  groupe  of  academigiaiis.     His  manner  of  living  was 
extremely  simple  and  frugal,  and  the  quantity  of  his  food 
was  small  as  well  as  plain.     He  was  an  early  riser,  and 
when  business  was  over,  was  constantly  engaged  in  his 
anatomical  pursuits,  or  in  his  museum.    There  was  some-v 
thing  very  engaging  in  his  manner  and  address,  and  he  ha4 
such  an  appearance  of  attention  to  bis  patients  when  he 
was  making  his  inquiries,  as  could  hardly  fail  to  conciliate., 
their  confidence  and  esteem.     In  consultation  with  his  me? 
dical  brethren,  he  delivered  his  opinions  with  diffidenee 
and  candour.     In  familiar  conversation  he  was  chearful  and 
noassumiogt    All  who  knew  him  allowed  that  he  possessed 
an  excellent  understandingf,  great  readiness  of  perception, 
a  good  memory,  and  a  sound  judgment.    To  these  intel- 
lectual powers  be  united  uncommon  assiduity  and  preci- 
sioD,  so  that  he  was  admirably  fitted  for  anatoniical  inve^* 
tigation.     As  a  teacher  of  anatomy,  he  was  long  and-  de- 
servedly celebrated.     He  was  a  good  orator,  and  iiaving  % 
clear  and  accurate  conception  of  what  he  taught,  he  knew 
how  to  place  in  distinct  and  intelligible  points  of  view 
the.  most  abstruse  subjects  of  anatomy  and  physiology. 
How  much  he  contributed  to  the  improvement  of  medical 
science  in  general,  may  be  collected  from  the  concise  view 
we  have  taken  of  his  writings.     The  munificence  he  dis« 
played  in  the  cause  of  science  has  likewise  a  claim  to  our 
applause.     Dr.  Hunter  sacrificed  no  part  of  his  time  or  his 
fortune  to  voluptuousness,  to  idle  pomp,  or  to  any  of  the 
common  objects  of  vanity  that  influence  the'  pursuits  of 
mankind  in  general.     He  seems  to  have  been  imimated 
with  a  desire  of  distinguishing  himself  in  those  things  which 
u^G  in  their  nature  laudable ;  and  being  a  bachelor^  s^qd 

HUNTER.  $2^ 

withodt  views  of  establishiag  a  family ,  he  was  at  liberty  to 
indulge  his  ioclioation.  Let  us,  therefore,  not  withhold 
the  praise  that  is  due  to  him ;  and  undoubtedly  his  tem- 
perance, his  prudence,  his  perscTering  and  eager  pur* 
suit  of  knowledge,  constitute  an  example  which  we  may^ 
with  advantage  to  ourselves  and  to  society,  endeavour  to 

HUNT£R  (JOHK),  younger  brother  of  Dr.  Hunter,  one 
of  the  most  profound  anatomists,  sagacious  and  expert 
surgeon^,  and  acute  observers  of  nature,  that  any  age  has 
produced,  was  born  at  Long  Calderwood,  before-meu- 
tioned,  July  14,  1728.  At  the  age  of  ten  years  he  lost 
his  ftLthkr,  and  being  the  youngest  of  ten  children,  was 
sufiered  to  employ  himself  in  amusement  rather  than  study, 
though  sent  occasionally  to  a  grammar-school.  He  had 
reached  the  age  of  twenty  before  he  felt  a  wish  for  more 
active  employment ;  and  bearing  of  the  reputation  his  bro- 
ther William  had  acquired  in  London  as  a  teacher  of  ana* 
tomy,  made  a  proposal  'to  go  up  to  him  as  an  assistant. 
His  proposal  was  kindly  accepted,  and  in  September  174S 
•he  arrived  in  London.  It  was  not  long  before  his  dispo« 
sition  to  extei  in  anatomical  pursuits  was  fully  evinced, 
and  his  determination  to  proceed  in  that  line  confirmed 
and  approved.  In  the  summer  of  1749  he  attended  Mn 
Cheselden  at  Chelsea-hospital,  and  there  acquired  the  rqh* 
diments  of  surgery.  In  the  subsequent  winter  he  was  so 
fat:  advanced  in  the  knowledge  of  anatomy,  as  to  instruct 
his  brother's  pupils .  in  dissection ;  and  from  the  constant 
occupation  of  the  doctor  in- business,  this- task  in  future 
devolved  almost  totally  upon  him.  In  the  summer  oi  n^O 
he  again  attended  at  Chelsea,  and  in  1751  became  a  pupil 
at  St.  Bartholomew's,  where  he  constantly  attended  when 
any  extraordinary  operation  was  to  be  performed.  After 
having  paid  a  visit  to  Scotland,  he  entered  as  a  gentleman 
commoner  in  Oxford,  at  St  Mary-hall,  though  with  what 
particular  view  does  not  appear.  His  professional  studies, 
however,  were  uot  interrupted,  for  in  1754  he  became  a 
pupil  at  St  George's  hospital,  where  in  1756  he  was  ap* 
pointed  house-surgeon.  In  the  winter  of  1755,  Dr.  Hunter 
admitted  him  to  a  partnership  in  his  lectures.  / 

The  management  of  anatomical  preparations  was  at  this 
time  a  new  art,  and  very  little  known ;  every  preparation, 

t  Life  of  Dr.  Huoter,  by  tbt  late  S.  F.  Simmons,  M.  D.  F.  R.  S.  published  in 

no  H  U  N  T  E  B. 

thereftiey  that  was  skyfally  vrndcy  iMcaiM  aa»  object  of 
admiration ;  many  were  wantrng  for  the  use  of  the  leotuYea^ 
and  Dr.  Hunter  having  himself  an  entbusiasmt  for  the  aitv 
his  brother  had  every  advantage  in  die  proseoation  oi  duR 
pursuit  towards  which  his  own  disposition  pointed-  so 
strongly ;  and  of  which  he  left  so  noble  a  monument  in 
his  Museum  of  Comparative  Anatomy.  Mr.  Hunter  par* 
sued  the  study  of  anatomy  with  an  ardpat  and  perseveranpe 
of  which  few  examples  can  be  found.  By  this  dose  appli* 
eation  for  ten  years>  he  made  himself  master  of  all  that 
was  already  known,  and  struck  out  some  additions  to  that 
knowledge.  He  traced  the  ramifications  of  the  oUaetoirf 
nerves  upon  the  membranes  of  the  nose,  and  discovered 
the  coarse  of  some  of  the  branches  of  the  fifth  pair  of 
nerves.  In  the  gravid  uterus,  he  traced  the  Arteries  of 
she  uterus  to  their  termination  in  the  placenta.  He 
also'  discovered  the  existence  of  the  lymphatic  vessels  ie 
birds.  In  comparative  anatomy,  which  he  cultivated  with 
indefatigable  industry,  his  grand  object  was,  by  examining 
various  organizations  formed  for  similar  functions,  undeir 
different  circumstances,  to  trace  out  the  general  principlei 
of  animal  life.  With; this  object  in  view,  the  commonest 
animals  were  often  of  considerable  importance  to  him ;  but 
be  also  took  every  opportunity  of  purchasing  those  that 
were  rare,^  or  encouraged  their  owners  to  sell  the  bodies 
to  him  when  they  happened  to  die. 

By  excessive  attention  to  these  pursuits,  his  health  was 
so  much  impaired,  that  he  was  threatened  with  consump*^ 
tive  symptoms,  and  being  advised,  to  go  abroad,  obtained 
the  appointment  of  a  surgeon  on  the  staff,  and  went  with 
the  army  to  Belieisle,  leaving  Mr.  Hewson  to  assist  his 
brotjh^.  He  continued  in  this  service  till  the  close  of  the 
war  in  176S,  and  thus  acquired  his  knowledge  of  the  na- 
ture and  treatment  of  gun-shot  wotinds.  On  his  return  ^to 
London,  to  his  emoluments  from  private  practice,  and  his 
balf'^pay,  he  added  those  which  arose  from  teaching  prac*' 
tical  anatomy  and  operative  surgery ;  and  that  he  might 
be  more  enabled  to  carry  on  his  inquiries  in  comparative 
anstomy,  he  purchased  some  la^nd  at  EarPs-court,  near 
Brompton,  where  he  built  a  house.  Here  also  he  kept 
such  animals  alive  as  he  purchased,  or  were  presented  to 
him ;  studied  their  habits  and  Instincts,  and  cultivated  an 
intimacy  with  them,  which  with  the  6ercer  kinds  was  not 
always  supported  Without  personal  risk.     It  is  recorded  by 


bin  biogra|iiier^  tbat,  on  finding  tma  l«opardi  loose,  Mi 
Iftoly  to  escape  or  be  killed,  he  went  oot,  aivd  seiimig^ 
tbem  with  his  own  hands,  cairried  them  back  to^  their  deiib 
The  horror  he  felt  afterwards  at  the  danger  he  bad  mn, 
would  noty  probably,  hare  prevented  btsi  from  making-  si 
similar  effort,  bad  a  like  occasion  arisen. 

On  the  5tb  of  February,  1767,  Mr.  Hunter  was  elected 
Si  fellow  of  tbe  royal  society  ;  and  in  order  to  make  that 
situation  as  productive  of  knowledge  as  possible,  be  pre- 
vailed on  Dr.  George  Fordyce,  and  Mr.  Gumming  (the 
celebrated  watch-maker)  to  form  a  kind  of  subsequent 
meeting  at  a  coffee-house,  for  the  purpose  of  philosophical 
discussion,  and  inquiry  into  discoveries  and  improvements* 
To  this  meeting  some  of  the  first  philosophers  of  the  age 
very  speedily  acceded,  among  whom  none  can  be  morn 
conspicuous  than   sir  Joseph  Banks,    Dr.  Solander,    Dn 
Maskelyne,  sir  Geo.  Shuckburgb,  sir  Hairry  Englefield,  sir 
Charles  Blagden,    Dr.   Nootbe,    Mr.  Ramsden,   and  Mr. 
Watt  of  Birmingham.     About  the  same  time,  the  accident 
of  breaking  his  terido  AchUlis^  led  him  to  some  very  sue* 
cessful  researches  into  the  mode  in  which  tendidns  are  re* 
united  ;  so  completely  does  a  true  philosopher  turn  every 
accident  to  the  advantage  of  science.     In  1768,  Dr.  Hun- 
ter having  finished  his  house  m  Windmill-street^  gave  up 
to  his  brother  that  which  he  had  occupied  iii  Jermyn-streei; 
and  in  the  same  year,  by  tbe  interest  of  the  doctor,  Mr.  . 
Hunter  was  elected  one  of  the  surgeons  to  St.  George's 
hospital.      In  1771   he   married  Miss  Home,    the  eldest 
'daughter  of  Mr.  Home,  surgeon  to  Burgoyne's  regiment 
of  light^horse,  by  whom  he  had  two  sons  and  two  daugh- 
ters.    In  177S  he  undertook  the  professional  education  of 
his  brother-in-law  Mr.  Everard  Home,  then  leaving  West- 
minster-school,   who  has  assidoonsly  pursued  bis   steps, 
ably  recorded  his  merits,  and  successfully  emulates  bis  re* 

As  tbe  family  of  Mr.  Hunter  increased,  his  practice  and 
character  also  advanced;  but  the  expence  of  his  collec*^ 
tion  absorbed  a  very  considerable  part  of  bis  proBts.  The 
best  rooms  in  his  bouse  were  filled  with  his  prepara- 
tions ;  and  his  mornings,  from  sun -rise  to  eight  o'clock, 
«rere  constantly  employed  in  anatomical  and  philosophical 
pursuits.  The  knowledge  which  he  thus  obtained,  he  ap«> 
plied  most  successfully  to  the  improvement  of  the  art  of 
snidery ;    was  particularly  studious  to  examine  morbid 


bodies,  .and  te  investigate  the  caiise  of  failure  when  ppera^ 
tions  bad  not  been  productiv:e  of  their  due  effect.  It. was 
thus  that  he  perfected  the  mode. of  operation  for  the  h]r- 
droceie,  and  made  several  other  improvements  of  different 
kinds.  At  the  same  time  the  volumes  of  the  Philosophical 
Transactions  bear  testimony  to  his  success  in  comparative 
anatomyi  which  was  his  favourite,  and  may  be  called  al- 
most his  principal  pursuit  When  he  met  with  natural 
appearances  which  could  not  be  preserved  in  actual  pre* 
patations,  he  employed  able  draughtsmen  to  represent 
them  on  paper;  and  for  several  years  he  even  kept  one  in 
his  family  expressly  for  this  purpose.  In  Jan.  1776,  Mr. 
Hunter  was  appointed  surgeon-extraordinary  to  his  ma- 
jesty. In  the  autumn  of  the  same  year,  he  bad  an  illness 
of  so  severe  a  nfiture,  as  to  turn  his  mind  to  the  care  of  a 
provision  for  his  family  in  case  of  his  decease ;  when,  con-^ 
sidering  that  the  chief  part  of  his  property  was  vested  in 
his  collection,  he  determined  immediately  to  put  it  into 
such  a  state  of  arrangement  as  might  make  it  capable  of 
being  disposed  of  to  advantage  at  his  death.  In  this  he 
happily  lived  to  succeed  in  a  great  measure,  and  finally 
left  his  museum  so  classed  as  to  be  fit  for  a  public  si- 

Mir.  Hunter  in  1781  was  elected  into  the  royal  society  of 
sciences  and  belles  lettres  at  Gottenburg;  and  in  1783, 
into  the  royal  society  of  medicine,  and  the. royal  academy 
of  surgery  at  Paris^  In  the  same  year  he  removed  from 
Jermyn-street  to  a  larger  bouse  in  L^eicester^square,  and, 
with  more  spirit  than  consideration,  expended  a  very  great 
sum  in  buildings  adapted  to  the  objects  of  his  pursuits. 
He  was  in  1785  at  the  height  of  his  career  as  a  surgeon, 
and  performed  some  opeifations  with v  complete  success, 
which  were  thought  by  the  profession  to  be  beyond  the 
reach  of  any  skill.  His  faculties  were  now  in  their  fullest 
vigour,  and  his  body  su£Scientiy  so  to  keep  pace  with 
the  activity  of  his  mind.  H<e  was  engaged  in  a  very 
extensive  practice,  he  was  surgeon  to  St.  .George's  hos- 
pital, be  gave  a  very  long  course  of  lecture^  in  the* 
winter,  had  a  school  of  practical  anatomy  in  his  house, 
was  continually  engaged  in  experiments  concerning  th^ 
animal  oeconodiy,  and  was  from  time  to  time  producing 
very  important  publications;  At  ihe  s^me  time  he  in- 
stituted a  medical  society  called  <^  Lyceum  Medicum 
Xondinense,'*  which  met  at  his  lecture-rooms,  apd  soon 


a  U  N  T  E  R.  SSS 

xbse'  to  considerable  reputation;  Qh  thel  death  of  Mr. 
Middteton,'  surgeon-general,  in  1786,  Mr.  Hunter  obtained 
the  appointment  of  deputy  surgeon-general  to  the  army ; 
but  in  the  spring  of  the  year  he  had  a  violent  attack  of  ill- 
Qiess,  which  left  him  for  the  rest  of  his  life  subject  to  pe- 
culiar and  violent  spasmodic  adections  of  the  heart.  In 
July  1787,  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  American  phi« 
losophical  society.  In  1790,  finding  that  his  lectures  oc- 
cupied too  much  of  his  time,  he  relinquished  them  to  hit 
brother-in-law  Mr.  Home ;  and  in  this  year,  on  the  death 
of  Mr*  Adair,  he  was  appointed  inspector -general  of  hps* 
.  pitals,  and  surgeon-general  of  the  army.  He  was  also 
elected  a  member  of  the  royal  college  of  surgeons  in 

..  The  death  of  Mr.  Hunter  was  perfectly  sudden,  and  the 
consequence  of  one  of  those  spasmodic  seizures  in  the 
heart  to  which  he  had  now  for  several  years  been  subject. 
It  happened  on  the  16th  of  October,  1793.  Irritation  of 
mind  had  long  been  foundto  bring  on  this  complaint ;  and 
on  that  day,  meeting  with  some  vexatious  circumstances  at 
St.  George's  hospital,  he  put  a  degree-  of  constraint  upon 
himself  to  suppress  bis  sentiments,  and  in.that  state  went 
into  another  room  ;  where,  in  turning  round  to  a  physician 
who  was  present,  he  fell,  and  dnstantly  expired  without  a 
groan.  Of  the  disorder  which  produced  this  effect,  Mr. 
Home  has  given  a  clear  and  circumstantial  account,  of  a 
very  interesting  nature  to  professional  readers.  Mr.  Hun- 
ter was  short  in  stature,  but  uncommonly  strong,  active, 
and  capable  of  great  bodily  exertion*  The  prints  of  him 
by.  Sharp,  froni  a  picture  by  sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  give  a 
forcible  and  accurate  idea  of  his  countenance.  His  tem- 
per vras  warm  and  impatient ;  but  his  disposition  was  can- 
did and  free  from  reserve,  even  to  a  fault.  He  was  super 
rior  to  every  kind,  of  artifice,  detested  it  in  others,  and  In 
er^er  to  iavoid  it,  expressed  bis  exact  sentiments,  sometimes 
too  openly  and  too  abruptly.  His  mind  was  uncommonly 
active ;  it  was  naturally  formed  for  investigation,  and  so 
attached  to  truth  and  fact,  that  he  despised  all  unfounded 
speculation,  and  proceeded  always  with  caution  upon  the 
•olid  ground  of  experiment.  At  the  same  time  his  acute- 
ness  in  observing  the  result  of  those  experioQents,  his  inge- 
nuity in  contriving,  and  his  adroitness  in  conducting  them, 
enabled  him  to  deduce  from  them  advantages  which  others 
weuld  not  have  derired.      It  has  been  supposed,  very 

4$4  H  U  N  T  E  1* 

falsely,  that  he  was  fond  of  hypothesM ;  on  iW  oonteftfff  if 
be  was  defective  in  any  talent,  it  was  in  tbat  of  imq^a- 
tion  ;  he  pursued  truth  on  all  oocasiOins  with  malheioatieid 
precision,  but  he  made  no  fanciful  exeursiMs.  Coiivnr-'' 
sation  in  a  mixed  company,  where  no  smbyect  could  lie 
connectedly  pursued,  fatigued  instead  of  amuaifig  him ; 
particularly  towards  the  latter  part  of  hia  lUe.  He  ilept 
little  ;  seldom  more  than  four  hoiurs  in  the  ni^it,  and 
^bout  an  hour  after  dinner.  But  his  occupations,  laboriotiii 
as  they  would  have  been  to  others,  were  far  from  being 
fatiguing  to  him,  being  so  perfectly  congenial  to  his  mitidL 
He  spoke  freely  and  sometimes  harshly  of  his  contemfM^ 
raries ;  but  he  considered  surgery  as  in  its  itifaacy,  md, 
being  very  anxious  for  its  advancement,  thought  meanly  df 
those  professors  whose  exertions  to  promote  it  were  imeqaal 
to  his  own.  Money  he  valued  no  otherwise  tiMUi  «9  k 
enabled  him  to  pursue  his  researches;  and  in  his&sesl;  to 
bene6t  mankind,  he  attended  too  little  to  the  interesis  of 
bis  own  family.  Altogether  he  was  a  man  such  as  few  agos 
produce,  and  by  his  great  contributions  to  the  stores  <if 
knowledge,  will  ever  deserve  the  gratituda  and  veneratioii 
of  posterity. 

The  contributions  of  Mr.  Hunter  to  the  TransacttoMi  &£ 
the  Royal  Society  cannot  easily  be  enumerated  :  his  other 
works  appeared  in  the  following  order.  1.  A  treatise  o^ 
^*  the  Natural  History  of  the  Human  Teeth,"  177 1,  4to;  a 
second  part  to  which  was  added  in  1778.  2.  ^^  A  treatt^ 
on  the  Venereal  Disease,*'  1786,  4to.  3.  ^^ObservatiMie 
on  certain  Parts  of  the  Animal  CEconomy,''  1786,  4co. 
4.^^  A  treatise  on  the  Blood,  Inflammation,  and  Giin«^ 
shot  Wounds,''  4to.  This  was  a  posthumous  work,.  oa!t 
appearing  till  the  year  1794  ;  but  it  had  been  sent  to  the 
press  in  the  preceding  year,  before  bis  de